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Biostimulants For Crops From Seed Germination To Plant Development

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Biostimulants for Crops from Seed Germination to Plant Development

Biostimulants for Crops from Seed Germination to Plant Development Book
Author : Shubhpriya Gupta,Johannes van Staden
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-06-30
ISBN : 0128229969
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biostimulants for crops from seed germination to plant development focuses on the effects and roles of natural biostimulants in every aspect of plant growth development to reduce the use of harmful chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Biostimulants are a group of substances of natural origin that offer a potential to reduce the dependency on harmful chemical fertilizers causing environmental degradation. While there is extensive literature on biostimulants, there remains a gap in understanding how natural biostimulants work and their practical application. This book fills that gap, presenting the ways in which biostimulants enhance seed vigor and plant productivity by looking into their mode of action, an area still being researched for deeper understanding. Exploring the roles of seed germination, pollen tube formation, pollen-pistil interaction, flower and fruit setting, to plant pigments, rhizospheric and soil microorganisms, the book also sheds light on the challenges and realistic opportunities for the use of natural biostimulants. Approaches biostimulant research with the goal of transforming scientific research into practical application Includes real-world examples from laboratory, greenhouse and field experiments Presents the biochemical, physiological and molecular mode of action of biostimulants

The Chemical Biology of Plant Biostimulants

The Chemical Biology of Plant Biostimulants Book
Author : Danny Geelen,Lin Xu
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-02-05
ISBN : 1119357241
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Introduces readers to the chemical biology of plant biostimulants This book brings together different aspects of biostimulants, providing an overview of the variety of materials exploited as biostimulants, their biological activity, and agricultural applications. As different groups of biostimulants display different bioactivity and specificity, advances in biostimulant research is illustrated by different examples of biostimulants, such as humic substance, seaweed extracts, and substances with hormone-like activities. The book also reports on methods used to screen for new biostimulant compounds by exploring natural sources. Combining the expertise of internationally-renowned scientists and entrepreneurs in the area of biostimulants and biofertilisers, The Chemical Biology of Plant Biostimulants offers in-depth chapters that look at: agricultural functions and action mechanisms of plant biostimulants (PBs); plant biostimulants from seaweed; seaweed carbohydrates; and the possible role for electron shuttling capacity in elicitation of PB activity of humic substances on plant growth enhancement. The subject of auxins is covered next, followed closely by a chapter on plant biostimulants in vermicomposts. Other topics include: exploring natural resources for biostimulants; the impact of biostimulants on whole plant and cellular levels; the impact of PBs on molecular level; and the use of use of plant metabolites to mitigate stress effects in crops. Provides an insightful introduction to the subject of biostimulants Discusses biostimulant modes of actions Covers microbial biostimulatory activities and biostimulant application strategies Offers unique and varied perspectives on the subject by a team of international contributors Features summaries of publications on biostimulants and biostimulant activity The Chemical Biology of Plant Biostimulants will appeal to a wide range of readers, including scientists and agricultural practitioners looking for more knowledge about the development and application of biostimulants.

