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Biomaterials For Skin Repair And Regeneration

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Biomaterials for Skin Repair and Regeneration

Biomaterials for Skin Repair and Regeneration Book
Author : Elena Garcia-Gareta
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2019-06-05
ISBN : 0081025475
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomaterials for Skin Repair and Regeneration examines a range of materials and technologies used for regenerating or repairing skin. With a strong focus on biomaterials and scaffolds, the book also examines the testing and evaluation pathway for human clinical trials. Beginning by introducing the fundamentals on skin tissue, the book goes on to describe contemporary technology used in skin repair as well as currently available biomaterials suitable for skin tissue repair and regeneration. Skin tissue engineering and the ideal requirements to take into account when developing skin biomaterials are discussed, followed by information on the individual materials used for skin repair and regeneration. As evaluation of biomaterials in animal models is mandatory before proceeding into human clinical trials, the book also examines the different animal models available. With a strong focus on materials, engineering, and application, this book is a valuable resource for materials scientists, skin biologists, and bioengineers with an interest in tissue engineering, regeneration, and repair of skin. Provides an understanding of basic skin biology Comprehensively examines a variety of biomaterial approaches Looks at animal models for the evaluation of biomaterial-based skin constructs

Skin Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Skin Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Book
Author : Mohammad Albanna,James H Holmes IV
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-01-14
ISBN : 012801797X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The skin is the largest human organ system. Loss of skin integrity due to injury or illness results in a substantial physiologic imbalance and ultimately in severe disability or death. From burn victims to surgical scars and plastic surgery, the therapies resulting from skin tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are important to a broad spectrum of patients. Skin Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine provides a translational link for biomedical researchers across fields to understand the inter-disciplinary approaches which expanded available therapies for patients and additional research collaboration. This work expands on the primary literature on the state of the art of cell therapies and biomaterials to review the most widely used surgical therapies for the specific clinical scenarios. Explores cellular and molecular processes of wound healing, scar formation, and dermal repair Includes examples of animal models for wound healing and translation to the clinical world Presents the current state of, and clinical opportunities for, extracellular matrices, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials, biologic skin substitutes, and adult and fetal stem and skin cells for skin regenerative therapies and wound management Discusses new innovative approaches for wound healing including skin bioprinting and directed cellular therapies

Biomaterials for Treating Skin Loss

Biomaterials for Treating Skin Loss Book
Author : D P Orgill,C Blanco
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2009-01-28
ISBN : 1845695542
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The primary causes of wounds requiring skin replacement are severe burns and ulcers. Materials must provide an effective temporary barrier, promote healing and minimise scarring. Massive improvements have been made to skin repair biomaterials in the last ten years with widespread adoption of new developments in the medical sector. This book provides a comprehensive review of the range of biomaterials for treating skin loss. Part one discusses the basics of skin replacement with chapters on such topics as markets and regulation, biomechanics and the biological environment of skin. Part two then reviews epidermal and dermal replacement technology with chapters on such topics as alternative delivery of keratinocytes, collagen-based and human origin-based dermal replacement, and lyophilized xenogenic products. The final section explores combined dermis and epidermal replacement technologies and provides a round-up of skin replacement principles. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Biomaterials for treating skin loss is a standard reference for those researching skin replacement technologies, particularly those interested in treating burns and ulcers. Comprehensively reviews the range of biomaterials for treating skin loss and skin replacement principles Examines the basis of skin loss from products and markets through to regulation and the biological environment of skin Highlights developments in epidermal and dermal replacement technology covering topics such as collagen-based and human origin-based dermal replacement

Wound Healing Biomaterials Volume 1

Wound Healing Biomaterials   Volume 1 Book
Author : Magnus Ågren
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2016-06-03
ISBN : 0081006055
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Wound Healing Biomaterials: Volume One, Therapies and Regeneration discusses the types of wounds associated with trauma, illness, or surgery that can sometimes be extremely complex and difficult to heal. Consequently, there is a prominent drive for scientists and clinicians to find methods to heal these types of wounds, with science increasingly turning towards biomaterials to address these challenges. Much research is now concerned with new therapies, regeneration methods, and biomaterials to assist in wound healing and healing response. This book provides readers with a comprehensive review of the fundamentals and advances in the field of wound healing with regard to therapies and tissue regeneration. Chapters in Part One discuss fundamentals and strategies of wound healing, while Part Two reviews gene, stem cell, and drug delivery therapies for wound healing. Final chapters look at tissue regeneration strategies, making this an all-encompassing book on the topic of wound care and biomaterials. Provides more systematic and comprehensive coverage of specific therapies and biomaterials for wound healing Highlights research that is concerned with new therapies, regeneration methods, and the use of biomaterials to assist in wound healing and healing response Presents an organized layout of the material that is carefully arranged with clear titles and comprehensive section headings Looks at tissue regeneration strategies, making this an all encompassing book on the topic of wound care

