Skip to main content

Biopolymeric Nanomaterials

In Order to Read Online or Download Biopolymeric Nanomaterials Full eBooks in PDF, EPUB, Tuebl and Mobi you need to create a Free account. Get any books you like and read everywhere you want. Fast Download Speed ~ Commercial & Ad Free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library!

Biopolymeric Nanomaterials

Biopolymeric Nanomaterials Book
Author : Shamsher S. Kanwar,Ashok Kumar,Tuan Anh Nguyen,Swati Sharma,Yassine Slimani
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-09-24
ISBN : 0323853285
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Biopolymeric Nanomaterials: Fundamentals and Applications outlines the fundamental design concepts and emerging applications of biopolymeric nanomaterials. The book also provides information on emerging applications of biopolymeric nanomaterials, including in biomedicine, manufacturing and water purification, as well as assessing their physical, chemical and biological properties. This is an important reference source for materials scientists, engineers and biomedical scientists who are seeking to increase their understanding of how polymeric nanomaterials are being used for a range of biomedical and industrial applications. Biopolymeric nanomaterials refer to biocompatible nanomaterials, consisting of biopolymers, such as protein (silk, collagen, gelatin, ß-casein, zein, and albumin), protein-mimicked polypeptides and polysaccharides (chitosan, alginate, pullulan, starch, and heparin). Biopolymeric nanomaterials may be used as i) delivery systems for bioactive compounds in food application, (ii) for delivery of therapeutic molecules (drugs and genes), or for (iii) tissue engineering. Provides information on the design concepts and synthesis of biopolymeric nanomaterials in biomedical and industrial applications Highlights the major properties and processing methods for biopolymeric nanomaterials Assesses the major challenges of producing biopolymeric nanomaterials on an industrial scale

Biopolymer Based Nanomaterials in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications

Biopolymer Based Nanomaterials in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications Book
Author : Hriday Bera,Chowdhury Mobaswar Hossain,Sudipta Saha
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-01-18
ISBN : 0128208759
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Biopolymer-Based Nanomaterials in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications presents a clear and detailed body of information on biopolymer chemistry and polymer sciences in drug delivery. The book covers the recently reported nanomaterials consisting of biopolymers such as polysaccharides (i.e., plant, animal, bacteria, algae and fungi-derived) and proteins in terms of their structures, synthetic protocols and characterizations. In addition, their applications as therapeutic drug and gene delivery carriers and in other biomedical fields are reviewed. This book compiles chapters contributed by internationally renowned scholars working in biopolymer-based nanomaterials, offering a wide vision on the new and ongoing potential of different biopolymeric nanomaterials. The information related to concepts, design protocols and applications of biopolymer-based nanoplatforms is presented here, with detailed chapters on Pectin based nanomaterials, Konjac glucomannan based nanomaterials, Guar gum-based nanomaterials, tailor-made gum Arabic based nanomaterials, among others. Such systems are widely being used as functional materials for drug delivery and other therapeutic applications. Provides a critical and detailed examination in the recent development of biopolymer-based nanomaterials Focuses on modified biopolymer-based, diverse cutting-edge techniques in drug delivery and biomedical applications Assesses the opportunities and challenges of biopolymer-based nano-carriers in pharmaceutical and biomedical fields

Biopolymer Based Nanomaterials in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications

Biopolymer Based Nanomaterials in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications Book
Author : Hriday Bera,Chowdhury Mobaswar Hossain,Sudipta Saha
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-02-01
ISBN : 0128208740
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Biopolymer-Based Nanomaterials in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications presents a clear and detailed body of information on biopolymer chemistry and polymer sciences in drug delivery. The book covers the recently reported nanomaterials consisting of biopolymers such as polysaccharides (i.e., plant, animal, bacteria, algae and fungi-derived) and proteins in terms of their structures, synthetic protocols and characterizations. In addition, their applications as therapeutic drug and gene delivery carriers and in other biomedical fields are reviewed. This book compiles chapters contributed by internationally renowned scholars working in biopolymer-based nanomaterials, offering a wide vision on the new and ongoing potential of different biopolymeric nanomaterials. The information related to concepts, design protocols and applications of biopolymer-based nanoplatforms is presented here, with detailed chapters on Pectin based nanomaterials, Konjac glucomannan based nanomaterials, Guar gum-based nanomaterials, tailor-made gum Arabic based nanomaterials, among others. Such systems are widely being used as functional materials for drug delivery and other therapeutic applications. Provides a critical and detailed examination in the recent development of biopolymer-based nanomaterials Focuses on modified biopolymer-based, diverse cutting-edge techniques in drug delivery and biomedical applications Assesses the opportunities and challenges of biopolymer-based nano-carriers in pharmaceutical and biomedical fields