The Chemical Biology of Plant Biostimulants

The Chemical Biology of Plant Biostimulants Book
Author : Danny Geelen,Lin Xu
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-03-30
ISBN : 1119357195
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Introduces readers to the chemical biology of plant biostimulants This book brings together different aspects of biostimulants, providing an overview of the variety of materials exploited as biostimulants, their biological activity, and agricultural applications. As different groups of biostimulants display different bioactivity and specificity, advances in biostimulant research is illustrated by different examples of biostimulants, such as humic substance, seaweed extracts, and substances with hormone-like activities. The book also reports on methods used to screen for new biostimulant compounds by exploring natural sources. Combining the expertise of internationally-renowned scientists and entrepreneurs in the area of biostimulants and biofertilisers, The Chemical Biology of Plant Biostimulants offers in-depth chapters that look at: agricultural functions and action mechanisms of plant biostimulants (PBs); plant biostimulants from seaweed; seaweed carbohydrates; and the possible role for electron shuttling capacity in elicitation of PB activity of humic substances on plant growth enhancement. The subject of auxins is covered next, followed closely by a chapter on plant biostimulants in vermicomposts. Other topics include: exploring natural resources for biostimulants; the impact of biostimulants on whole plant and cellular levels; the impact of PBs on molecular level; and the use of use of plant metabolites to mitigate stress effects in crops. Provides an insightful introduction to the subject of biostimulants Discusses biostimulant modes of actions Covers microbial biostimulatory activities and biostimulant application strategies Offers unique and varied perspectives on the subject by a team of international contributors Features summaries of publications on biostimulants and biostimulant activity The Chemical Biology of Plant Biostimulants will appeal to a wide range of readers, including scientists and agricultural practitioners looking for more knowledge about the development and application of biostimulants.

Toward a Sustainable Agriculture Through Plant Biostimulants

Toward a Sustainable Agriculture Through Plant Biostimulants Book
Author : Youssef Rouphael,Giuseppe Colla
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2021-02-22
ISBN : 3036500286
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the past decade, interest in plant biostimulants has been on the rise, compelled by the growing interest of researchers, extension specialists, private industries, and farmers in integrating these products in the array of environmentally friendly tools to secure improved crop performance, nutrient efficiency, product quality, and yield stability. Plant biostimulants include diverse organic and inorganic substances, natural compounds, and/or beneficial microorganisms such as humic acids, protein hydrolysates, seaweed and plant extracts, silicon, endophytic fungi like mycorrhizal fungi, and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azospirillum, Azotobacter, and Rhizobium. Other substances (e.g., chitosan and other biopolymers and inorganic compounds) can have biostimulant properties, but their classification within the group of biostimulants is still under consideration. Plant biostimulants are usually applied to high-value crops, mainly greenhouse crops, fruit trees and vines, open-field crops, flowers, and ornamentals to sustainably increase yield and product quality. The global biostimulant market is currently estimated at about $2.0 billion and is expected to reach $3.0 billion by 2021 at an annual growth rate of 13%. A growing interest in plant biostimulants from industries and scientists was demonstrated by the high number of published peer-reviewed articles, conferences, workshops, and symposia in the past ten years. This book compiles several original research articles, technology reports, methods, opinions, perspectives, and invited reviews and mini reviews dissecting the biostimulatory action of these natural compounds and substances and beneficial microorganisms on crops grown under optimal and suboptimal growing conditions (e.g., salinity, drought, nutrient deficiency and toxicity, heavy metal contaminations, waterlogging, and adverse soil pH conditions). Also included are contributions dealing with the effect as well as the molecular and physiological mechanisms of plant biostimulants on nutrient efficiency, product quality, and modulation of the microbial population both quantitatively and qualitatively. In addition, identification and understanding of the optimal method, time, rate of application and phenological stage for improving plant performance and resilience to stress as well as the best combinations of plant species/cultivar × environment × management practices are also reported. We strongly believe that high standard reflected in this compilation on the principles and practices of plant biostimulants will foster knowledge transfer among scientific communities, industries, and agronomists, and will enable a better understanding of the mode of action and application procedures of biostimulants in different cropping systems.

Towards a Functional Characterization of Plant Biostimulants

Towards a Functional Characterization of Plant Biostimulants Book
Author : Paolo Carletti,Andrew Merchant,Andrés Calderín García,Carlos Alberto Silva
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-05-21
ISBN : 2889667944
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Towards a Functional Characterization of Plant Biostimulants book written by Paolo Carletti,Andrew Merchant,Andrés Calderín García,Carlos Alberto Silva, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Biostimulants in Plant Science