Electrospinning for Tissue Regeneration

Electrospinning for Tissue Regeneration Book
Author : L Bosworth,S Downes
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-06-21
ISBN : 085709291X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Electrospinning is a simple and highly versatile method for generating ultrathin fibres with diameters ranging from a few micrometres to tens of nanometres. Although most commonly associated with textile manufacturing, recent research has proved that the electrospinning technology can be used to create organ components and repair damaged tissues. Electrospinning for tissue regeneration provides a comprehensive overview of this innovative approach to tissue repair and regeneration and examines how it is being employed within the biomaterials sector. The book opens with an introduction to the fundamentals of electrospinning. Chapters go on to discuss polymer chemistry, the electrospinning process, conditions, control and regulatory issues. Part two focuses specifically on electrospinning for tissue regeneration and investigates its uses in bone, cartilage, muscle, tendon, nerve, heart valve, bladder, tracheal, dental and skin tissue regeneration before concluding with a chapter on wound dressings. Part three explores electrospinning for in vitro applications. Chapters discuss cell culture systems for kidney, pancreatic and stem cell research. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Electrospinning for tissue regeneration is a valuable reference tool for those in academia and industry concerned with research and development in the field of tissue repair and regeneration. Provides a comprehensive overview of this innovative approach to tissue repair and regeneration covering issues from polymer chemistry to the regulatory process Examines employment within the biomaterials sector, reviewing extensive applications in areas such as uses in bone, muscle tendon, heart valve and tissue regeneration Explores electrospinning for in vitro applications and discusses cell culture systems for kidney, pancreatic and stem cell research

Nanoengineered Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine

Nanoengineered Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Book
Author : Masoud Mozafari,Jayakumar Rajadas,David Kaplan
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-09-17
ISBN : 0128133562
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanoengineered Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine showcases the advances that have taken place in recent years as an increasing number of nanoengineered biomaterials have been targeted to various organ tissues. The book systematically explores how nanoengineered biomaterials are used in different aspects of regenerative medicine, including bone regeneration, brain tissue reconstruction and kidney repair. It is a valuable reference resource for scientists working in biomaterials science who want to learn more about how nanoengineered materials are practically applied in regenerative medicine. Nanoengineered biomaterials have gained particular focus due to their many advantages over conventional techniques for tissue repair. As a wide range of biomaterials and nanotechnology techniques have been examined for the regeneration of tissues, this book highlights the discussions and advancements made. Provides a digestible reference source for surgeons and physicians who want to learn more on nanoengineered biomaterials and their use in effective medical treatments Offers systematic coverage on how nanoengineered biomaterials are used for different types of medicine Assesses the benefits and drawbacks of the use of bioengineered nanomaterials in different areas of regenerative medicine

Wound Healing Tissue Repair and Regeneration in Diabetes

Wound Healing  Tissue Repair and Regeneration in Diabetes Book
Author : Debasis Bagchi,Amitava Das,Sashwati Roy
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-05
ISBN : 0128164131
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Wound Healing, Tissue Repair and Regeneration in Diabetes explores a wide range of topics related to wound healing, tissue repair and regeneration, putting a special focus on diabetes and obesity. The book addresses the molecular and cellular pathways involved in the process of wound repair and regeneration. Other sections explore a wide spectrum of nutritional supplements and novel therapeutic approaches, provide a comprehensive overview, present various types of clinical aspects related to diabetic wounds, including infection, neuropathy, and vasculopathy, provide an exhaustive review of various foods, minerals, supplements and phytochemicals that have been proven beneficial, and assess future directions. This book is sure to be a welcome resource for nutritionists, practitioners, surgeons, nurses, wound researchers and other health professionals.