Multifaceted Development and Application of Biopolymers for Biology Biomedicine and Nanotechnology

Multifaceted Development and Application of Biopolymers for Biology  Biomedicine and Nanotechnology Book
Author : P.K. Dutta,Joydeep Dutta
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2013-09-18
ISBN : 3642401236
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Nanoparticles for Gene Delivery into Stem Cells and Embryos, by Pallavi Pushp, Rajdeep Kaur, Hoon Taek Lee, Mukesh Kumar Gupta. Engineering of Polysaccharides via Nanotechnology, by Joydeep Dutta. Hydroxyapatite-Packed Chitosan-PMMA Nanocomposite: A Promising Material for Construction of Synthetic Bone, by Arundhati Bhowmick, Subhash Banerjee, Ratnesh Kumar, Patit Paban Kundu. Biodegradable Polymers for Potential Delivery Systems for Therapeutics, by Sanjeev K. Pandey, Chandana Haldar, Dinesh K. Patel, Pralay Maiti. Phytomedicine-Loaded Polymeric Nanomedicines: Potential Cancer Therapeutics, by S. Maya, M. Sabitha, Shantikumar V. Nair, R. Jayakumar. Proteins and Carbohydrates as Polymeric Nanodrug Delivery Systems: Formulation, Properties and Toxicological Evaluation, by Dhanya Narayanan, J. Gopikrishna, Shantikumar V. Nair, Deepthy Menon. Biopolymeric Micro and Nanoparticles: Preparation, Characterization and Industrial Applications, by Anil Kumar Anal, Alisha Tuladhar. Applications of Glyconanoparticles as “Sweet” Glycobiological Therapeutics and Diagnostics, by Naresh Kottari, Yoann M. Chabre, Rishi Sharma, René Roy.

Advanced Biopolymeric Systems for Drug Delivery

Advanced Biopolymeric Systems for Drug Delivery Book
Author : Amit Kumar Nayak,Md Saquib Hasnain
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-07-11
ISBN : 3030469239
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book discusses the recent innovations in the development of various advanced biopolymeric systems, including gels, in situ gels, hydrogels, interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs), polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs), graft co-polymers, stimuli-responsive polymers, polymeric nanoparticles, nanocomposites, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, liposomes and scaffolds. It also examines their applications in drug delivery.

Novel Approaches of Nanotechnology in Food

Novel Approaches of Nanotechnology in Food Book
Author : Alexandru Grumezescu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-05-13
ISBN : 0128043792
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Novel Approaches of Nanotechnology in Food, a volume in the Nanotechnology in the Agri-Food Industry series, represents a summary of the most recent advances made in the field of nanostructured materials that have significant impact on the agri-food industry. Because the current food market needs innovation, nanotechnology coupled with novel interdisciplinary approaches and processing methods has enabled important advances that have the potential to revolutionize agri-food sector. Nanotechnology can serve to resolve challenges faced by the food and bioprocessing industries for developing and implementing systems that can produce qualitative and quantitative foods that are safe, sustainable, and ecofriendly. This book is a valuable resource for scientists, researchers, and engineers in food science and biotechnology fields, as well as students who want information on cutting-edge technologies. Provides worldwide research applications of nanomaterials and nanotechnology useful in food research Presents analytical methods for enzyme immobilization onto magnetic nanoparticles Includes strategies of behavior and structure function to increase application enhancement and control Discusses nanomaterial regulations and for consumer protection awareness

Synthesis and Applications of Biopolymer Composites

Synthesis and Applications of Biopolymer Composites Book
Author : Ana María Díez-Pascual,Patrizia Cinelli
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2019-07-23
ISBN : 3039211323
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book, as a collection of 17 research articles, provides a selection of the most recent advances in the synthesis, characterization, and applications of environmentally friendly and biodegradable biopolymer composites and nanocomposites. Recently, the demand has been growing for a clean and pollution-free environment and an evident target regarding the minimization of fossil fuel usage. Therefore, much attention has been focused on research to replace petroleum-based commodity plastics by biodegradable materials arising from biological and renewable resources. Biopolymers—polymers produced from natural sources either chemically from a biological material or biosynthesized by living organisms—are suitable alternatives for addressing these issues due to their outstanding properties, including good barrier performance, biodegradation ability, and low weight. However, they generally possess poor mechanical properties, a short fatigue life, low chemical resistance, poor long-term durability, and limited processing capability. In order to overcome these deficiencies, biopolymers can be reinforced with fillers or nanofillers (with at least one of their dimensions in the nanometer range). Bionanocomposites are advantageous for a wide range of applications, such as in medicine, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food packaging, agriculture, forestry, electronics, transport, construction, and many more.