Biostimulants in Plant Science Book
Author : Seyed Mahyar Mirmajlessi,Ramalingam Radhakrishnan
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2020-07-08
ISBN : 1838801618
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Natural-based substances, ‘plant biostimulants’, have been considered as environmentally friendly alternatives to agrichemicals. Biostimulants may comprise microbial inoculants, humic acids, fulvic acids, seaweed extracts, etc. These biostimulants have biopesticide and biostimulant utilities. Elucidations on direct or microbially mediated functions of biostimulants are presented in this book to illustrate fundamental principles and recent applications underlying this technology. This book has encompassed a cross-section of topics on different concepts to describe effective strategies by using these substances and/or beneficial microorganisms within sustainable agroecosystems. I sincerely hope that the information provided adequately reflects the objectives of this compilation. “One of the first conditions of happiness is that the link between man and nature shall not be broken.” Leo Tolstoy

The Plant Family Brassicaceae

The Plant Family Brassicaceae Book
Author : Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-08-18
ISBN : 9811563454
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides all aspects of the physiology, stress responses and tolerance to abiotic stresses of the Brassicaceae plants. Different plant families have been providing food, fodder, fuel, medicine and other basic needs for the human and animal since the ancient time. Among the plant families, Brassicaceae has special importance for their agri-horticultural importance and multifarious uses apart from the basic needs. Interest understanding the response of Brassicaceae plants toward abiotic stresses is growing considering the economic importance and the special adaptive mechanisms. The knowledge needs to be translated into improved elite lines that can contribute to achieve food security. The physiological and molecular mechanisms acting on Brassicaceae introduced in this book are useful to students and researchers working on biology, physiology, environmental interactions and biotechnology of Brassicaceae plants.

Improved Crop Quality by Nutrient Management

Improved Crop Quality by Nutrient Management Book
Author : Dilek Anaç,Pierre Martin-Prével
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1999-09-30
ISBN : 9780792358503
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Emphasis in agricultural production has shifted from mere quantity to quality products. Practical experience and scientific investigations have shown that, of the various culture measures, balanced fertilization above all exerts a considerable influence on the quality of agricultural products. Simply adding more of what the crop has already absorbed to capacity is unproductive, expensive, wasteful and damaging to the environment. Therefore, balanced crop nutrition increases crop quality, safeguards natural resources and brings benefit to the farmer. Otherwise rapid population growth and severe urbanization will exhaust our natural resources.

Microbiome Stimulants for Crops

Microbiome Stimulants for Crops Book
Author : James White,Ajay Kumar,Samir Droby
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2021-04-17
ISBN : 0128221607
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microbiome Stimulants for Crops: Mechanisms and Applications provides the latest developments in the real-world development and application of these crop management alternatives in a cost-effective, yield protective way. Sections address questions of research, development and application, with insights into recent legislative efforts in Europe and the United States. The book includes valuable information regarding mechanisms and the practical information needed to support the growing microbial inoculant and biostimulant industry, thus helping focus scientific research in new directions. Provides methods for finding and testing endophytic and growth promotional microbes Explains the mechanisms of microbes and other biostimulant function in promoting plant growth Evaluates methods for treatments of plants with microbes and microbiome stimulants Identifies areas for new research

