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Biomechanics Of Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque

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Biomechanics of Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque

Biomechanics of Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-03-15
ISBN : 0128171960
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomechanics of Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque: From Model to Patient, Fourth Edition summarizes all biomechanical aspects of each living organ in one comprehensive reference. The first two volumes introduce Continuum Fluid and Solid Biomechanics approaches, with each subsequent volume covering the important biomechanical and clinical aspects. The key thought leaders in the field of Biomechanics of Living Organs have gathered together their expertise in this series, making it an essential reference for anyone working in this research area. This book presents the first such resource to cover fluid and solid biomechanical studies conducted in this last decade to increase our understanding of plaque initiation, growth and rupture and improve the design of medical devices and clinical interventions, including surgical procedures. Presents the main computational fluid dynamic studies performed, describing blood flow in healthy and pathological artery branches, including in coronary bifurcations Highlights the correlation between plaque initiation regions and blood shear stress amplitude Discusses the main biomechanical and mechanobiological models to highlight the importance of quantifying the residual and peak cap stresses and the presence of μ-calcifications to evaluate the risk of plaque rupture Introduces the most recent intravascular imaging biomarker techniques (elastography, palpography and modulography)

Biomechanics of Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque

Biomechanics of Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-07-15
ISBN : 9780128240472
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Biomechanics of Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Plaque Imaging

Plaque Imaging Book
Author : Jasjit S. Suri
Publisher : IOS Press
Release : 2005-01-01
ISBN : 1586035169
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This publication starts of with a review of plaque imaging techniques, with an introduction of the segmentation techniques for plaque classification and quantification. Many aspects of plaque imaging techniques are presented in this publication, such as; medical image retrieval and database management, MRI techniques to differentiate stable versus high risk atherosclerosis, composition and morphology of atherosclerotic plaque, analysis of the soft tissue based on computer vision techniques, modelling of coronary artery biomechanics, Cardiac CT for the assessment of cardiovascular pathology with an emphasis on the detection of coronary atherosclerosis, technical and practical issues regarding coronary atherosclerotic plaque imaging by CT (focussing on coronary calcium imaging), feasibility of a non-invasive, in vivo determination of the IBS of arterial wall tissue, high resolution ultrasound images of carotid plaques, the problem of reliable features extraction and classification process and a discussion on advanced mathematical techniques to extract spectral information from the RF data to determine the plaque composition.

Cardiovascular Biomechanics

Cardiovascular Biomechanics Book
Author : Peter R. Hoskins,Patricia V. Lawford,Barry J. Doyle
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-02-16
ISBN : 3319464078
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a balanced presentation of the fundamental principles of cardiovascular biomechanics research, as well as its valuable clinical applications. Pursuing an integrated approach at the interface of the life sciences, physics and engineering, it also includes extensive images to explain the concepts discussed. With a focus on explaining the underlying principles, this book examines the physiology and mechanics of circulation, mechanobiology and the biomechanics of different components of the cardiovascular system, in-vivo techniques, in-vitro techniques, and the medical applications of this research. Written for undergraduate and postgraduate students and including sample problems at the end of each chapter, this interdisciplinary text provides an essential introduction to the topic. It is also an ideal reference text for researchers and clinical practitioners, and will benefit a wide range of students and researchers including engineers, physicists, biologists and clinicians who are interested in the area of cardiovascular biomechanics.

Biomechanics of Living Organs

Biomechanics of Living Organs Book
Author : Yohan Payan,Jacques Ohayon
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-06-09
ISBN : 0128040602
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomechanics of Living Organs: Hyperelastic Constitutive Laws for Finite Element Modeling is the first book to cover finite element biomechanical modeling of each organ in the human body. This collection of chapters from the leaders in the field focuses on the constitutive laws for each organ. Each author introduces the state-of-the-art concerning constitutive laws and then illustrates the implementation of such laws with Finite Element Modeling of these organs. The focus of each chapter is on instruction, careful derivation and presentation of formulae, and methods. When modeling tissues, this book will help users determine modeling parameters and the variability for particular populations. Chapters highlight important experimental techniques needed to inform, motivate, and validate the choice of strain energy function or the constitutive model. Remodeling, growth, and damage are all covered, as is the relationship of constitutive relationships of organs to tissue and molecular scale properties (as net organ behavior depends fundamentally on its sub components). This book is intended for professionals, academics, and students in tissue and continuum biomechanics. Covers hyper elastic frameworks for large tissue deformations Considers which strain energy functions are the most appropriate to model the passive and active states of living tissue Evaluates the physical meaning of proposed energy functions