Nanomaterials for Food Applications

Nanomaterials for Food Applications Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-11-16
ISBN : 012814131X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Nanomaterials for Food Applications highlights recent developments in nanotechnologies, covering the different food areas where these novel products or technologies can be applied. The book covers five major themes, showing how nanotechnology is used in food, the use of ingredients in nanoform to improve bioavailability or nanoencapsulation technologies, nanotechnologies for food processing, nanosensors for food quality and safety, nanotechnologies for food packaging, and methods to evaluate potential risks and regulatory issues. This is an important research reference that will be of great value to academic and industrial readers, as topics of importance, both at a research level and for commercial applications, are covered. Regulatory agencies will also be interested in the latest developments covered in the book as they will help set the foundation for further regulations. Demonstrates how nanotechnology can improve food quality and safety Shows how nanotechnology is used to create more effective food processing techniques Discusses the regulatory issues surrounding the use of nanomaterials in food to ensure they are used safely and responsibly

Bio manufactured Nanomaterials

Bio manufactured Nanomaterials Book
Author : Kaushik Pal
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-06-17
ISBN : 3030672239
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book is based on the principles, limitations, challenges, improvements and applications of nanotechnology in medical science as described in the literature. It highlights various parameters affecting the synthesis of bio-nanomaterials and exclusive techniques utilized for characterizing the nanostructures for their potential use in biomedical and environmental applications. Moreover, biodegradable synthesis of nanomaterials is regarded as an important tool to reduce the destructive effects associated with the traditional methods of synthesis for nanostructures commonly utilized in laboratory and industry and as well as academic scale of innovative research foundation.

Additive Manufacturing with Functionalized Nanomaterials

Additive Manufacturing with Functionalized Nanomaterials Book
Author : Sunpreet Singh,Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-04-06
ISBN : 0128236167
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The greatest benefits of nanoscale additive manufacturing lie in biomedicine, smart devices/sensors, energy harvesting, aerospace, and manufacturing. This book explores the recent applications of functionalized nanomaterials-based additive manufacturing to benefit different manufacturing domains, including design and process aspects, as well as outlining major application areas. This book summarizes recent progress of functionalized nanomaterials-based additive manufacturing on both an experimental and a theoretical model level. Though nanomaterials can be fabricated by bottom-up and top-down approaches (techniques include lithography, photolithography, and micro-machining), the applications of additive manufacturing processes are increasing at an exponential rate and therefore, the demand for high-performance materials has been greatly increasing. Recent applications covered in this book include biomedicine, aerospace, automobile, waste recycling, and energy storage devices. Environmental, regulatory and safety issues are also discussed. This book is an important reference source for materials scientists and engineers who are seeking to improve their understanding of how functionalized nanomaterials are playing an increasingly important role in the additive manufacturing process. Brings together recent innovations and practices of nanomaterials in additive manufacturing processes Outlines major nanomaterials-based additive manufacturing techniques Discusses major applications in a range of industry sectors, including in energy, automotive and biomedicine

Biopolymer Based Composites

Biopolymer Based Composites Book
Author : Sougata Jana,Sabyasachi Maiti,Subrata Jana
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2017-06-15
ISBN : 0081019157
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Biopolymer-Based Composites: Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications presents a comprehensive review on recent developments in biopolymer-based composites and their use in drug delivery and biomedical applications. The information contained in this book is critical for the more efficient use of composites, as detailed up-to-date information is a pre-requirement. The information provided brings cutting-edge developments to the attention of young investigators to encourage further advances in the field of bio-composite research. Currently, biopolymers are being investigated for the design of various drug delivery and biomedical devices due to their non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible nature. Mostly, biopolymer-based solid orals, gels, hydrogel beads, and transdermal matrices have been designed in order to control drug/protein release in simulated bio-fluids. Presents the most updated information in the field of pharmaceutical and biological sciences Contains color figures and illustrations to help users understand key topics Useful guide for young researchers working towards new innovations Includes chapters covered by eminent scientists in the field

Advanced Nanomaterials for Wastewater Remediation

Advanced Nanomaterials for Wastewater Remediation Book
Author : Ravindra Kumar Gautam,Mahesh Chandra Chattopadhyaya
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-08-05
ISBN : 1498753353
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Contamination of aqueous environments by hazardous chemical compounds is the direct cause of the decline of safe clean water supply throughout the globe. The use of unconventional water sources such as treated wastewater will be a new norm. Emerging nanotechnological innovations have great potential for wastewater remediation processes. Applications that use smart nanomaterials of inorganic and organic origin improve treatment efficiency and lower energy requirements. This book describes the synthesis, fabrication, and application of advanced nanomaterials in water treatment processes; their adsorption, transformation into low toxic forms, or degradation phenomena, and the adsorption and separation of hazardous dyes, organic pollutants, heavy metals and metalloids from aqueous solutions. It explains the use of different categories of nanomaterials for various pollutants and enhances understanding of nanotechnology-based water remediation to make it less toxic and reusable.

