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Biomaterials For 3d Tumor Modeling

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Biomaterials for 3D Tumor Modeling

Biomaterials for 3D Tumor Modeling Book
Author : Subhas Kundu,Rui L. Reis
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-08-22
ISBN : 012818129X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomaterials for 3D Tumor Modeling reviews the fundamentals and most relevant areas of the latest advances of research of 3D cancer models, focusing on biomaterials science, tissue engineering, drug delivery and screening aspects. The book reviews advanced fundamental topics, including the causes of cancer, existing cancer models, angiogenesis and inflammation during cancer progression, and metastasis in 3D biomaterials. Then, the most relevant biomaterials are reviewed, including methods for engineering and fabrication of biomaterials. 3D models for key biological systems and types of cancer are also discussed, including lung, liver, oral, prostate, pancreatic, ovarian, bone and pediatric cancer. This book is suitable for those working in the disciplines of materials science, biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, drug delivery and regenerative medicine. Reviews key biomaterials topics, including synthetic biomaterials, hydrogels, e-spun materials and nanoparticles Provides a comprehensive overview of 3D cancer models for key biological systems and cancer types Includes an overview of advanced fundamental concepts for an interdisciplinary audience in materials science, biochemistry, regenerative medicine and drug delivery

Cell derived Matrices

Cell derived Matrices Book
Author : Rui L. Reis
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-05
ISBN : 0128201746
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cell-Derived Matrices Part B, Volume 157 provides a detailed description and step-by-step methods surrounding the use of three-dimensional cell-derived matrices for tissue engineering applications. Chapters in this new release include Glaucomatous cell-derived matrices, Cardiac tissue explants decellularization, Decellularization of skin matrices for wound healing applications, Guiding axonal growth by aligned cell-derived matrices for spinal cord injury regeneration, Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Matrices for Enhanced Osteoregeneration, Amniotic decellularized matrices, Three-Dimensional (3-D) Tissue Reconstruction without Scaffold, Tubular cell-derived matrices for TERM applications, and more.

Cell derived Matrices Part A

Cell derived Matrices Part A Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-03-26
ISBN : 0128201738
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cell-Derived Matrices, Part A, Volume 156, provides a detailed description and step-by-step methods surrounding the use of three-dimensional cell-derived matrices for tissue engineering applications. Biochemical, biophysical and cell biological approaches are presented, along with sample results. Specific chapters cover Anisotropic cell-derived matrices with controlled 3D architecture, Generation of functional fluorescently-labelled cell-derived matrices by means of genetically-modified fibroblasts, Bi-layered cell-derived matrices, Engineering clinically-relevant cell-derived matrices using primary fibroblasts, Decellularized matrices for bioprinting applications, and much more. Contains contributions from leading experts in the field from across the globe Covers a wide array of topics on the use of cell-derived matrices for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications Includes relevant, analysis-based topics, such as quantification of the mechanical properties, decellularization protocols, and innovative matrix engineering methods

Biomaterials and Microfluidics Based Tissue Engineered 3D Models

Biomaterials  and Microfluidics Based Tissue Engineered 3D Models Book
Author : J. Miguel Oliveira,Rui L. Reis
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-04-13
ISBN : 3030365883
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This contributed volume reviews the latest advances on relevant 3D tissue engineered in vitro models of disease making use of biomaterials and microfluidics. The main focus of this book is on advanced biomaterials and microfluidics technologies that have been used in in vitro mimetic 3D models of human diseases and show great promise in revolutionizing personalized medicine. Readers will discover important topics involving biomaterials and microfluidics design, advanced processing techniques, and development and validation of organ- and body-on-a-chip models for bone, liver, and cancer research. An in depth discussion of microfabrication methods for microfluidics development is also provided. This work is edited by two truly multidisciplinary scientists and includes important contributions from well-known experts in their fields. The work is written for both early stage and experienced researchers, and well-established scientists enrolled in the fields of biomaterials, microfluidics, and tissue engineering, and is especially suited to those who wish to become acquainted with the principles and latest developments of in vitro models of diseases, such as professionals working in pharma, medicine, and engineering.

