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Biolubricants

Biolubricants Book
Author : Jan C.J. Bart,Emanuele Gucciardi,Stefano Cavallaro
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-12-18
ISBN : 085709632X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Lubricants are essential in engineering, however more sustainable formulations are needed to avoid adverse effects on the ecosystem. Bio-based lubricant formulations present a promising solution. Biolubricants: Science and technology is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary and timely review of this important subject. Initial chapters address the principles of lubrication, before systematically reviewing fossil and bio-based feedstock resources for biodegradable lubricants. Further chapters describe catalytic, (bio) chemical functionalisation processes for transformation of feedstocks into commercial products, product development, relevant legislation, life cycle assessment, major product groups and specific performance criteria in all major applications. Final chapters consider markets for biolubricants, issues to consider when selecting and using a lubricant, lubricant disposal and future trends. With its distinguished authors, Biolubricants: Science and technology is a comprehensive reference for an industrial audience of oil formulators and lubrication engineers, as well as researchers and academics with an interest in the subject. It provides an essential overview of scientific and technological developments enabling the cost-effective improvement of biolubricants, something that is crucial for the green future of the lubricant industry. A comprehensive, interdisciplinary and timely review of bio-based lubricant formulations Addresses the principles of lubrication Reviews fossil and bio-based feedstock resources for biodegradable lubricants

Biolubricants

Biolubricants Book
Author : Washington (State). Hazardous Waste and Toxics Reduction Program,Washington (State). Department of Ecology,Washington State Library. Electronic State Publications
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Biolubricants book written by Washington (State). Hazardous Waste and Toxics Reduction Program,Washington (State). Department of Ecology,Washington State Library. Electronic State Publications, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental Health Perspectives Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009-07
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Environmental Health Perspectives book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Lubrication in Inland and Coastal Water Activities

Lubrication in Inland and Coastal Water Activities Book
Author : P van Broekhuizen,D Theodori,K Le Blansch,S Ullmer
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2003-01-01
ISBN : 9789058096128
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is strongly recommended to those engaged in activities involving the lubrication of machines, to lubricant manufacturers and to raw material producers. It brings together the experience of many companies, institutions and individual users in a variety of European countries. These user groups have monitored the effect of applying biolubricants to their equipment. Lubrication in Inland and Coastal Water Activities describes the various products available and gives an overview of the technical and environmental aspects of biolubricants. Attention is given to the range of biolubricants, their application and the importance of including all stakeholders in developing their use: from the lubricant manufacturers to the equipment manufacturers, from local users to governmental authorities. Lubrication in Inland and Coastal Water Activities is a valuable contribution towards the development of a responsible lubricant policy.

Environmentally Friendly and Biobased Lubricants

Environmentally Friendly and Biobased Lubricants Book
Author : Brajendra K. Sharma,Girma Biresaw
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-09-19
ISBN : 1482232030
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A Comprehensive Review of Developing Environmentally Friendly Lubricants A push from environmentally savvy consumers along with recent changes in governmental regulations have paved the way for a marketplace of products with high levels of environmental performance. Fueled by the growing demand for biobased lubricants, Environmentally Friendly and Biobased Lubricants highlights the development of environmentally friendly additives that are compatible with environmental regulations and describes the approaches being used in this emerging area. Derived from research topics shared over the years at various technical sessions of the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE) Annual Meetings, the book includes a critical assessment of gaps and weaknesses in the field of environmentally friendly fluids and biobased lubricants. Each chapter is written by authors selected from the environmentally friendly fluids and biobased lubricants sessions of STLE and also incorporates input from prominent researchers invited to take part in the book. Expert contributors discuss the control, production, usage, and disposal of lubricants; factor in related policies, laws, and regulations around the world; and include case studies demonstrating the uses and values of commercially viable biobased lubricants. The book is divided into five sections that cover advanced environmentally friendly base oils and feedstocks, biobased hydraulic lubricants and biodegradability, chemically/enzymatically modified environmentally friendly base oils, vegetable oil–based environmentally friendly fluids, and additives for environmentally friendly fluids.