Starch Based Polymeric Materials and Nanocomposites

Starch Based Polymeric Materials and Nanocomposites Book
Author : Jasim Ahmed,Brijesh K. Tiwari,Syed H. Imam,M.A. Rao
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2012-04-04
ISBN : 1439851166
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

In recent years, much attention has been focused on biodegradable polymers from renewable resources. Due to its availability and low cost, starch is a promising candidate among biopolymers for use in biodegradable packaging materials and for other purposes. Starch-Based Polymeric Materials and Nanocomposites: Chemistry, Processing, and Applications presents the latest developments in starch chemistry, rheology, starch derivatives, starch-based nanocomposites, and their applications. Topics discussed include: The chemistry, microstructure, processing, and enzymatic degradation of starch The importance and role of starch as a gelling agent Plasticization and the role of plasticizers Various rheological techniques applied to starch-related products and the characteristics of starch dispersions Polymeric aspects of reactive extrusion (REX) and its use on starch and other biopolymers Cyclodextrins (CDs) and their industrial applications, and CD-based supramole and polymers The potential of starch in food packaging, edible packaging, feedstock for bioproducts, and industrial and consumer products The theoretical basis and derivation of the mathematical model for multicomponent systems and its solution algorithm The book also explores recent progress in biodegradable starch-based hybrids and nanomaterials and the incorporation of nanoparticles in starches to enhance their mechanical and thermal properties. The book concludes by discussing the use of biopolymeric nanoparticles (BNPs) in drug delivery and life cycle assessment (LCA) of starch-based polymeric materials for packaging and allied applications. With contributions from leading experts in academia and industry, this volume demonstrates the versatility of starch and its potential in a variety of applications.

Biopolymers

Biopolymers Book
Author : Akihiro Abe,Karel Dusˇek,Shiro Kobayashi
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-08-29
ISBN : 364213629X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

-Lignin Structure, Properties, and Applications By H. Hatakeyama, T. Hatakeyama -Tensile Mechanics of α-Helical Coil Springs By A. Ikai -Bioactive Polymer/Hydroxyapatite (Nano)composites for Bone Tissue Regeneration By K. Pielichowska, S. Blazewicz

Green Nanomaterials

Green Nanomaterials Book
Author : Shakeel Ahmed,Wazed Ali
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-03-16
ISBN : 9811535604
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book comprises a collection of chapters on advances in green nanomaterials. The book looks at ways to establish long‐term safe and sustainable forms of nanotechnology through implementation of nanoparticle biosynthesis with minimum impact on the ecosystem. The book looks at synthesis, processing, and applications of metal and metal oxide nanomaterials and also at bio-nanomaterials. The contents of this book will prove useful for researchers and professionals working in the field of nanomaterials and green technology.

Green Biopolymers and their Nanocomposites

Green Biopolymers and their Nanocomposites Book
Author : Dhorali Gnanasekaran
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-07-06
ISBN : 9811380635
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book comprises a collection of chapters on green biopolymer nanocomposites. The book discusses the preparation, properties, and applications of different types of biodegradable polymers. An overview of recent advances in the fabrication of biopolymers nanocomposites from a variety of sources, including organic and inorganic nanomaterials, is presented. The book highlights the importance and impact of eco-friendly green nanocomposites, both environmentally and economically. The contents of this book will prove useful for students, researchers, and professionals working in the field of nanocomposites and green technology.

Smart Materials for Waste Water Applications

Smart Materials for Waste Water Applications Book
Author : Ajay Kumar Mishra
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2016-02-10
ISBN : 1119041201
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Smart materials are used to develop more cost-effective and high-performance water treatment systems as well as instant and continuous ways to monitor water quality. Smart materials in water research have been extensively utilized for the treatment, remediation, and pollution prevention. Smart materials can maintain the long term water quality, availability and viability of water resource. Thus, water via smart materials can be reused, recycled, desalinized and also it can detect the biological and chemical contamination whether the source is from municipal, industrial or man-made waste. The 15 state-of-the-art review chapters contained in this book cover the recent advancements in the area of waste water, as well as the prospects about the future research and development of smart materials for the waste water applications in the municipal, industrial and manmade waste areas. Treatment techniques (nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, adsorption and nano-reactive membranes) are also covered in-depth. The chapters are divided into three groups: The first section includes the various carbon nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, mixed oxides) with a focus on use of carbon at nanoscale applied for waste water research. The second section focuses on synthetic nanomaterials for pollutants removal. The third section highlights the bio-polymeric nanomaterials where the authors have used the natural polymers matrices in a composite and nanocomposite material for waste treatment. The large number of researchers working in the area will benefit from the fundamental concepts, advanced approaches and application of the various smart materials towards waste water treatment that are described in the book. It will also provide a platform for the researchers and graduate students to carry out advanced research and understand the building blocks.