Tissue engineered Prostate Cancer Xenografts

Tissue engineered Prostate Cancer Xenografts Book
Author : Thomas Joseph Long
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Despite massive investments in research and development, it is estimated that 95% of oncology compounds that enter clinical trials ultimately fail to receive FDA approval [1]. This disconnect between pre-clinical testing and clinical success points to a need to develop improved pre-clinical model systems for cancer studies that more accurately reflect human disease states. Toward this goal, biomaterial scaffolds have shown promise as the basis for in vitro and in vivo 3D cancer models. Tumors engineered using biomaterials have shown evidence of being more physiologically relevant than some traditional preclinical model systems, and synthetic biomaterials provide the added potential for enhanced microenvironmental control. In this dissertation, we examine sphere-templated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) scaffolds as the basis for engineering in vivo xenografts from human prostate cancer cell lines. Methods were developed to seed, culture, and measure the proliferation of prostate cancer cells in vitro within these porous hydrogels. A novel capillary force-based seeding method is described that improved cell number and distribution within the scaffolds compared to well-established protocols such as static and centrifugation seeding. Dynamic cell culture improved oxygen diffusion in vitro, and a PicoGreen-based DNA assay was used to evaluate cell proliferation. pHEMA scaffolds seeded and pre-cultured with tumorigenic M12 prostate cancer epithelial cells prior to implantation generated tumors in athymic nude mice, demonstrating the ability of the scaffolds to be used as a synthetic vehicle for xenograft generation. The resulting tumors showed no significant differences in tumor growth kinetics or vascularity compared to standard xenografts derived from Matrigel, which is consistent with observations that highly tumorigenic cells are not affected in vivo by 3D culture within biomaterial scaffolds. Because Matrigel-based xenografts expose cells to exogenous growth factors and ECM proteins, it would be of interest to the cancer research field to develop a controllable, synthetic system as a replacement. We attempted to do this using pHEMA scaffolds seeded with LNCaP C4-2 metastatic prostate cancer cells. LNCaP C4-2 cells ordinarily require Matrigel or stromal cell support to form tumors in vivo, but when implanted within pHEMA, the constructs were poorly tumorigenic. Scaffold surface modification with collagen I did not improve tumorigenicity, but the synthetic nature of the scaffold lends itself to further surface modifications and controlled growth factor release in future studies that may allow tumor development within a controllable microenvironment. Finally, M12mac25 cells, an epithelial prostate cancer cell line that is ordinarily rendered non-tumorigenic through the expression of the tumor suppressor insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), displayed a tumorigenic response when implanted within porous pHEMA scaffolds. These findings show the potential for this biomaterials-based model system to be used in the study of in vivo prostate cancer dormancy and dormancy escape. The M12mac25 tumors showed no significant difference in vascularity compared to their dormant Matrigel counterparts, but did demonstrate a significantly higher macrophage infiltration within the scaffolds mediated by the foreign body response to the materials. Cytokine arrays, DNA oligonucleotide arrays, in vitro macrophage-conditioned media studies, and in vivo studies using clondronate liposomes to eliminate macrophages showed evidence that macrophages could be the key cellular player mediating this dormancy escape.

Tumor Organoids

Tumor Organoids Book
Author : Shay Soker,Aleksander Skardal
Publisher : Humana Press
Release : 2017-10-20
ISBN : 3319605119
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cancer cell biology research in general, and anti-cancer drug development specifically, still relies on standard cell culture techniques that place the cells in an unnatural environment. As a consequence, growing tumor cells in plastic dishes places a selective pressure that substantially alters their original molecular and phenotypic properties.The emerging field of regenerative medicine has developed bioengineered tissue platforms that can better mimic the structure and cellular heterogeneity of in vivo tissue, and are suitable for tumor bioengineering research. Microengineering technologies have resulted in advanced methods for creating and culturing 3-D human tissue. By encapsulating the respective cell type or combining several cell types to form tissues, these model organs can be viable for longer periods of time and are cultured to develop functional properties similar to native tissues. This approach recapitulates the dynamic role of cell–cell, cell–ECM, and mechanical interactions inside the tumor. Further incorporation of cells representative of the tumor stroma, such as endothelial cells (EC) and tumor fibroblasts, can mimic the in vivo tumor microenvironment. Collectively, bioengineered tumors create an important resource for the in vitro study of tumor growth in 3D including tumor biomechanics and the effects of anti-cancer drugs on 3D tumor tissue. These technologies have the potential to overcome current limitations to genetic and histological tumor classification and development of personalized therapies.

