Skip to main content

Biometals In Autism Spectrum Disorders

In Order to Read Online or Download Biometals In Autism Spectrum Disorders Full eBooks in PDF, EPUB, Tuebl and Mobi you need to create a Free account. Get any books you like and read everywhere you want. Fast Download Speed ~ Commercial & Ad Free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library!

Biometals in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Biometals in Autism Spectrum Disorders Book
Author : Andreas Grabrucker
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-07-08
ISBN : 0128211334
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Biometals in Autism Spectrum Disorders focuses on trace metals and autism. Compared to other references examining ASDs or metallomics, this book presents findings of abnormal metal homeostasis in ASD, providing an overview of current findings on trace metal biology, its role in ASD etiology, and how abnormal trace metal biology may be a common factor of several genetic and non-genetic causes of ASDs that were once considered unrelated. This comprehensive resource opens new vistas for the development of new therapies based on the targeted manipulation of trace metal homeostasis that will generate new awareness surrounding trace metal levels during pregnancy. Reviews the role of trace metals in brain development Summarizes research linking trace metals and autism Explores heterogenous phenotypes as a factor of genetic and non-genetic factors Includes animal and human stem research Contains many useful diagrams, tables and flow charts Proposes future therapies based on biometal homeostasis

Biometals in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Biometals in Neurodegenerative Diseases Book
Author : Anthony R. White,Michael Aschner,Lucio G. Costa,Ashley I. Bush
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-04-28
ISBN : 0128045639
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Biometals in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Mechanisms and Therapeutics is an authoritative and timely resource bringing together the major findings in the field for ease of access to those working in the field or with an interest in metals and their role in brain function, disease, and as therapeutic targets. Chapters cover metals in Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Motor Neuron Disease, Autism and lysosomal storage disorders. This book is written for academic researchers, clinicians and advanced graduate students studying or treating patients in neurodegeneration, neurochemistry, neurology and neurotoxicology. The scientific literature in this field is advancing rapidly, with approximately 300 publications per year adding to our knowledge of how biometals contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. Despite this rapid increase in our understanding of biometals in brain disease, the fields of biomedicine and neuroscience have often overlooked this information. The need to bring the research on biometals in neurodegeneration to the forefront of biomedical research is essential in order to understand neurodegenerative disease processes and develop effective therapeutics. Authoritative and timely resource bringing together the major findings in the field for those with an interest in metals and their role in the brain function, disease, and as therapeutic targets Written for academic researchers, clinicians and advanced graduate students studying, or treating, patients in neurodegeneration, neurochemistry, neurology and neurotoxicology Edited by international leaders in the field who have contributed greatly to the study of metals in neurodegenerative diseases

Thimerosal Let the Science Speak

Thimerosal  Let the Science Speak Book
Author : Robert F. Kennedy
Publisher : Simon and Schuster
Release : 2015-09-01
ISBN : 1634504437
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Over a decade ago, following a sharp rise in developmental disorders such as autism and ADHD, the mercury-containing preservative Thimerosal was widely believed to have been eliminated from vaccine supplies in the US and abroad. However, dangerous quantities of Thimerosal continue to be used, posing a significant threat to public health and leading to a crisis of faith in vaccine safety. In this groundbreaking book, Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., and Dr. Mark Hyman examine the research literature on Thimerosal and make a very clear statement about its potentially dangerous effects. In the past, the CDC, FDA, NIH, and AAP, as well as the US Congress, the American Academy of Family Physicians, the US Department of Agriculture, the European Medicines Agency, and the California Environmental Protection Agency have expressed concerns over the use of Thimerosal in vaccines. But despite the many voices calling for action, the media and policy makers have repeatedly failed to adequately address the issue. Now, with Thimerosal: Let the Science Speak, the goals are to educate parents, doctors, and health policy makers; to eliminate this toxic chemical from the world’s vaccine supplies; to move toward safer alternatives; and to maintain or increase vaccination rates critical to the United States and developing nations. With safer options available, parents shouldn’t have to worry about the devastating effects of vaccinating their children.