Nanotechnology in Edible Food Packaging

Nanotechnology in Edible Food Packaging Book
Author : Vimal Katiyar,Tabli Ghosh
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-03-27
ISBN : 9813361697
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

p="" This volume delivers a systematic overview of nanotechnology in the development of edible food packaging with noteworthy characteristics for improved food quality. It covers current research trends, history outlines, and state of the global marketin combination with associated biomaterials and synthesis strategies. The contents detail the use of various emerging bionanostructured materials such as cellulose nanostructures, chitosan nanostructures, and more.It further deliberates an in-depth discussion on various synthesis strategies and routes for the development of edible food packaging in terms of utilizing various nanosystems such as polymeric nanocomposites, nanoencapsulation systems, nanoemulsion systems, and others.Further, it also discusses experimental practices for bionanostructured and edible packaging materials to check the effectivity in terms of offering enhanced shelf life of food products. It also touches upon the socio-techno challenges in-line with developing edible packaging materials using nanotechnology for high performance packaging application. The book is an excellent guide for both the academia and industry especially early career professionals in edible food packaging sectors for selecting proper biomaterial involvingbiofillers, modifiers, cross linkers, compatibilizers and others to enhance the property of edible food packaging for targeted features. ^

Multifaceted Development and Application of Biopolymers for Biology Biomedicine and Nanotechnology

Multifaceted Development and Application of Biopolymers for Biology  Biomedicine and Nanotechnology Book
Author : Pradip Kumar Dutta,Joydeep Dutta
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2013-10-07
ISBN : 9783642401220
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Nanoparticles for Gene Delivery into Stem Cells and Embryos, by Pallavi Pushp, Rajdeep Kaur, Hoon Taek Lee, Mukesh Kumar Gupta. Engineering of Polysaccharides via Nanotechnology, by Joydeep Dutta. Hydroxyapatite-Packed Chitosan-PMMA Nanocomposite: A Promising Material for Construction of Synthetic Bone, by Arundhati Bhowmick, Subhash Banerjee, Ratnesh Kumar, Patit Paban Kundu. Biodegradable Polymers for Potential Delivery Systems for Therapeutics, by Sanjeev K. Pandey, Chandana Haldar, Dinesh K. Patel, Pralay Maiti. Phytomedicine-Loaded Polymeric Nanomedicines: Potential Cancer Therapeutics, by S. Maya, M. Sabitha, Shantikumar V. Nair, R. Jayakumar. Proteins and Carbohydrates as Polymeric Nanodrug Delivery Systems: Formulation, Properties and Toxicological Evaluation, by Dhanya Narayanan, J. Gopikrishna, Shantikumar V. Nair, Deepthy Menon. Biopolymeric Micro and Nanoparticles: Preparation, Characterization and Industrial Applications, by Anil Kumar Anal, Alisha Tuladhar. Applications of Glyconanoparticles as “Sweet” Glycobiological Therapeutics and Diagnostics, by Naresh Kottari, Yoann M. Chabre, Rishi Sharma, René Roy.

Recent Advances in Biopolymers

Recent Advances in Biopolymers Book
Author : Farzana Khan Perveen
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2016-03-09
ISBN : 953512255X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book contains 10 Chapters divided into three Sections. Section A covers synthesis of biopolymers. Lignocellulosic feedstock contains cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, which are used for synthesis of biopolymers. Polymer-coated noble metal nanoparticles are used in nanobiomedicine and fundamental biomaterials. Section B describes applications of biopolymers in biomedical, antimicrobial, industrial, nanotechnology, laser-based thin films, and regenerative medicines. Section C is dedicated for advancement and engineering in biopolymers for personal protective garments, equipments, membrane separation processes, purifications, and new generation of high-performance biomaterials. A new numerical-cum-graphical method called TI2BioP (Topological Indices to BioPolymers) has been developed to estimate topological indices (TIs) from two-dimensional (2D) graphical approaches for the natural biopolymers DNA, RNA, and proteins.