The Influence of 3D Porous Chitosan alginate Biomaterial Scaffold Properties on the Behavior of Breast Cancer Cells

The Influence of 3D Porous Chitosan alginate Biomaterial Scaffold Properties on the Behavior of Breast Cancer Cells Book
Author : Minh-Chau N. Le
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The results showed no significant difference in cell number among the 3D CA scaffold groups. However, the 231-GFP cells cultured in 2 wt% CA scaffolds possessed greater cellular size, area, perimeter, and lower cellular circularity compared to those in 4 wt% and 6 wt% CA scaffolds, suggesting a more prominent presence of cell clusters in softer substrates compared to stiffer substrates. The results also showed cells in 6 wt% CA having a higher average cell migration speed compared to those in 2 wt% and 4 wt% CA scaffolds, indicating a positive relationship between substrate stiffness and cell migration velocity. Findings from this experiment may contribute to the development of enhanced in vitro 3D breast tumor models for basic cancer research using 3D porous biomaterial scaffolds.

Silk Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Silk Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Book
Author : Subhas Kundu
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-03-24
ISBN : 0857097067
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Silk is increasingly being used as a biomaterial for tissue engineering applications, as well as sutures, due to its unique mechanical and chemical properties. Silk Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine discusses the properties of silk that make it useful for medical purposes and its applications in this area. Part one introduces silk biomaterials, discussing their fundamentals and how they are processed, and considering different types of silk biomaterials. Part two focuses on the properties and behavior of silk biomaterials and the implications of this for their applications in biomedicine. These chapters focus on topics including biodegradation, bio-response to silk sericin, and capillary growth behavior in porous silk films. Finally, part three discusses the applications of silk biomaterials for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and biomedicine, with chapters on the use of silk biomaterials for vertebral, dental, dermal, and cardiac tissue engineering. Silk Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine is an important resource for materials and tissue engineering scientists, R&D departments in industry and academia, and academics with an interest in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering. Discusses the properties and applications of silk for medical purposes Considers pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical applications

Advances in Biomaterials for Biomedical Applications

Advances in Biomaterials for Biomedical Applications Book
Author : Anuj Tripathi,Jose Savio Melo
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-01-24
ISBN : 9811033285
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book highlights recent advances in the field of biomaterials design and the state of the art in biomaterials applications for biomedicine. Addressing key aspects of biomaterials, the book explores technological advances at multi-scale levels (macro, micro, and nano), which are used in applications related to cell and tissue regeneration. The book also discusses the future scope of bio-integrated systems. The contents are supplemented by illustrated examples, and schematics of molecular and cellular interactions with biomaterials/scaffolds are included to promote a better understanding of the complex biological mechanisms involved in material-to-biomolecule interactions. The book also covers factors that govern cell growth, differentiation, and regeneration in connection with the treatment and recovery of native biological systems. Tissue engineering, drug screening and delivery, and electrolyte complexes for biomedical applications are also covered in detail. This book offers a comprehensive reference guide for multi-disciplinary communities working in the area of biomaterials, and will benefit researchers and graduate students alike.

Biomaterials and Microfluidics Based Tissue Engineered 3D Models

Biomaterials  and Microfluidics Based Tissue Engineered 3D Models Book
Author : J. Miguel Oliveira,Rui L. Reis
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2020-04-23
ISBN : 9783030365875
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This contributed volume reviews the latest advances on relevant 3D tissue engineered in vitro models of disease making use of biomaterials and microfluidics. The main focus of this book is on advanced biomaterials and microfluidics technologies that have been used in in vitro mimetic 3D models of human diseases and show great promise in revolutionizing personalized medicine. Readers will discover important topics involving biomaterials and microfluidics design, advanced processing techniques, and development and validation of organ- and body-on-a-chip models for bone, liver, and cancer research. An in depth discussion of microfabrication methods for microfluidics development is also provided. This work is edited by two truly multidisciplinary scientists and includes important contributions from well-known experts in their fields. The work is written for both early stage and experienced researchers, and well-established scientists enrolled in the fields of biomaterials, microfluidics, and tissue engineering, and is especially suited to those who wish to become acquainted with the principles and latest developments of in vitro models of diseases, such as professionals working in pharma, medicine, and engineering.