Lubricant Additives

Lubricant Additives Book
Author : Leslie R. Rudnick
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-07-12
ISBN : 1351646966
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This indispensable book describes lubricant additives, their synthesis, chemistry, and mode of action. All important areas of application are covered, detailing which lubricants are needed for a particular application. Laboratory and field performance data for each application is provided and the design of cost-effective, environmentally friendly technologies is fully explored. This edition includes new chapters on chlorohydrocarbons, foaming chemistry and physics, antifoams for nonaqueous lubricants, hydrogenated styrene–diene viscosity modifiers, alkylated aromatics, and the impact of REACh and GHS on the lubricant industry.

Improved Production of Biolubricants from Soybean Oil and Different Polyols Via Esterification Reaction Catalyzed by Immobilized Lipase from Candida Rugosa

Improved Production of Biolubricants from Soybean Oil and Different Polyols Via Esterification Reaction Catalyzed by Immobilized Lipase from Candida Rugosa Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Graphical abstract: Highlights: Lipase extract from C. rugosa was found very useful to produce biolubricants from soybean oil. The free lipase cannot be used at medium scale. The immobilization in Accurel enabled the reaction maintaining the good properties of the enzyme. The immobilized lipase could be reused several reaction cycles. Abstract: Three commercial lipases, Lipomod 34MDP (free lipase from Candida rugosa ), Lipozyme RM IM (immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei ) and Novozym 435 (immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica ) were evaluated as catalysts in the production of biolubricant base oils. This was accomplished via the esterification of free fatty acids obtained from soybean-oil hydrolysis and different polyols (neopentyl glycol, NPG; trimethylolpropane, TMP; and pentaerythritol, PE). Reactions carried out with free C. rugosa lipase showed the highest conversions for the three polyols (97% for NPG, 100% for TMP and 55% for PE) after 24h, while Novozym 435 and Lipozyme RM IM resulted, respectively, in 65% and 92% for NPG, 15% and 39% for TMP and 1% and 0% for PE. Then, Accurel MP1000 (a microporous polypropylene support, PP) was used to immobilize the C. rugosa lipase; enzyme loading used was 0.3mg/g. The zymography analysis showed that the protein band of 60KDa present in the C. rugosa lipase extract was the main protein responsible for the extract activity in the biolubricant synthesis and it was successfully immobilized onto the support. The immobilized lipase (34MDP-PP) showed conversions of 99% for NPG and 92% for TMP, after 24h of reaction, maintaining the results obtained with the free enzyme. The 34MDP-PP could be reused for six consecutive reaction cycles without a reduction in the final conversion, using NPG and TMP as substrates. Using Lipozyme RM IM, the conversion decreased from 92 to 56% after six consecutive reactions. The soybean esters of NPG and TMP showed good viscosity indexes, higher than 200.

Biennial Report

Biennial Report Book
Author : National Chemical Laboratory (India)
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Biennial Report book written by National Chemical Laboratory (India), available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Two step Enzymatic Production of Environmentally Friendly Biolubricants Using Castor Oil Enzyme Selection and Product Characterization

Two step Enzymatic Production of Environmentally Friendly Biolubricants Using Castor Oil  Enzyme Selection and Product Characterization Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Highlights: Castor oil hydrolysis using castor-seed lipases gives a high yield of unmodified COFFA. Molecules with good lubricant characteristics are produced by the esterification of COFFA. Estolides from COFFA esterification by CRL are the main reaction product. CRL prefers ricinoleic acid as a nucleophile compared to polyols. Estolide biolubricant properties are outstanding except for high acidity. Abstract: We performed two-step enzymatic biolubricant production: castor oil hydrolysis and esterification of castor oil free fatty acids (COFFA) rich in ricinoleic acid. The hydrolysis step utilized castor seeds as catalyst yielding 93.13 ± 5.9% COFFA in only 1 h. In the esterification step, C. rugosa lipase (CRL) decreased the acidity by over 80% after 96 h, utilizing as polyols neopenthylglicol (NPG), trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerytritol (PE) and showed about 70% acidity decrease without polyols, indicating the production of COFFA polymers (estolides). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) confirmed estolides as the main product, reaching a polymerization degree of 6/7 without polyols, 4 in the presence of PE and ricinoleic acid dimers in the presence of NPG and TMP. Analyses of biolubricant properties showed that the best product was the estolide with a polymerization degree of 6/7: viscosity index of 162, oxidation stability of 51 min and pour point of −42 °C.

Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy

Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Innovation and Technology Transfer

Innovation and Technology Transfer Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Innovation and Technology Transfer book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Handbook of Waste Management and Co Product Recovery in Food Processing

Handbook of Waste Management and Co Product Recovery in Food Processing Book
Author : Keith W. Waldron
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2007-04-14
ISBN : 9781845690250
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The intensification of agriculture and food production in recent years has led to an increase in the production of food co-products and wastes. Their disposal by incineration or landfill is often expensive as well as environmentally sensitive. Methods to valorise unused co-products and improve the management of wastes that cannot be reused, as well as techniques to reduce the quantity of waste produced in the first place, are increasingly important to the food industry. With its distinguished editor and array of international contributors, Waste management and co-product recovery in food processing reviews the latest developments in this area and describes how they can be used to reduce waste. The first section of the book provides a concise introduction to the field with a particular focus on legislation and consumer interests, principle drivers of waste management. Part two addresses the minimisation of biowaste and the optimisation of water and energy use in food processing. The third section covers key technologies for co-product separation and recovery, such as supercritical fluid extraction and membrane filtration, as well as important issues to consider when recovering co-products, such as waste stabilisation and microbiological risk assessment. Part four offers specific examples of waste management and co-product exploitation in particular sectors such as the red meat, poultry, dairy, fish and fruit and vegetable industries. The final part of the book summarises advanced techniques, to dispose of waste products that cannot be reused, and reviews state of the art technologies for wastewater treatment. Waste management and co-product recovery in food processing is a vital reference to all those in the food processing industry concerned with waste minimisation, co-product valorisation and end waste management. Looks at the optimisation of manufacturing procedures to decrease waste, energy and water use Explores methods to valorise waste by co-product recovery Considers best practice in different sectors of the food industry

Machinery Electronics and Control Engineering IV

Machinery Electronics and Control Engineering IV Book
Author : Lei Jia,Jin Shou Yu
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release : 2014-12-24
ISBN : 303826749X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Collection of selected, peer reviewed papers from the 2014 4th International Conference on Machinery Electronics and Control Engineering (ICMECE 2014), November 8-9, 2014, Qingdao, Shandong, China. The 69 papers are grouped as follows: Chapter 1: Advanced Materials Engineering and Processing Technologies; Chapter 2: Applied Mechanics, Mechanical Engineering and Manufacturing Technologies; Chapter 3: Electronic Technologies and Integrated Circuits; Chapter 4: Electrical Engineering and Electric Machines; Chapter 5: Power System and Energy Engineering, its Applications; Chapter 6: Automation and Control Systems

Vegetable Oil based Bio lubricants and Transformer Fluids

Vegetable Oil based Bio lubricants and Transformer Fluids Book
Author : Dhorali Gnanasekaran,Venkata Prasad Chavidi
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-09-08
ISBN : 9811048703
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book discusses vegetable oil based biolubricants and their applications in the power distribution industry. Vegetable oil based lubricants offer significant advantages over petroleum-based lubricants, including biodegradability, cost-effectiveness, renewability, and lower environmental effects. This book provides a detailed literature survey of modified vegetable oils. It discusses the physical and chemical properties of vegetable oil, and their effects on its applications in tribology. The book discusses additives and enhancements to make vegetable oils suitable for use as lubricating oils and transformer oils in power plants and power distribution grids. The contents of the book will be useful to researchers and professionals as well as policy makers and standards agencies.

Palm Oil Proceedings of oleo specialty chemicals conference

Palm Oil  Proceedings of oleo   specialty chemicals conference Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Palm Oil Proceedings of oleo specialty chemicals conference book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Renewable Bioresources

Renewable Bioresources Book
Author : Christian V. Stevens,Roland Verhé
Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell
Release : 2004-06-07
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Based on course material for the new European Masters Programme on Renewable Resources, this text focuses on the new and developing concept of renewable raw materials. The central theme is the issue of sustainability.

Annual Report

Annual Report Book
Author : Alberta Research Council
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Annual Report book written by Alberta Research Council, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Technical Co operation Report for

Technical Co operation Report for     Book
Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1998
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Technical Co operation Report for book written by International Atomic Energy Agency, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Coconut Revival

Coconut Revival Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 9781863205146
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Coconut Revival book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Montana Code Annotated

Montana Code Annotated Book
Author : Montana
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Montana Code Annotated book written by Montana, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.