Biomaterials in Regenerative Medicine

Biomaterials in Regenerative Medicine Book
Author : Leszek A. Dobrzański
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2018-02-14
ISBN : 953513776X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book Biomaterials in Regenerative Medicine is addressed to the engineers and mainly medical practitioners as well as scientists and PhD degree students. The book indicates the progress in research and in the implementation of the ever-new biomaterials for the application of the advanced types of prosthesis, implants, scaffolds and implant-scaffolds including personalised ones. The book presents a theoretical approach to the synergy of technical, biological and medical sciences concerning materials and technologies used for medical and dental implantable devices and on metallic biomaterials. The essential contents of the book are 16 case studies provided in each of the chapters, comprehensively describing the authors' accomplishments of numerous teams from different countries across the world in advanced research areas relating to the biomaterials applied in regenerative medicine and dentistry. The detailed information collected in the book, mainly deriving from own and original research and R

Wound Healing Biomaterials Volume 2

Wound Healing Biomaterials   Volume 2 Book
Author : Magnus Ågren
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2016-05-30
ISBN : 0081006063
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Wound Healing Biomaterials: Volume Two, Functional Biomaterials discusses the types of wounds associated with trauma, illness, or surgery that can sometimes be extremely complex and difficult to heal. Consequently, there is a prominent drive for scientists and clinicians to find methods to heal wounds opening up a new area of research in biomaterials and the ways they can be applied to the challenges associated with wound care. Much research is now concerned with new therapies, regeneration methods, and the use of biomaterials that can assist in wound healing and alter healing responses. This book provides readers with a thorough review of the functional biomaterials used for wound healing, with chapters discussing the fundamentals of wound healing biomaterials, films for wound healing applications, polymer-based dressing for wound healing applications, and functional dressings for wound care. Includes more systematic and comprehensive coverage on the topic of wound care Provides thorough coverage of all specific therapies and biomaterials for wound healing Contains clear layout and organization that is carefully arranged with clear titles and comprehensive section headings Details specific sections on the fundamentals of wound healing biomaterials, films for wound healing applications, polymer-based dressing for wound healing applications, and more

Therapeutic Dressings and Wound Healing Applications

Therapeutic Dressings and Wound Healing Applications Book
Author : Joshua Boateng
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-03-09
ISBN : 1119433266
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The latest research on techniques for effective healing of chronic and difficult to heal wounds The healing of chronic wounds is a global medical concern, specifically for patients suffering from obesity and type II diabetes. Therapeutic Dressing and Wound Healing Applications is an essential text for research labs, industry professionals, and general clinical practitioners that want to make the shift towards advanced therapeutic dressing and groundbreaking wound application for better healing. This book takes a clinical and scientific approach to wound healing, and includes recent case studies to highlight key points and areas of improvement. It is divided into two key sections that include insight into the biochemical basis of wounds, as well as techniques and recent advancements. Chapters include information on: ● Debridement and disinfection properties of wound dressing ● Biofilms, silver nanoparticles, and honey dressings ● Clinical perspectives for treating diabetic wounds ● Treating mixed infections ● Wound healing and tissue regeneration treatments ● Gene based therapy, 3D bioprinting and freeze-dried wafers Anyone looking to update and improve the treatment of chronic wounds for patients will find the latest pertinent information in Therapeutic Dressing and Wound Healing Applications.

Biomaterials for Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis

Biomaterials for Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis Book
Author : Saeid Kargozar,Masoud Mozafari
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2022-06-01
ISBN : 0128218681
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomaterials for Angiogenesis and Vasculogenesis covers the application of materials designed to encourage new blood vessel formation. Angiogenesis and vasculogenesis play an important role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine research by promoting vascular networks inside engineered tissues and thereby increasing tissue healing and regeneration. However, researchers are faced with the challenge of finding suitable materials for improving angiogenesis and vascular formation in assays. This book reviews a broad range of biomaterials for the promotion of blood vessel genesis, from polymers and bioactive glass, to nanomaterial scaffolds and 3D angiogenic constructs. In addition, the book covers a variety of applications for biomaterials in tissue repair and regeneration, including cardiovascular regeneration, liver tissue engineering and much more. It will serve as a detailed reference for researchers in academia and industry, working in the fields of biomedical science and engineering, materials science, regenerative medicine and translational medicine. Introduces readers to the molecular and cellular basis of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis Helps researchers find suitable biomaterials to promote angiogenesis in engineered tissues and assays Describes a range of biomaterials and their properties, including glass-ceramics, nano-carriers, polymers, and more

Biomimetic biomaterials

Biomimetic biomaterials Book
Author : E. Boughton,S.V. Mclennan
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-30
ISBN : 0128088133
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Scaffolds are increasingly being used to repair skin lesions, in particular in acute conditions such as burns. Their use in the repair of chronic wounds is less well established, but they offer a potential solution to this debilitating condition. The biomimetic approach of mimicking the structure and function of the dermis via design of scaffolds for soft tissue repair marks a shift from the traditional approach of simple replacement of tissue and has potential to improve healing in chronic wounds. This chapter will focus on a review of the scaffolds currently used for skin repair and examine their utility for repair of chronic wounds.