Engineering 3D Tissue Test Systems

Engineering 3D Tissue Test Systems Book
Author : Karen J.L. Burg,Didier Dréau,Timothy Burg
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-07-28
ISBN : 1351644548
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Engineering 3D Tissue Test Systems provides an introduction to, and unique coverage of, a rapidly evolving area in biomaterials engineering. It reveals the current and future research responses, the current and future diagnostic applications, and provides a comprehensive overview to foster innovation. It offers insight into the importance of 3D systems and their use as benchtop models, spanning applications from basic scientific research to clinical diagnostics. Methods and limitations of building 3D tissue structures are evaluated, with attention given to the cellular, polymeric, and fabrication instrumentation components. The book covers the important aspects of polymeric tissue test systems, highlighting the needs and constraints of the industry, and includes a chapter on regulatory and pricing issues.

Biofabrication and 3D Tissue Modeling

Biofabrication and 3D Tissue Modeling Book
Author : Dong-Woo Cho
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2019-01-02
ISBN : 1788011988
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

3D tissue modelling is an emerging field used for the investigation of disease mechanisms and drug development. The two key drivers of this upsurge in research lie in its potential to offer a way to reduce animal testing with respect to biotoxicity analysis, preferably on physiology recapitulated human tissues and, additionally, it provides an alternative approach to regenerative medicine. Integrating physics, chemistry, materials science, and stem cell and biomedical engineering, this book provides a complete foundation to this exciting, and interdisciplinary field. Beginning with the basic principles of 3D tissue modelling, the reader will find expert reviews on key fabrication technologies and processes, including microfluidics, microfabrication technology such as 3D bioprinting, and programming approaches to emulating human tissue complexity. The next stage introduces the reader to a range of materials used for 3D tissue modelling, from synthetic to natural materials, as well as the emerging field of tissue derived decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM). A whole host of critical applications are covered, with several chapters dedicated to hard and soft tissues, as well as focused reviews on the respiratory and central nervous system. Finally, the development of in vitro tissue models to screen drugs and study progression and etiologies of diseases, with particular attention paid to cancer, can be found.

Multiscale Biomaterials for Cell and Tissue Engineering

Multiscale Biomaterials for Cell and Tissue Engineering Book
Author : Pranay Agarwal
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Next, a bottom-up approach for fabricating 3D vascularized human breast tumor model with the core-shell microencapsulation technology is developed. Microtumors (i.e., 3D aggregates of cancer cells) are generated in core-shell microcapsules and used together with human endothelial cells and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) as building blocks to self-assemble into vascularized tumor in collagen hydrogel. The utility of the platform in drug screening is further demonstrated. It is shown that vascularization can render increased cancer resistance to chemotherapy. This vascularized tumor system may be valuable for in vitro drug screening to better predict the drug efficacy in cancer patients. Lastly, a multiscale system for efficient co-delivery of cells and proteins/growth factors in vivo is developed to address the issue of low cell survival associated with cell delivery in vivo. The multiscale delivery system is comprised of therapeutic agents-laden nanoparticles encapsulated in microcapsules (nano-in-micro), hADSCs, and collagen hydrogel. The nano-in-micro system enables sustained release of therapeutic proteins to interact with their receptors on the hADSCs in the system which significantly improves the survival and proliferation of the hADSCs after implantation. This is shown to greatly facilitate the tissue regeneration in an ischemic disease model. To conclude, this dissertation work demonstrates how microscale encapsulation of cells via microfluidics provides a powerful suite of tools to engineering the cellular microenvironment at micro and macro scales. The technologies and systems described here could potentially help in building tissue engineering constructs that enable treatment of a myriad of human diseases.

Regenerative Medicine Technology

Regenerative Medicine Technology Book
Author : Sean V. Murphy,Anthony Atala
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-11-30
ISBN : 1498711928
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Miniaturization in the fields of chemistry and molecular biology has resulted in the "lab-on-a-chip." Such systems are micro-fabricated devices capable of handling extremely small fluid volumes facilitating the scaling of single or multiple lab processes down to a microchip-sized format. The convergence of lab-on-a-chip technology with the field of cell biology facilitated the development of "organ-on-a-chip" systems. Such systems simulate the function of tissues and organs, having the potential to bypass some cell and animal testing methods. These technologies have generated high interest as applications for disease modeling and drug discovery. This book, edited by Drs. Sean Murphy and Anthony Atala, provides a comprehensive coverage of the technologies that have been used to develop organ-on-a-chip systems. Known leaders cover the basics to the most relevant and novel topics in the field, including micro-fabrication, 3D bio-printing, 3D cell culture techniques, biosensor design and microelectronics, micro-fluidics, data collection, and predictive analysis. The book describes specific tissue types amenable for disease modeling and drug discovery applications. Lung, liver, heart, skin and kidney "on-a-chip" technologies are included as well as a progress report on designing an entire "body-on-a-chip" system. Additionally, the book covers applications of various systems for modeling tissue-specific cancers, metastasis, and tumor microenvironments; and provides an overview of current and potential applications of these systems to disease modeling, toxicity testing, and individualized medicine.