Plant Performance Under Environmental Stress

Plant Performance Under Environmental Stress Book
Author : Azamal Husen
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2021-08-24
ISBN : 9783030785208
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Global climate change is bound to create a number of abiotic and biotic stresses in the environment, which would affect the overall growth and productivity of plants. Like other living beings, plants have the ability to protect themselves by evolving various mechanisms against stresses, despite being sessile in nature. They manage to withstand extremes of temperature, drought, flooding, salinity, heavy metals, atmospheric pollution, toxic chemicals and a variety of living organisms, especially viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, insects and arachnids and weeds. Incidence of abiotic stresses may alter the plant-pest interactions by enhancing susceptibility of plants to pathogenic organisms. These interactions often change plant response to abiotic stresses. Plant growth regulators modulate plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, and regulate their growth and developmental cascades. A number of physiological and molecular processes that act together in a complex regulatory network, further manage these responses. Crosstalk between autophagy and hormones also occurs to develop tolerance in plants towards multiple abiotic stresses. Similarly, biostimulants, in combination with correct agronomic practices, have shown beneficial effects on plant metabolism due to the hormonal activity that stimulates different metabolic pathways. At the same time, they reduce the use of agrochemicals and impart tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. Further, the use of bio- and nano-fertilizers seem to hold promise to improve the nutrient use efficiency and hence the plant yield under stressful environments. It has also been shown that the seed priming agents impart stress tolerance. Additionally, tolerance or resistance to stress may also be induced by using specific chemical compounds such as polyamines, proline, glycine betaine, hydrogen sulfide, silicon, β-aminobutyric acid, γ-aminobutyric acid and so on. This book discusses the advances in plant performance under stressful conditions. It should be very useful to graduate students, researchers, and scientists in the fields of botanical science, crop science, agriculture, horticulture, ecological and environmental science.

Crop Improvement

Crop Improvement Book
Author : Pankaj Kumar,Ajay Kumar Thakur
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-06-30
ISBN : 1000381234
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Crop Improvement: Biotechnological Advances – Biomedical Science The field of biotechnology is advancing at a fast pace. The availability of low-cost DNA/genome sequencing technologies has led to the discovery and functional characterization of myriad of genes imparting stress tolerance and quality traits. The ‘omics’ group of technologies including genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics has revolutionized the agricultural biotechnology sector. The Nobel Prize-winning technology, such as the genome editing technique, is being employed to edit various gene functions in plants aiding in crop improvement. This technology may be adopted very quickly by consumers compared with the transgenic technique because the genome-edited plants have no adverse effects on the genome of the plant itself and on the environment and related species/non-target organisms. In this book, authors have attempted to compile the latest techniques of agricultural biotechnology and their applications in crop improvement. Certain chapters have been dedicated to describe the use of nanotechnology, a fast emerging new technique in the agriculture sector. Features Development, potential and safety issues in biotechnology Advances in genomics, proteomics and transcriptomics in agriculture Protein bioinformatics and its applications Genetically modified (GM) technology and its implications Genome editing in crop improvement Marker-assisted selection (MAS) in crop improvement Mutation breeding Cryobiotechnology Nanotechnology and biosensors This book includes real-world examples and applications making it accessible to a broader interdisciplinary readership. We hope that it will serve as a reference book for researchers engaged in molecular biology and biotechnology and will act as a ready reckoner for postgraduate (PG) students in the biotechnology discipline.

Comparative Genomics and Functional Genomics Analyses in Plants

Comparative Genomics and Functional Genomics Analyses in Plants Book
Author : Xiaoming Song,Wei Chen,Weike Duan,Zhiyong Liu,Hongjian Wan,Rong Zhou
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-07-05
ISBN : 2889669726
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Comparative Genomics and Functional Genomics Analyses in Plants book written by Xiaoming Song,Wei Chen,Weike Duan,Zhiyong Liu,Hongjian Wan,Rong Zhou, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Encyclopedia of Marine Biotechnology