Cardiovascular Calcification and Bone Mineralization

Cardiovascular Calcification and Bone Mineralization Book
Author : Elena Aikawa,Joshua D. Hutcheson
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-07-01
ISBN : 3030467252
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book covers the basic science and clinical aspects of cardiovascular calcification and bone mineralization. Cardiovascular calcification is the leading predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, with a predictive value more significant than blood lipid levels. The presence of calcific mineral in cardiovascular tissues alters biomechanical performance, increasing workload on the heart and potentiating atherosclerotic plaque rupture and subsequent heart attack and stroke. This book examines the role of calcification in cardiovascular disease covering topics such as calcification in the atherosclerotic plaques and aortic valves arteries and valves, aortic valve replacement, peripheral artery disease, imaging of early calcification and target discovery. In addition, various forms of ectopic calcification as well as mechanisms of bone mineralization are discussed. Cardiovascular Calcification and Bone Mineralization is an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and other medical professionals in cardiology, pathology, and biomedical engineering.

Computational Biomechanics for Medicine

Computational Biomechanics for Medicine Book
Author : Adam Wittek,Grand Joldes,Poul M.F. Nielsen,Barry J. Doyle,Karol Miller
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-04-29
ISBN : 3319544810
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume comprises the latest developments in both fundamental science and patient-specific applications, discussing topics such as: cellular mechanics; injury biomechanics; biomechanics of heart and vascular system; medical image analysis; and both patient-specific fluid dynamics and solid mechanics simulations. With contributions from researchers world-wide, the Computational Biomechanics for Medicine series of titles provides an opportunity for specialists in computational biomechanics to present their latest methodologies and advancements.

Biomechanics Trends in Modeling and Simulation

Biomechanics  Trends in Modeling and Simulation Book
Author : Gerhard A. Holzapfel,Ray W. Ogden
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-09-14
ISBN : 3319414755
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book presents a state-of-the-art overview of biomechanical and mechanobiological modeling and simulation of soft biological tissues. Seven well-known scientists working in that particular field discuss topics such as biomolecules, networks and cells as well as failure, multi-scale, agent-based, bio-chemo-mechanical and finite element models appropriate for computational analysis. Applications include arteries, the heart, vascular stents and valve implants as well as adipose, brain, collagenous and engineered tissues. The mechanics of the whole cell and sub-cellular components as well as the extracellular matrix structure and mechanotransduction are described. In particular, the formation and remodeling of stress fibers, cytoskeletal contractility, cell adhesion and the mechanical regulation of fibroblast migration in healing myocardial infarcts are discussed. The essential ingredients of continuum mechanics are provided. Constitutive models of fiber-reinforced materials with an emphasis on arterial walls and the myocardium are discussed and the important influence of residual stresses on material response emphasized. The mechanics and function of the heart, the brain and adipose tissues are discussed as well. Particular attention is focused on microstructural and multi-scale modeling, finite element implementation and simulation of cells and tissues.

Multiscale Modeling in Biomechanics and Mechanobiology

Multiscale Modeling in Biomechanics and Mechanobiology Book
Author : Suvranu De,Wonmuk Hwang,Ellen Kuhl
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-10-10
ISBN : 1447165993
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Presenting a state-of-the-art overview of theoretical and computational models that link characteristic biomechanical phenomena, this book provides guidelines and examples for creating multiscale models in representative systems and organisms. It develops the reader's understanding of and intuition for multiscale phenomena in biomechanics and mechanobiology, and introduces a mathematical framework and computational techniques paramount to creating predictive multiscale models. Biomechanics involves the study of the interactions of physical forces with biological systems at all scales – including molecular, cellular, tissue and organ scales. The emerging field of mechanobiology focuses on the way that cells produce and respond to mechanical forces – bridging the science of mechanics with the disciplines of genetics and molecular biology. Linking disparate spatial and temporal scales using computational techniques is emerging as a key concept in investigating some of the complex problems underlying these disciplines. Providing an invaluable field manual for graduate students and researchers of theoretical and computational modelling in biology, this book is also intended for readers interested in biomedical engineering, applied mechanics and mathematical biology.