Brighton Baby a Revolutionary Organic Approach to Having an Extraordinary Child

Brighton Baby a Revolutionary Organic Approach to Having an Extraordinary Child Book
Author : Roy Dittmann Omd Mh
Publisher : Balboa Press
Release : 2012-10
ISBN : 1452555567
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Brighton Baby: A Revolutionary Organic Approach to Having an Extraordinary Child - The Complete Guide to Preconception & Conception is about helping couples achieve optimal health - mentally, physically, emotionally, and spiritually - before you conceive your future child. Author and perinatal expert, Roy Dittmann, OMD, MH takes couples on a journey that celebrates the power of love as the intangible blueprint of life . Dr. Dittmann exposes the dangers of conceiving in our toxic world and focuses couples on how to prepare body, mind, and spirit for the moment of conception. Using integral wisdom, Dr. Dittmann helps couples go from overwhelm to taking practical steps to realize their goals of having an extraordinary child. Brighton Baby is about the art and science of gifting the best of who we are to our future children. It is about reducing human suffering by preventing subtle and overt birth defects before they occur. It is about transforming the context inside of which we conceive and birth children. - Roy Dittmann, OMD, MH, author Throughout the book, Dr. Dittmann turns the spotlight on the hidden dangers of: heavy metals and other toxins, genetically modified foods, pesticides, artificial sweeteners, rancid oils, antibiotics, processed foods, contaminated drinking water, electrosmog, and the pluses & minuses of vaccines - merging science and common sense to compel couples to take action today to prevent birth defects in their future child. Brighton Baby is a call to action for couples to commit now to consciously preparing for your future child together.

The Autism Puzzle

The Autism Puzzle Book
Author : Brita Belli
Publisher : Seven Stories Press
Release : 2012-03-27
ISBN : 1609803914
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The alarming spike in autism in recent years has sent doctors and parents on a search for answers. And while many controversies have erupted around the issue, none have gotten us any closer to a definitive explanation, and many key concerns remain unexplored. Moving beyond the distractions of the vaccine debate, The Autism Puzzle is the first book to address the compelling evidence that it is the pairing of environmental exposures with genetic susceptibilities that may be impacting the brain development of children. Journalist Brita Belli brings us into the lives of three families with autistic children, each with different ideas about autism, as she explores the possible causes. She interprets for readers compelling evidence that environmental toxins—including common exposures from chemicals mounting in our everyday lives—may be sparking this disorder in vulnerable children. Belli calls for an end to the use of hazardous materials—like toxic flame retardants used in electronics and furniture, which have been banned elsewhere--insisting that we cannot afford to experiment with our children. The Autism Puzzle puts a human face on the families caught in between the debates, and offers a refreshingly balanced perspective.

Personalized Food Intervention and Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder Management

Personalized Food Intervention and Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder Management Book
Author : M. Mohamed Essa,M. Walid Qoronfleh
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-01-31
ISBN : 3030304027
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The book focuses on implications of traditional and processed foods for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) intervention and management. Numerous phytonutrients and pharmacologically active compounds in edible natural products and diet could influence and offer protection to neuronal dysfunction that occurs due to ASD. The neuroprotective effects of various fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds phytochemicals, and other natural bioactive ingredients against ASD and related conditions are discussed. Topics such as the possible neuroprotective mechanism of action of these foods and the therapeutic role of antioxidants in relation to ASD are addressed. This book also highlights the scope of using anti-inflammatory agents and antioxidants to promote neurogenesis and improve other symptoms in ASD. It emphasizes personalized nutritional approaches with dietary management of neurodevelopmental disorders/ASD cases. Information in this book is relevant to researchers in the field of complementary and alternative medicine, nutraceuticals, neuroscience, agriculture, nutrition, and food science. This volume is beneficial to students of varying levels, and across multiple disciplines.

Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alzheimer s Disease

Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alzheimer s Disease Book
Author : Ghulam Md Ashraf
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021
ISBN : 9811645582
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book talks about the multidimensional biological etiology of Alzheimers disease and autism spectrum disorder which leads to distinctive ways of perception, thinking and learning in affected individuals. It provides a deeper emphasis on the need for early diagnosis, continuous assessment of patients and the proper educational methods and environment required towards enabling people affected with these disorders capable of evolving and learning. This book explores alternative solutions for autism spectrum disorder based on the theory of brain plasticity, the relationship between the gut microbiota and the central nervous system along with genetic factors and toxic metal exposures which are responsible for the oxidative damage resulting in a decreased ability of the patients to use objects or response to auditory stimuli. It also identifies and provides the latest research towards dealing with memory loss, which is the first sign of cognitive impairment followed by behavioral disturbances. These symptoms are associated with a rigorous neuronal decline and the appearance of two brain lesions, senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, which are mainly composed of AS and hyper phosphorylated tau protein respectively. This book also provides the latest research towards reducing autism disorder severity such as targeting the disease with symptomatic treatments such as cholinesterase inhibitors, NMDA receptor antagonist, B-secretase and B-secretase inhibitors, a B-secretase stimulators, tau inhibitors, immunotherapy, nutraceuticals, and nano drugs. This book will not only be a good resource for professors and lecturers teaching in the area of neuroscience, medicine, biochemistry, neuroinformatics, and nanotechnology, etc. but also for professionals working in the field of occupational therapy and geriatric clinics and rehabilitation.