Encyclopedia of Marine Biotechnology Book
Author : Se-Kwon Kim
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-08-04
ISBN : 1119143799
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A keystone reference that presents both up-to-date research and the far-reaching applications of marine biotechnology Featuring contributions from 100 international experts in the field, this five-volume encyclopedia provides comprehensive coverage of topics in marine biotechnology. It starts with the history of the field and delivers a complete overview of marine biotechnology. It then offers information on marine organisms, bioprocess techniques, marine natural products, biomaterials, bioenergy, and algal biotechnology. The encyclopedia also covers marine food and biotechnology applications in areas such as pharmaceuticals, cosmeceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Each topic in Encyclopedia of Marine Biotechnology is followed by 10-30 subtopics. The reference looks at algae cosmetics, drugs, and fertilizers; biodiversity; chitins and chitosans; aeroplysinin-1, toluquinol, astaxanthin, and fucoxanthin; and algal and fish genomics. It examines neuro-protective compounds from marine microorganisms; potential uses and medical management of neurotoxic phycotoxins; and the role of metagenomics in exploring marine microbiomes. Other sections fully explore marine microbiology, pharmaceutical development, seafood science, and the new biotechnology tools that are being used in the field today. One of the first encyclopedic books to cater to experts in marine biotechnology Brings together a diverse range of research on marine biotechnology to bridge the gap between scientific research and the industrial arena Offers clear explanations accompanied by color illustrations of the techniques and applications discussed Contains studies of the applications of marine biotechnology in the field of biomedical sciences Edited by an experienced author with contributions from internationally recognized experts from around the globe Encyclopedia of Marine Biotechnology is a must-have resource for researchers, scientists, and marine biologists in the industry, as well as for students at the postgraduate and graduate level. It will also benefit companies focusing on marine biotechnology, pharmaceutical and biotechnology, and bioenergy.

Biostimulants in Agriculture

Biostimulants in Agriculture Book
Author : Youssef Rouphael,Giuseppe Colla
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-03-24
ISBN : 2889635589
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Biostimulants in Agriculture book written by Youssef Rouphael,Giuseppe Colla, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Marine Algae Extracts

Marine Algae Extracts Book
Author : Se-Kwon Kim,Katarzyna Chojnacka
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-01-30
ISBN : 3527679588
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Designed as the primary reference for the biotechnological use of macroalgae, this comprehensive handbook covers the entire value chain from the cultivation of algal biomass to harvesting and processing it, to product extraction and formulation. In addition to covering a wide range of product classes, from polysaccharides to terpenes and from enyzmes to biofuels, it systematically discusses current and future applications of algae-derived products in pharmacology, medicine, cosmetics, food and agriculture. In doing so, it brings together the expertise of marine researchers, biotechnologists and process engineers for a one-stop resource on the biotechnology of marine macroalgae.

Priming and Pretreatment of Seeds and Seedlings

Priming and Pretreatment of Seeds and Seedlings Book
Author : Mirza Hasanuzzaman,Vasileios Fotopoulos
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-10-15
ISBN : 9811386250
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book introduces readers to both seed treatment and seedling pretreatments, taking into account various factors such as plant age, growing conditions and climate. Reflecting recent advances in seed priming and pretreatment techniques, it demonstrates how these approaches can be used to improve stress tolerance and enhance crop productivity. Covering the basic phenomena involved, mechanisms and recent innovations, the book offers a comprehensive guide for students, researchers and scientists alike, particularly Plant Physiologists, Agronomists, Environmental Scientists, Biotechnologists, and Botanists, who will find essential information on physiology and stress tolerance. The book also provides a valuable source of information for professionals at seed companies, seed technologists, food scientists, policymakers, and agricultural development officers around the world.

Golf Turf Management

Golf Turf Management Book
Author : Lambert McCarty
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-06-14
ISBN : 1351057936
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Golf Turf Management provides information on major agronomic and economic topics related to building and maintaining a viable golf course. The book features basic and applied information on available grasses including selection and use; applied turfgrass physiology; soils and soil amendments; environmental concerns; and comprehensive information on turfgrass physiology, plant nutrition, turf fertilizers, and water management. It discusses managing turf diseases, insects, and weeds; turf cultural practices; managing greens and tees as well as corporate course management strategies. Color photographs throughout illustrate concepts and topics including all major pest problems associated with golf courses and various agronomic practices necessary for successful and profitable course operation. The book suggests strategies to develop best management practices for golf courses including personnel and financial considerations when developing and implementing annual budgets, leasing versus buying equipment, and managing inventory. This book features sixteen chapters organized in a logical sequence conducive for teaching and practical use. Drawing on the author's more than thirty years of experience and research, the author brings together a wealth of information on how to optimize golf turf management and performance. Golf Turf Management is the only complete, up-to-date text dedicated to agronomic practices and personnel management practices necessary for fiscal success.