Multi Modality Atherosclerosis Imaging and Diagnosis

Multi Modality Atherosclerosis Imaging and Diagnosis Book
Author : Luca Saba,João Miguel Sanches,Luís Mendes Pedro,Jasjit S. Suri
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-09-13
ISBN : 1461474256
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the world, resulting mostly from the sudden ruptures of atherosclerosis carotid plaques. Understanding why and how plaque develops and ruptures requires a multi-disciplinary approach such as radiology, biomedical engineering, medical physics, software engineering, hardware engineering, pathological and histological imaging. Multi-Modality Atherosclerosis Imaging, Diagnosis and Treatment presents a new dimension of understanding Atherosclerosis in 2D and 3D. This book presents work on plaque stress analysis in order to provide a general framework of computational modeling with atherosclerosis plaques. New algorithms based on 3D and 4D Ultrasound are presented to assess the atherosclerotic disease as well as very recent advances in plaque multimodality image fusion analysis. The goal of Multi-Modality Atherosclerosis Imaging, Diagnosis and Treatment is to fuse information obtained from different 3D medical image modalities, such as 3D US, CT and MRI, providing the medical doctor with some sort of augmented reality information about the atherosclerotic plaque in order to improve the accuracy of the diagnosis. Analysis of the plaque dynamics along the cardiac cycle is also a valuable indicator for plaque instability assessment and therefore for risk stratification. 4D Ultrasound, a sequence of 3D reconstructions of the region of interest along the time, can be used for this dynamic analysis. Multimodality Image Fusion is a very appealing approach because it puts together the best characteristics of each modality, such as, the high temporal resolution of US and the high spatial resolutions of MRI and CT.

Atherosclerosis Disease Management

Atherosclerosis Disease Management Book
Author : Jasjit S. Suri,Chirinjeev Kathuria,Filippo Molinari
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-11-16
ISBN : 1441972226
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Atherosclerosis is a degenerative process affecting blood vessels, which determines narrowing of the lumen, plaque growth, and hardening of the walls. It is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The focus of this book is on the management of the atherosclerotic disease. The coverage of this book spans from histological presentation of the various stages of atherosclerotic lesions to the earliest studies in atherosclerosis therapy, from advanced clinical diagnosis to monitoring, follow-up, and home-care of the atherosclerotic patient. The book shows well-established diagnostic techniques covering several medical imaging modalities such as Ultrasounds, IVUS, MRI, Computer Tomography, along with new trends in early and advanced atherosclerosis diagnosis (innovative drugs and tissue characterization procedures). Surgical standards will be presented along with innovative experimental trials for the treatment of the atherosclerotic patient. The book will also cover emerging techniques based on molecular imaging and vibro-acoustics.

Atherosclerotic Plaque Characterization Methods Based on Coronary Imaging

Atherosclerotic Plaque Characterization Methods Based on Coronary Imaging Book
Author : Lambros S Athanasiou,Dimitrios I Fotiadis,Lampros K Michalis
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-05-04
ISBN : 0128051132
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Atherosclerotic Plaque Characterization Methods Based on Coronary Imaging provides a complete review of computer methods for atherosclerotic plaque reconstruction and characterization. The authors, with their expertise from biomedical engineering, computer science, and cardiology, offer a holistic view. The focus of the book is on the presentation of major imaging techniques, including their limitations. It includes details on the mechanical characterization and properties of plaques and appropriate constitutive models to describe the mechanical behavior of plaques. The authors explore the challenges of using multiple coronary imaging technologies, and provide the pros and cons of invasive vs. non-invasive techniques. Methods for plaque characterization and 3D reconstruction of coronary arteries using IVUS, OCT, and CT images are described. This book will help readers study new trends in image processing analysis and plaque characterization, implement automated plaque characterization methodologies, understand coronary imaging drawbacks, and comprehend 3 dimensional coronary artery and plaque reconstruction methods. Describes the multimodality imaging techniques that are commonly used in the diagnosis of arterial diseases, including intravascular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, angiography, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography Discusses in-depth the computational methods which can be used for the detection of different plaque types Explores plaque in 3D reconstruction methods and plaque modeling approaches

Biomechanical Modelling at the Molecular Cellular and Tissue Levels

Biomechanical Modelling at the Molecular  Cellular and Tissue Levels Book
Author : Gerhard A. Holzapfel,Ray W. Ogden
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-06-05
ISBN : 3211958754
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

J.D. Humphrey: Need for a Continuum Biochemomechanical Theory of Soft Tissue and Cellular Growth and Remodeling H. Schmid and P.J. Hunter: Multi-scale Modelling of the Heart R.W. Ogden: Anisotropy and Nonlinear Elasticity in Arterial Wall Mechanics G.A. Holzapfel: Arterial Tissue in Health and Disease: Experimental Data, Collagen-based Modeling and Simulation, Including Aortic Dissection.