Scar Management ECAB

Scar Management   ECAB Book
Author : Niti Khunger,Anil Ganjoo
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2013-07-12
ISBN : 8131231712
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A number of scar revision techniques can be utilized to treat specific types of scars, in combination with each other or with adjunctive therapies to achieve optimal results. Pathological conditions like hypertrophic scars and keloids are still challenging. Though a number of therapies exist to treat keloids, such as intralesional steroids and anti-metabolites, cryosurgery, to name a few, none are definitive in treatment. Understanding the molecular basis of keloids may lead to development of new therapies. Striae, also known as ‘stretch marks’, are extremely common, disfiguring and a real challenge to treat. Management of striae is a neglected field of research. Except for topical retinoids, the efficacy satisfactorily. Current treatment options include chemical peels, lasers and collagen induction therapy, with a tendency towards active intervention. However, studies are necessary to determine treatment strategies which produce results that are effective with minimal adverse effects. Post-acne scarring is one of the most common causes of facial scars, causing considerable cosmetic disability. Acne is a common skin disorder, unfortunately affecting a large number of teenagers. Usually patients have a combination of different types of scars; hence no single modality is useful. A combination of procedures is generally required for a satisfactory cosmetic outcome. The use of fractional lasers is gaining importance, as it is a minimally invasive procedure as compared to aggressive resurfacing procedures of the past. Collagen induction therapy is another promising technique. Today, patients are also getting up-to-date information about the various modalities available for scar treatment through media, such as magazines, advertisements and internet. However, exaggerated advertisements and information from nonprofessional sources, particularly with regard to lasers can influence patient expectations and result in unrealistic expectations. Patients need to understand that deep scars cannot be eliminated fully and can only be improved. They usually have high expectations from procedural techniques. Proper counseling is extremely important for a happy and satisfactory outcome. Current innovations and techniques in scar prevention and management and increasing use of minimally invasive surgeries are paving the way toward smoother, less noticeable scars. Every surgeon practicing aesthetics should be well versed with modalities of scar management and this is the aim of this clinical update.

Tissue Engineering Using Ceramics and Polymers

Tissue Engineering Using Ceramics and Polymers Book
Author : Aldo R. Boccaccini,J Gough
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2007-10-31
ISBN : 1845693817
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Technology and research in the field of tissue engineering has drastically increased within the last few years to the extent that almost every tissue and organ of the human body could potentially be regenerated. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Tissue Engineering using Ceramics and Polymers reviews the latest research and advances in this thriving area and how they can be used to develop treatments for disease states. Part one discusses general issues such as ceramic and polymeric biomaterials, scaffolds, transplantation of engineered cells, surface modification and drug delivery. Later chapters review characterisation using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry as well as environmental scanning electron microscopy and Raman micro-spectroscopy. Chapters in part two analyse bone regeneration and specific types of tissue engineering and repair such as cardiac, intervertebral disc, skin, kidney and bladder tissue. The book concludes with the coverage of themes such as nerve bioengineering and the micromechanics of hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials and tissue scaffolds. Tissue Engineering using Ceramics and Polymers is an innovative reference for professionals and academics involved in the field of tissue engineering. An innovative and up-to-date reference for professionals and academics Environmental scanning electron microscopy is discussed Analyses bone regeneration and specific types of tisue engineering

Natural Polymers in Wound Healing and Repair

Natural Polymers in Wound Healing and Repair Book
Author : Mahesh K. Sah,Naresh Kasoju,Joao F. Mano
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2022-07-01
ISBN : 0323905153
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Natural Polymers in Wound Healing and Repair: From Basic Concepts to Emerging Trends presents comprehensive coverage on the development and application of natural polymers in wound healing and repair, including fundamental concepts, traditional approaches, cutting-edge methods and emerging trends. The application of natural polymers has evolved from their use in the simplest wound management material, to drug eluting matrices, to cell-laden constructs, and to 3D bio-printed skin equivalents. This book reflects the remarkable progress that has been made in recent years in this innovative field. This is an essential resource for researchers, scientists, and advanced students across polymer science, biomaterials, bio-based and sustainable materials, biomedicine, biomedical engineering, pharmaceuticals, and materials science and engineering. It will also be valuable to R&D professionals, scientists, technologists and all those working in a medical setting who are interested in the latest developments in advanced materials for wound management, healing and repair. Provides up-to-date coverage of natural polymer-based biomaterials in wound healing and repair, covering sources, processing and properties Describes cellular and molecular events in wound healing Introduces conventional and advanced methodologies for wound management Offers a comprehensive understanding of state-of-the-art and emerging concepts in wound healing, including drug-eluting matrices, cell-laden systems and personalized bio-fabrication strategies