Shankopathies Shank Protein Deficiency Induced Synaptic Diseases

Shankopathies  Shank Protein Deficiency Induced Synaptic Diseases Book
Author : Elodie Ey,Thomas Bourgeron,Tobias Maria Boeckers,Eunjoon Kim,Kihoon Han
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-03-10
ISBN : 2889635678
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download Shankopathies Shank Protein Deficiency Induced Synaptic Diseases book written by Elodie Ey,Thomas Bourgeron,Tobias Maria Boeckers,Eunjoon Kim,Kihoon Han, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Translational Anatomy and Cell Biology of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Translational Anatomy and Cell Biology of Autism Spectrum Disorder Book
Author : Michael J. Schmeisser,Tobias M. Boeckers
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-05-25
ISBN : 3319524984
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects approximately 1 % of the human population and is characterized by a core symptomatology including deficits in social interaction and repetitive patterns of behaviour plus various co-morbidities. Although a lot of progress has been made to uncover underlying causes and mechanisms throughout the last decade, we are still at the very beginning to understand this enormously complex neurodevelopmental condition. This special volume is focused on translational anatomy and cell biology of ASD. International experts from the field including several members of the EU-AIMS initiative launched by the European Union to develop novel treatments for ASD have contributed chapters on several topics covering all crucial aspects of translational ASD research with a special emphasis on ASD model systems including stem cells and animals. Primary objective is to clarify how anatomical and cell biological phenotypes of ASD will help to translate basic mechanisms to clinical practice and to efficiently treat affected individuals in the near future.

Neural Engineering Techniques for Autism Spectrum Disorder

Neural Engineering Techniques for Autism Spectrum Disorder Book
Author : Ayman S. El-Baz,Jasjit S. Suri
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-07-16
ISBN : 0128230657
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Neural Engineering for Autism Spectrum Disorder, Volume One: Imaging and Signal Analysis Techniques presents the latest advances in neural engineering and biomedical engineering as applied to the clinical diagnosis and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Advances in the role of neuroimaging, infrared spectroscopy, sMRI, fMRI, DTI, social behaviors and suitable data analytics useful for clinical diagnosis and research applications for Autism Spectrum Disorder are covered, including relevant case studies. The application of brain signal evaluation, EEG analytics, feature selection, and analysis of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals are presented for detection and estimation of the degree of ASD. Presents applications of Neural Engineering and other Machine Learning techniques for the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Includes in-depth technical coverage of imaging and signal analysis techniques, including coverage of functional MRI, neuroimaging, infrared spectroscopy, sMRI, fMRI, DTI, and neuroanatomy of autism Covers Signal Analysis for the detection and estimation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including brain signal analysis, EEG analytics, feature selection, and analysis of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals for ASD Written to help engineers, computer scientists, researchers and clinicians understand the technology and applications of Neural Engineering for the detection and diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Nutrition and the Developing Brain

Nutrition and the Developing Brain Book
Author : Victoria Hall Moran,Nicola M. Lowe
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-08-05
ISBN : 1315355140
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Nutrients play a significant role in brain development throughout fetal and postnatal life. This book reviews the evidence from animal and human research, highlighting the influence of specific nutrients on brain function and cognitive development. With a unique, integrative approach to the nutritional, environmental, and genetic influences on brain development, the book examines issues such as single versus multiple limiting nutrients, critical periods of deficiency, and the impact of the child-parent relationship on the architecture of the developing brain. The effect of undernutrition on the developing brain of infants and young children can be devastating and enduring. It can impede behavioural and cognitive development and educability, thereby undermining future work productivity. Chapter authors are experts in this field of research and provide an up-to-date insight into the role of the individual nutrients in brain development and function.

Radio Frequency and Microwave Effects on Biological Tissues

Radio Frequency and Microwave Effects on Biological Tissues Book
Author : Jitendra Behari
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-10-30
ISBN : 1000707083
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Focussing on engineering aspects of RF/Microwave interaction with biological tissues This book discusses the advancement in bio-electromagnetics pertaining to this important issue of electromagentic field-bio interaction vis-a-vis the emission of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phones and their biological fallout. Divided into six chapters, it discusses basic issues in Electromagnetic Field-Biointeraction, dosimetery, instrumentation, and methods of measurement of specific absorption rate, criteria and magnitude of safe exposure and measurements of field in an open (unobstructed) environment.