Advanced HPC based Computational Modeling in Biomechanics and Systems Biology

Advanced HPC based Computational Modeling in Biomechanics and Systems Biology Book
Author : Mariano Vázquez,Peter V. Coveney,Hernan Edgardo Grecco,Alfons Hoekstra,Bastien Chopard
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-04-04
ISBN : 2889458172
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Advanced HPC based Computational Modeling in Biomechanics and Systems Biology book written by Mariano Vázquez,Peter V. Coveney,Hernan Edgardo Grecco,Alfons Hoekstra,Bastien Chopard, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of Aneurysms

Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of Aneurysms Book
Author : Tim McGloughlin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-09-15
ISBN : 3642180957
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and premature death of modern era medicine. It is estimated that approximately 81 million people in the United States (US) currently have one or more of the many forms of cardiovascular disease, resulting in 1 in every 2.8 deaths, or 900,000 deaths per year. 40% of all deaths in Europe are a result of cardiovascular disease in people under the age of 75. Aneurysms form a significant portion of these cardiovascular related deaths and are defined as a permanent and irreversible localised dilation of a blood vessel greater than 50% of its normal diameter. Although aneurysms can form in any blood vessel, the more lethal aneurysms develop in the cranial arteries, and in the thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta. Frequently aneurysms are undetected and if left untreated may eventually expand until rupture with very high levels of morbidity and mortality. The biomechanics and mechanobiology of aneursymal diseases are not fully understood and this monograph aims to provide new insights into aneurysm aetiology and behavior based on the most recent biomechanics research related to this important topic. The contributors to this volume bring together a unique blend of expertise in experimental, computational and tissue biomechanics relating to aneurysm behavior and enable the reader to gain a fresh understanding of key factors influencing aneurysm behavior and treatment. Biological risk factors such as tobacco smoking, sex, age, hypertension, family history and mechanobiological risk factors such as aneurysm geometry and shape as well as mechanical properties of the diseased tissues are considered in detail as are many of the diagnostic and treatment options.

Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary Artery Disease Book
Author : Dimitris Tousoulis
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-10-13
ISBN : 0128119373
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Coronary Artery Disease: From Biology to Clinical Practice links the most important basic concepts of atherosclerosis pathophysiology to treatment management of coronary artery disease. Comprehensive coverage starts with the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms of the disease, including molecular and genetic mechanisms, cells interaction and inflammation. In addition, sections on novel anti-atherosclerotic therapies and a thorough understanding of the recent trends in clinical management round out this comprehensive tome that is ideal for practitioners and researchers. By summarizing this novel knowledge and changes in diagnostic algorithm and treatment options, this is the perfect reference for cardiology researchers who want a volume with the most up-to-date experimental trends in the field of atherosclerosis, for cardiologists and physicians who manage patients with atherosclerotic risk factors and established coronary artery disease, and medical students who want to learn the basic concepts of atherosclerosis. Delivers a comprehensive connection between basic pathophysiologic mechanisms and the clinical context of coronary artery disease Provides a focus on the most important novel evidence in the management of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease Includes sum-up tables at the end of each chapter and clinical scenarios that focus on diagnosis and treatment Conveys an understanding of upcoming, novel, experimental and clinical treatments