Plant Micronutrients

Plant Micronutrients Book
Author : Tariq Aftab,Khalid Rehman Hakeem
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-08-04
ISBN : 3030498565
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plants require essential nutrients (macronutrients and micronutrients) for normal functioning. Sufficiency range is the levels of nutrients necessary to meet the plant’s needs for optimal growth. This range depends on individual plant species and the particular nutrient. Nutrient levels outside of a plant’s sufficiency range cause overall crop growth and health to decline, due either to deficiency or toxicity from over-accumulation. Apart from micronutrients (B, Cl, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mo), Aluminum (Al), cerium (Ce), cobalt (Co), iodine (I), lanthanum (La), sodium (Na), selenium (Se), silicon (Si), titanium (Ti), and vanadium (V) are emerging as novel biostimulants that may enhance crop productivity and nutritional quality. These beneficial elements are not "essential" but when supplied at low dosages, they augment plant growth, development, and yield by stimulating specific molecular, biochemical, and physiological pathways in responses to challenging environments. The book is the first reference volume that approaches plant micronutrient management with the latest biotechnological and omics tools. Expertly curated chapters highlight working solutions as well as open problems and future challenges in plant micronutrient deficiency or toxicity. We believe this book will introduce readers to state-of-the-art developments and research trends in this field.

Plant Tolerance to Environmental Stress

Plant Tolerance to Environmental Stress Book
Author : Mirza Hasanuzzaman,Masayuki Fujita,Hirosuke Oku,M. Tofazzal Islam
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-01-10
ISBN : 135133994X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Global climate change affects crop production through altered weather patterns and increased environmental stresses. Such stresses include soil salinity, drought, flooding, metal/metalloid toxicity, pollution, and extreme temperatures. The variability of these environmental conditions pared with the sessile lifestyle of plants contribute to high exposure to these stress factors. Increasing tolerance of crop plants to abiotic stresses is needed to fulfill increased food needs of the population. This book focuses on methods of improving plants tolerance to abiotic stresses. It provides information on how protective agents, including exogenous phytoprotectants, can mitigate abiotic stressors affecting plants. The application of various phytoprotectants has become one of the most effective approaches in enhancing the tolerance of plants to these stresses. Phytoprotectants are discussed in detail including information on osmoprotectants, antioxidants, phytohormones, nitric oxide, polyamines, amino acids, and nutrient elements of plants. Providing a valuable resource of information on phytoprotectants, this book is useful in diverse areas of life sciences including agronomy, plant physiology, cell biology, environmental sciences, and biotechnology.

Algae Biomass Characteristics and Applications

Algae Biomass  Characteristics and Applications Book
Author : Katarzyna Chojnacka,Piotr Pawel Wieczorek,Grzegorz Schroeder,Izabela Michalak
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-07-09
ISBN : 3319747037
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is a compendium of knowledge on the useful properties of algae in the context of application as a useful component of innovative natural products. It presents all aspects of industrial applications of macroalgae biomass derived from the natural environment. Despite many interesting characteristics, algae are still regarded as undervalued raw material, therefore, present in the following chapters are not only environmental benefits arising from the development of excessive algal biomass, but also the distribution and biology of algae in natural conditions in reservoirs, methods of obtaining extracts from biomass of algae for industrial purposes. Furthermore, it also includes topics such as the use of biomass and algae extracts for the industrial purposes, in animal breeding and for agricultural purposes, as well as the economic aspects of algae biomass harvesting for industrial purposes. The book is intended for a wide audience interested in new methods of obtaining the biomass from the natural environment for industrial purposes and the manufacture of products based on bioactive substances obtained from the environment.