Chitosan based Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering and Cancer Research Applications

Chitosan based Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering and Cancer Research Applications Book
Author : Ariane Elizabeth Erickson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomaterial scaffolds are an essential element in tissue engineering (TE), providing an extracellular matrix (ECM) substitute for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation at the site of a tissue defect. Designed to support a variety of tissues, biomaterial scaffolds, once used exclusively for TE, have now emerged as a promising tool for disease modeling. Scaffolds recapitulate ECM structural cues and more accurately represent native cell behavior relative to monolayer culture. In cancer research applications, mimicking native cell behavior could result in a better understanding of mechanisms underlying tumor progression leading to development of more effective and targeted anti-metastatic therapeutics. This dissertation presents novel two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) chitosan-based biomaterial scaffolds for osteochondral tissue engineering and glioblastoma cancer research. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable, and non-toxic natural polymer with a proxy glycosaminoglycan structure. However, chitosan is prone to swelling and mechanical weakness. When combined with anionic polymers, cationic chitosan can form a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) to improve mechanical stability while preserving biocompatibility. This dissertation will explore electrospinning and thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) techniques for chitosan-based scaffold fabrication, highlighting the opportunities and challenges of 2D and 3D scaffolds in mimicking native ECM. First, the development of pseudo-2D nanofiber substrates is explored using a high-throughput centrifugal electrospinning (HTP-CES) system. The HTP-CES is a high-yield production method resulting in a large number of highly aligned nanofiber samples. Compared to conventional electrospinning techniques, nanofibers produced with the HTP-CES exhibited both superior alignment and enhanced diameter uniformity. Further, the research explored nanofiber diameter tunability by varying the spinneret needle diameter, establishing a concave correlation between the needle diameter and resultant nanofiber diameter. The HTP-CES system shows potential for scaled up production of highly aligned nanofibers with tunable diameters to meet the needs of various engineering and biomedical applications. Next, highly aligned chitosan-polycaprolactone (C-PCL) nanofibers fabricated with the HTP-CES were employed to study the influence of topography and biochemistry on human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell motility. GBM is a highly invasive form of brain cancer. GBM tumor recurrence and lethality are attributed to diffuse cancer cell invasion into adjacent healthy brain tissue and influenced by topographical cues associated with the brain parenchyma. In this research, we fabricated highly reproducible C-PCL nanofibers coated with hyaluronic acid (HA), a glycosaminoglycan commonly found in the brain, to mimic the structure and biochemistry of native brain tissue. We cultured human GBM-derived cells (U-87 MG) on uncoated and HA-coated C-PCL nanofibers. Elongated cell morphologies occurred along the nanofiber length on all nanofiber substrates. Regardless of coating, cells on nanofibers were more resistant to the therapeutic alkylator temozolomide (TMZ) than cells grown in adherent polystyrene plates. Cell migration captured by time lapse imaging revealed the influence of the HA coating as cells migrated the farthest and the fastest on nanofibers coated with 0.5% HA. These results indicate that HA-coated nanofibers are a promising substrate to characterize GBM migration and investigate novel anti-metastatic therapies. After evaluation of GBM motility on 2D nanofiber substrates, we investigated the influence of biomechanical cues on GBM tumor sphere progression in 3D porous scaffolds. Tumor matrix stiffness is implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, drug resistance, and reversion to a more invasive phenotype. Understanding the relationship between stiffness and cell behavior is vital to develop appropriate in vitro tumor models. We fabricated chitosan-hyaluronic acid (CHA) polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) scaffolds with varying stiffness, encompassing healthy and tumorous brain tissue to evaluate the effect of scaffold stiffness on human glioblastoma (U-87 MG) cell behavior. After 12 days of culture, we observed larger tumor spheroids and an increased resistance to TMZ-induced cell death in scaffolds with higher stiffness. Moreover, the stiffer 8% CHA scaffolds exhibited an increase in expression of drug resistance and invasion-related genes compared to 2D monolayer culture. These results indicate that CHA scaffolds enhance tumor cell malignancy, providing a valuable in vitro microenvironment for studying tumor progression and screening anti-cancer therapies. Finally, we developed a 3D bilayer porous scaffold for osteochondral tissue regeneration. Osteochondral defects result from damage to the articular cartilage and subchondral bone. When left untreated, osteochondral defects can lead to osteoarthritis and decreased quality of life. Due to the gradient osteochondral tissue, multiphasic scaffolds in which different layers represent different microenvironments, are a promising treatment approach, yet stable joining between layers remains challenging. We fabricated a bilayer scaffold using thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) where the cartilage region was optimized for HA content and stiffness and the bone region was defined by higher stiffness and osteoconductive hydroxyapatite (HAp) content. The bilayer scaffold displayed seamless interfacial integration and a mechanical stiffness gradient similar to that in the native osteochondral microenvironment. Co-culture with chondrocyte-like (SW-1353 or mesenchymal stem cells) and osteoblast-like cells (MG63) displayed cell proliferation and invasion to the interface, along with increased expression of relevant gene markers indicating the potential of this bilayer scaffold for osteochondral tissue regeneration.