Silk Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Silk Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Book
Author : Subhas Kundu
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-03-24
ISBN : 0857097067
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Silk is increasingly being used as a biomaterial for tissue engineering applications, as well as sutures, due to its unique mechanical and chemical properties. Silk Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine discusses the properties of silk that make it useful for medical purposes and its applications in this area. Part one introduces silk biomaterials, discussing their fundamentals and how they are processed, and considering different types of silk biomaterials. Part two focuses on the properties and behavior of silk biomaterials and the implications of this for their applications in biomedicine. These chapters focus on topics including biodegradation, bio-response to silk sericin, and capillary growth behavior in porous silk films. Finally, part three discusses the applications of silk biomaterials for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and biomedicine, with chapters on the use of silk biomaterials for vertebral, dental, dermal, and cardiac tissue engineering. Silk Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine is an important resource for materials and tissue engineering scientists, R&D departments in industry and academia, and academics with an interest in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering. Discusses the properties and applications of silk for medical purposes Considers pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical applications

In Situ Tissue Regeneration

In Situ Tissue Regeneration Book
Author : Sang Jin Lee,Anthony Atala,James J Yoo
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-07-17
ISBN : 012802500X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In Situ Tissue Regeneration: Host Cell Recruitment and Biomaterial Design explores the body’s ability to mobilize endogenous stem cells to the site of injury and details the latest strategies developed for inducing and supporting the body’s own regenerating capacity. From the perspective of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, this book describes the mechanism of host cell recruitment, cell sourcing, cellular and molecular roles in cell differentiation, navigational cues and niche signals, and a tissue-specific smart biomaterial system that can be applied to a wide range of therapies. The work is divided into four sections to provide a thorough overview and helpful hints for future discoveries: endogenous cell sources; biochemical and physical cues; smart biomaterial development; and applications. Explores the body’s ability to mobilize endogenous stem cells to the site of injury Details the latest strategies developed for inducing and supporting the body’s own regenerating capacity Presents smart biomaterials in cell-based tissue engineering applications—from the cell level to applications—in the first unified volume Features chapter authors and editors who are authorities in this emerging field Prioritizes a discussion of the future direction of smart biomaterials for in situ tissue regeneration, which will affect an emerging and lucrative industry

Strategies in Regenerative Medicine

Strategies in Regenerative Medicine Book
Author : Matteo Santin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-02-28
ISBN : 0387746609
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The profound transformations occurred in our modern age have been made possible by the unique combination of new technologies. Among them, me- cine has completely changed our perception of life. Longevity has been signi- cantly extended and linked to new lifestyles. The negative impact that pathologies and ageing have always had on the quality of our life is now mitigated by the availability of treatments daily applied to many individuals worldwide. For many years, pharmacological and surgical treatments have been supported by the introduction of biomedical devices. Biomedical implants have played a key role in the development of these treatments and achieved the objective of replacing tissue and organ structures and functionalities. Gra- ally, the scientific and clinical communities have understood that replacement could be improved by materials able to interact with the tissues and to parti- pate in their metabolism and functions. This approach soon led to biomedical implants with improved clinical performances, but also to a new aspiration; rather than replacing damaged tissues and organs scientists and clinicians nowadays aim at their partial or complete regeneration. As a consequence of this ambition, the disciplines of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have recently emerged. It is the dawn of a fascinating era where scientists from various disciplines, clinicians, and industry will need to intensify their col- borative efforts to provide our society with new and affordable solutions.

Biomaterials for Stem Cell Therapy

Biomaterials for Stem Cell Therapy Book
Author : Loredana De Bartolo,Augustinus Bader
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2013-01-28
ISBN : 1466576391
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Focused on stem cell applications, this book bridges the fields of biomaterials, offering new insights into constructing and regenerating tissues and organs. Its unique feature is linking diseases of the human body to current thinking on how to deal with them in the context of current concepts and technologies by means of an in-depth focus on biomaterials. The book assembles recent advances and covers a range of topics related to stem cell biology, biomaterials and technological approaches such as bioreactors written by top researchers in the field. Stem cells of both embryonic and adult origin are discussed with applications ranging, but not limited to, nerve regeneration, liver, pancreas, skin, trachea, cartilage and bone repair and cardiovascular therapy. Developments in the field reflecting the design and construction of the human body and its principal anatomy are discussed from a materials point of view. The book will be a valuable tool for biomaterial scientists, tissue engineers, clinicians as well as stem cell biologists involved in basic research and applications of adult and embryonic stem cells. It will also be a source of reference for students in biotechnology, biomedical engineering, biology, biochemistry, materials sciences, pharmaceuticals, and veterinary and human medicine.