The Latest Research and Development of Minerals in Human Nutrition

The Latest Research and Development of Minerals in Human Nutrition Book
Author : Michael N.A. Eskin
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-06-08
ISBN : 012823184X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The Latest Research and Development of Minerals in Human Nutrition, Volume 96 in the Advances in Food and Nutrition Research series, highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters written by an international board of authors. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the Advances in Food and Nutrition Research series Updated release includes the Latest Research and Development of Minerals in Human Nutrition

Nutritional Deficiency

Nutritional Deficiency Book
Author : Pinar Erkekoglu,Belma Kocer-Gumusel
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2016-07-20
ISBN : 9535124374
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Intake of a sufficient diet will provide an individual to live a healthy and functional life. However, poor intake of different nutritional components, such as proteins, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements, may lead to health problems that can cause morbidity and finally mortality. Assessment of nutritional status involves physical examination, comprehensive evaluation of biochemical tests, body composition, and organ functions. Both high and low intake of nutritional elements may lead to significant health impairment. The main aim of the book Nutritional Deficiency is to determine the relationships between nutritional status and general health. The authors, who are contributing to the book, particularly focused on iron, vitamin D, and zinc deficiencies, which are global health problems. Besides, some chapters mention the impact of different nutritional deficiencies in susceptible periods of life, such as pregnancy and elderly. Besides, as a result of these deficiencies, different health conditions, such as depression, anemia, loss of neuronal plasticity, and cancer, are widely scrutinized in the book. One chapter mainly focuses on the effects of disasters on nutrition and disaster-caused malnutrition in underdeveloped countries. This book will widen the knowledge store of the readers on the effects of nutrition on general health, how nutritional deficiencies arise when there is a health problem, and how the nutritional status affects susceptible populations.

Integrative Medicine E Book

Integrative Medicine   E Book Book
Author : David Rakel
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2017-03-21
ISBN : 0323496172
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Stay on the cutting edge of today’s most promising trends in complementary and alternative medical treatments with Dr. David Rakel’s Integrative Medicine, 4th Edition. Written by physicians who are experts in both traditional and integrative medicine, this highly regarded, evidence-based reference covers therapies such as botanicals, supplements, mind-body, lifestyle choices, nutrition, exercise, spirituality, and more. Integrative Medicine, 4th Edition uses a clinical, disease-oriented approach, offering practical guidance for reducing costs and improving patient care. Helps you safely and effectively incorporate complementary and alternative therapies into your everyday practice, while focusing on prevention and wellness for a better quality of life. Uses the reliable SORT method (Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy) to provide evidence-based ratings, grading both the evidence and the relative potential harm. Explains how to make the best use of integrative medicine and the mechanisms by which these therapeutic modalities work, keeping you at the forefront of the trend toward integrative health care. Includes 13 brand-new chapters, covering hot topics such as personalized medicine, MTHFR mutation, food allergy and intolerance, the gut-immune influence on systemic inflammation and disease, chelation therapy, testosterone deficiency, adrenal fatigue, and much more. Features more than 100 significantly revised chapters and hundreds of new figures and tables throughout.

Metals and Neurodegeneration Restoring the Balance

Metals and Neurodegeneration  Restoring the Balance Book
Author : Anthony R. White,Katja M. Kanninen,Peter J. Crouch
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-02-02
ISBN : 2889197395
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Biometals such as copper, zinc and iron have key biological functions, however, aberrant metabolism can lead to detrimental effects on cell function and survival. These biometals have important roles in the brain, driving cellular respiration, antioxidant activity, intracellular signaling and many additional structural and enzymatic functions. There is now considerable evidence that abnormal biometal homeostasis is a key feature of many neurodegenerative diseases and may have an important role in the onset and progression of disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, prion and motor neuron diseases. Recent studies also support biometal roles in a number of less common neurodegenerative disorders. The role of biometals in a growing list of brain disorders is supported by evidence from a wide range of sources including molecular genetics, biochemical studies and biometal imaging. These studies have spurred a growing interest in understanding the role of biometals in brain function and disease as well as the development of therapeutic approaches that may be able to restore the altered biometal chemistry of the brain. These approaches range from genetic manipulation of biometal transport to chelation of excess metals or delivery of metals where levels are deficient. A number of these approaches are offering promising results in cellular and animal models of neurodegeneration with successful translation to pre-clinical and clinical trials. At a time of aging populations and slow progress in development of neurotherapeutics to treat age-related neurodegenerative diseases, there is now a critical need to further our understanding of biometals in neurodegeneration. This issue covers a broad range of topics related to biometals and their role in neurodegeneration. It is hoped that this will inspire greater discussion and exchange of ideas in this crucial area of research and lead to positive outcomes for sufferers of these neurodegenerative diseases.