Bioinspired Materials Science and Engineering

Bioinspired Materials Science and Engineering Book
Author : Guang Yang,Lin Xiao,Lallepak Lamboni
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2018-08-21
ISBN : 111939032X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An authoritative introduction to the science and engineering of bioinspired materials Bioinspired Materials Science and Engineering offers a comprehensive view of the science and engineering of bioinspired materials and includes a discussion of biofabrication approaches and applications of bioinspired materials as they are fed back to nature in the guise of biomaterials. The authors also review some biological compounds and shows how they can be useful in the engineering of bioinspired materials. With contributions from noted experts in the field, this comprehensive resource considers biofabrication, biomacromolecules, and biomaterials. The authors illustrate the bioinspiration process from materials design and conception to application of bioinspired materials. In addition, the text presents the multidisciplinary aspect of the concept, and contains a typical example of how knowledge is acquired from nature, and how in turn this information contributes to biological sciences, with an accent on biomedical applications. This important resource: Offers an introduction to the science and engineering principles for the development of bioinspired materials Includes a summary of recent developments on biotemplated formation of inorganic materials using natural templates Illustrates the fabrication of 3D-tumor invasion models and their potential application in drug assessments Explores electroactive hydrogels based on natural polymers Contains information on turning mechanical properties of protein hydrogels for biomedical applications Written for chemists, biologists, physicists, and engineers, Bioinspired Materials Science and Engineering contains an indispensible resource for an understanding of bioinspired materials science and engineering.

3D microtissue models to target tumor dormancy and invasion processes

3D microtissue models to target tumor dormancy and invasion processes Book
Author : Carsten Wenzel
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release : 2016-07-04
ISBN : 366825172X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation from the year 2014 in the subject Medicine - Biomedical Engineering, grade: 1,0, Technical University of Berlin (Biotechnologie), language: English, abstract: Despite all efforts to discover novel therapeutic options to treat cancer the disease remains devastating causing more than 14 million deaths in 2012 - and the trend is rising. Some parts of the preclinical drug discovery process rely on cell culture models to reproduce the pathophysiological features of cancer in in vitro experiments. These cellular models are then used in screening campaigns that aim to identify substances such as small molecules, peptides, or interfering RNA that alter the phenotype of a cancer cell in a desired manner. One of the main properties of cancer cells is their uncontrolled cell division. Accordingly, the cell cycle is a major target for chemotherapy, but resistance to chemotherapy frequently causes treatment failure in patients with advanced and inoperable cancer. As the distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by halting cell cycle progression and entering a dormant state. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy in solid tumors. Multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) allow for three-dimensional growth conditions, thus reproducing several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. Here, the evaluation of a 3D cell culture high-content screening system led to the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions. Subsequently, the mode of action of the identified compounds could be identified as respiratory chain inhibitors. Ultimately, benefits in combinational treatment with commonly used cytostatics in MCTS were proven. The data suggest a rationale to find and evaluate new substances that target the altered metabolism of tumor cells in dormant tumor regions to enhance cytostaticbased therapies. In a second approach the combination of different cell types in a 3D cell co-culture model was evaluated, which allows monitoring of invasion processes in different malignancies. Among them idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) currently affects 50.000 people per year with high mortality rates. [...]