Biomechanics in the Heart and Bone

Biomechanics in the Heart and Bone Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Stanford University
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This dissertation investigated the role of biomechanics in two physiological systems, the heart and bone. Biomechanics motivates the study and characterization of how cells sense external forces and convert these signals into an intracellular response in a process called mechanotransduction. Three independent studies were designed with the goal of applying mechanical forces that mimic the in vivo microenvironment of either the heart or bone. The aim of these studies was to better under the mechanisms driving cellular processes, including cardiac myocyte differentiation and osteoblast mechanotransduction. The first study presents the design and implementation of tissue engineering approach to stem cell-based myocardial therapy. Three dimensional engineered heart tissue was formed by suspending human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes isolated from beating embryoid bodies in a soluble extracellular matrix, and an in vitro mechanical conditioning regimen was applied at physiological levels of myocardial strain. The viability of the engineered stem cell tissue was monitored in vitro and in vivo for up to 8 weeks using molecular imaging of reporter gene activity. The application of cyclic mechanical strain in vitro resulted in cellular alignment along the axis of strain and an elongated cellular morphology with a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, typical of neonatal cardiac myocytes, as well as increased expression of cardiac troponin I, in comparison to static controls. Analysis of the in vitro and in vivo bioluminescence imaging data demonstrated the viability of engineered heart tissue constructs; however, histology results showed immature cells within the implanted constructs, suggesting an inability of the stem cell-derived cardiac precursors to maintain a cardiac phenotype in vivo, as well the inherent inefficiency of the beating embryoid body method to identify and isolate cardiac myocyte precursors. The functional shortcomings exhibited by the embryoid body-based differentiation of embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes in the first study motivated further refinement of cardiac myocyte differentiation techniques. Therefore, the second study executed the design and fabrication of a microelectromechanical platform to study the role of electrical and mechanical stimulation in cardiac myocyte differentiation. The fabrication process used a combination of soft lithography and traditional microfabrication techniques to pattern thin film metal electrodes on an elastomeric polymer membrane. The completed device enabled coupled characterization and imaging of cardiac myocytes precursors, and the ability to assess the range of mechanical forces, up to 10% equibiaxial strain, that may induce or maintain a cardiac fate. Electrical continuity was demonstrated under static conditions but not under strain, and improvements in metal deposition and adhesion could address this performance defect. Beating clusters containing human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes were plated on fabricated membranes, uncoated and coated with Matrigel, and cell viability was monitored using contrast microscopy. The third study transitioned to a different mechanical model of physiological forces, which was the application of oscillatory fluid flow-mediated fluid shear stress generated by the loading and unloading of bone. Specifically, the role of focal adhesion kinase, a protein tyrosine kinase recruited at focal adhesions and a major mediator of integrin signaling pathways, was studied in osteoblast mechanotransduction. The biochemical and transcriptional response of focal adhesion kinase mutant osteoblasts to physiological levels of shear stress induced by oscillatory fluid flow was impaired as measured by prostaglandin E2 release and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression. Restoration of focal adhesion kinase expression with site-specific mutations at two tyrosine phosphorylation sites demonstrated that phosphorylation events play a

The Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque

The Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque Book
Author : Renu Virmani,Jagat Narula,Martin B. Leon,James T. Willerson
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2008-04-15
ISBN : 0470987332
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Finally, a convenient, one-volume summary of current knowledge on an area of increasing importance! The Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque presents contributions from the best investigators in the field, skillfully edited for easy reading and lavishly illustrated with high-quality, full-color images. After a considered and concise introduction, the book concentrates on: Pathology of vulnerable plaque Triggers for plaque rupture Imaging of unstable plaque Management of vulnerable plaques Careful editing allows the authors to avoid repetition and provide comprehensive coverage of pathology, detection, and management. This thorough and authoritative reference will change the way interventionists look at the disease.

Computational Modeling in Biomechanics

Computational Modeling in Biomechanics Book
Author : Suvranu De,Farshid Guilak,Mohammad Mofrad
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-03-10
ISBN : 9789048135752
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Availability of advanced computational technology has fundamentally altered the investigative paradigm in the field of biomechanics. Armed with sophisticated computational tools, researchers are seeking answers to fundamental questions by exploring complex biomechanical phenomena at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organ levels. The computational armamentarium includes such diverse tools as the ab initio quantum mechanical and molecular dynamics methods at the atomistic scales and the finite element, boundary element, meshfree as well as immersed boundary and lattice-Boltzmann methods at the continuum scales. Multiscale methods that link various scales are also being developed. While most applications require forward analysis, e.g., finding deformations and stresses as a result of loading, others involve determination of constitutive parameters based on tissue imaging and inverse analysis. This book provides a glimpse of the diverse and important roles that modern computational technology is playing in various areas of biomechanics including biofluids and mass transfer, cardiovascular mechanics, musculoskeletal mechanics, soft tissue mechanics, and biomolecular mechanics.

Intravascular Ultrasound

Intravascular Ultrasound Book
Author : Balocco Simone
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-06-06
ISBN : 0128188340
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Intravascular Ultrasound: From Acquisition to Advanced Quantitative Analysis covers topics of the whole imaging pipeline, ranging from the definition of the clinical problem and image acquisition systems to image processing and analysis, including the assisted clinical-decision making procedures and treatment planning (stent deployment and follow up). Atherosclerosis, a disease of the vessel wall that produces vessel narrowing and obstruction, is the major cause of cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack or stroke. This book covers all aspects of this imaging tool that allows for the visualization of internal vessel structures and the quantification and characterization of coronary plaque. Provides an introduction to the clinical workflow and current challenges in endovascular interventions Presents a review of the state-of-the-art methodologies in IVUS imaging and their applications Includes a rich analysis of the current and potential future connections between the academic, clinical and industrial fields