Autism

Autism Book
Author : Abha Chauhan,Ved Chauhan,Ted Brown
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2009-10-26
ISBN : 9781420068870
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued an autism alarm, estimating that one in 150 children may be affected by autism spectrum disorder. Autism has been treated mainly with technical approaches: principally applied behavior analysis and psychopharmacology. The findings in this book implicate oxidative stress as a common feature in autism, and support the claim that oxidative stress and intracellular redox imbalance can be induced or triggered in autism by exposure to certain environmental agents. Such findings could point the way to new treatment approaches in autism. Autism: Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Immune Abnormalities brings together a wealth of cutting-edge evidence that is already influencing how we treat this serious condition. It looks at the role of neuropathological abnormalities, genetics, and those factors common to oxidative stress such as inflammation, immune dysfunction, aberrant cellular signaling, and gene-environment interactions. Among dozens of research topics, this volume — Looks at interactions between genetic and environmental factors such as the maternal immune environment and prenatal/postnatal environmental stressors Summarizes evidence for oxidative damage and inflammation in autism Introduces a PDD behavior inventory as a tool for assessing autism Considers autism as an aberrant adaptive response to neuroinflammation and oxidative stress Examines the role of abnormal calcium signaling and the hypothesis that it may represent a target for novel therapeutics Presents a hypothesis that autism arises from the dysregulation of a unified gut/brain system rather than originating in the brain alone Proposes the utility of using a biopsychosocial method to treat autism This book shows us that autism is not only developmental but also a chronic condition based on active pathophysiology, and that it is not only behavioral but also presents somatic and systemic features. The findings in these chapters support the theory that oxidative stress plays an important role in autism. They also point to the value of conducting in-depth mechanistic studies as a way to uncover new targets for therapeutic intervention in autism.

Gene and Environment Interactions in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Gene and Environment Interactions in Neurodevelopmental Disorders Book
Author : Lorenzo More,Carmem Gottfried,Patricia Pelufo Silveira
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2022-04-25
ISBN : 2889749827
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download Gene and Environment Interactions in Neurodevelopmental Disorders book written by Lorenzo More,Carmem Gottfried,Patricia Pelufo Silveira, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Mitochondria as a Key Intracellular Target of Thallium Toxicity

Mitochondria as a Key Intracellular Target of Thallium Toxicity Book
Author : Sergey Korotkov
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2022-06-24
ISBN : 0323955320
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Mitochondria as a Key Intracellular Target of Thallium Toxicity presents a new hypothesis that explains the decrease in antioxidant defense of thallium poisoning and proposes a new model for studying the transport of inorganic cations across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Readers will learn about the toxicity of thallium and its compounds, the toxicology of thallium, the toxic thallium effects on cells, and the effects of thallium on mitochondria. In addition, the book lists the pathways and mechanisms of thallium transport into cells and mitochondria, including information on toxicity that has been analyzed at both the cellular and subcellular levels. The increase in human contact with the toxic trace element thallium is associated with industry development, the release of metal into the environment from various rocks, and the use of special isotope techniques for studying the vascular bed. Highlights the differences between the toxic effect of thallium and the action of other heavy metals on cells and mitochondria Explains why the toxicity of thallium in experiments in vivo is higher than that of bivalent heavy metals Discusses the applied in vitro model when searching for new inhibitors of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore

Autism

Autism Book
Author : Valsamma Eapen
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2011-08-17
ISBN : 9533074930
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The book covers some of the key research developments in autism and brings together the current state of evidence on the neurobiologic understanding of this intriguing disorder. The pathogenetic mechanisms are explored by contributors from diverse perspectives including genetics, neuroimaging, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neurochemistry, neuroimmunology, neuroendocrinology, functional organization of the brain and clinical applications from the role of diet to vaccines. It is hoped that understanding these interconnected neurobiological systems, the programming of which is genetically modulated during neurodevelopment and mediated through a range of neuropeptides and interacting neurotransmitter systems, would no doubt assist in developing interventions that accommodate the way the brains of individuals with autism function. In keeping with the multimodal and diverse origins of the disorder, a wide range of topics is covered and these include genetic underpinnings and environmental modulation leading to epigenetic changes in the aetiology; neural substrates, potential biomarkers and endophenotypes that underlie clinical characteristics; as well as neurochemical pathways and pathophysiological mechanisms that pave the way for therapeutic interventions.