Mammary Epithelial Cells Cultured Onto Non woven Nanofiber Electrospun Silk based Biomaterials to Engineer Breast Tissue Models

Mammary Epithelial Cells Cultured Onto Non woven Nanofiber Electrospun Silk based Biomaterials to Engineer Breast Tissue Models Book
Author : Yas Maghdouri-White
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer affecting women in the world today. To better understand breast cancer initiation and progression modeling biological tissue under physiological conditions is essential. Indeed, breast cancer involves complex interactions between mammary epithelial cells and the stroma, both extracellular matrix (ECM) and cells including adipocytes (fat tissue) and fibroblasts (connective tissue). Therefore, the engineering of in vitro three-dimensional (3D) systems of breast tissues allows a deeper understanding of the complex cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions involved during breast tissue development and cancer initiation and progression. Furthermore, such 3D systems may provide a viable alternative to investigate new drug or drug regimen and to model and monitor concurrent cellular processes during tumor growth and invasion. The development of suitable 3D in vitro models relies on the ability to mimic the microenvironment, the structure, and the functions of the breast tissue. Different approaches to develop a novel 3D breast model have been investigated. Most models use gel scaffolds, including Matrigel℗ʼ and collagen to generate breast tissue-like structures. However, the physicochemical, mechanical, and geometrical properties of these scaffolds only partially meet the mechanical, physical, and chemical parameters of the breast tissue matrix. In the present studies, we investigated the overall hypothesis that electrospun SF-derived scaffolds promote mammary cell growth and the formation of mammary-like structures depending on the composition and/or coating of the scaffolds with ECM proteins. Through an extensive literature search (1) the importance of 3D modeling of tissues and organs in vivo, (2) 3D modeling of the mammary tissue and currently available models, (3) the properties and applications of SF in tissue modeling and regeneration were reviewed (Chapter 1). Our studies provide evidence of the effects of various concentrations (Chapter 2) of SF along with different electrospinning techniques (Chapter 3) on the structure of electrospun scaffolds and whether those scaffolds provide suitable microenvironments for mammary epithelial cells as determined by MCF10A cell attachment, viability, and structure formation. Further, we investigated the effects of the key ECM proteins collagen I (Chapter 4) and laminin (Chapter 5) used to blend or coat, respectively, SF scaffolds on the attachment, viability and structure formation of mammary epithelial cells. Our studies first highlight the mechanical and physical properties of the different SF-derived scaffolds through various SF concentrations and electrospinning techniques. Second, the biocompatibility of these SF electrospun scaffolds was defined based on MCF10A cell survival and adhesion. Third, our data indicate that scaffolds derived from blended and/or coated SF with collagen I also promoted human mammary cell survival and adhesion. Lastly, our observations suggest that on laminin-coated SF scaffolds MCF10A mammary cells, in the presence of lactogenic hormones, differentiated forming acinus-like structures. Overall, these studies provide evidence that SF electrospun scaffolds closely mimic the structure of the ECM fibers and allow many advantages such as; physical and chemical modification of the microenvironment by varying electrospinning parameters and addition of various proteins, hormones, and growth factors, respectively. Further, coating these SF scaffolds with essential ECM proteins, in particular laminin, promote cell-ECM interactions necessary for cell differentiation and formation of growth-arrested structures, through providing cell integrin binding sites and appropriate chemical cues.

Mathematical Models for Glioma Invasion in 3d Collagen I Gel

Mathematical Models for Glioma Invasion in 3d Collagen I Gel Book
Author : Andrew M. Stein
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Mathematical Models for Glioma Invasion in 3d Collagen I Gel book written by Andrew M. Stein, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Multi Parametric Live Cell Microscopy of 3D Tissue Models

Multi Parametric Live Cell Microscopy of 3D Tissue Models Book
Author : Ruslan I. Dmitriev
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-10-26
ISBN : 3319673580
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides an essential overview of existing state-of-the-art quantitative imaging methodologies and protocols (intensity-based ratiometric and FLIM/ PLIM). A variety of applications are covered, including multi-parametric quantitative imaging in intestinal organoid culture, autofluorescence imaging in cancer and stem cell biology, Ca2+ imaging in neural ex vivo tissue models, as well as multi-parametric imaging of pH and viscosity in cancer biology. The current state-of-the-art of 3D tissue models and their compatibility with live cell imaging is also covered. This is an ideal book for specialists working in tissue engineering and designing novel biomaterial.