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Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Ken J. Ishii,Choon Kit Tang
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-11-07
ISBN : 9780124047327
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biological DNA Sensor defines the meaning of DNA sensing pathways and demonstrates the importance of the innate immune responses induced by double stranded DNA (dsDNA) through its influencing functions in disease pathology and immune activity of adjuvants for vaccines. Though discussed in specific subsections of existing books, dsDNA and its immunogenic properties has never received the complete treatment given in this book. Biological DNA Sensor approaches the impact of dsDNA's immunogenicity on disease and vaccinology holistically. It paints a complete and concise picture on the topic so you can understand this area of study and make more informed choices for your respective research needs. Chapters are authored by researchers who are renowned for their research focus, ensuring that this book provides the most complete views on the topics. Multi-authored by a distinguished panel of world-class experts Ideal source of information for those wanting to learn about DNA sensing Provides in-depth explanations of DNA sensing pathways and the innate immune system, bridging the gap between them

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Choon Kit Tang,Cevayir Coban,Shizuo Akira,Ken J. Ishii
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068744
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this chapter, we reflect on our early understanding of the immunogenic properties of dsDNA and give a chronological account of the journey we have taken to discover the individual cellular DNA sensors which have played important roles in mediating DNA induced inflammation.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Y.J. Shen,A.R. Lam,S.W.S. Ho,C.X. Koo,N. Le Bert,S. Gasser
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068825
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors and numerous intracellular sensors that detect nucleotides in the cytosol help to initiate immune responses to viral infections. Many of the cytosolic nucleotide sensors and their downstream mediators also play a role in RNA metabolism, DNA repair and cancer. Here we review the evidence that links cytosolic DNA sensors to processes that are activated in cancer cells.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Surya Pandey,Taro Kawai
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068787
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

DNA sensors initiate innate immune responses upon recognition of microbial and self-derived DNA in the intracellular compartments or cytoplasm. These sensors include TLR9, AIM2 like receptors and many other recently identified cytosolic DNA sensors. The otherwise protective nature of host defense by these receptors can turn hostile when they recognize self-DNA through various mechanisms and aberrantly activate DNA sensing pathways leading to unregulated or inappropriate type I IFN production and consequent autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. In this chapter, we highlight the current findings that shed light on the complex initiator and effector mechanisms that contribute to autoimmune disease pathology, including DNA sensing receptors, self and non-self discrimination, type I IFN system, mechanisms of enhanced self-DNA access to TLR9 and defective host DNA clearance.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Ken Ishii,Choon Kit Tang
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-11-13
ISBN : 9780128102640
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biological DNA Sensor defines the meaning of DNA sensing pathways and demonstrates the importance of the innate immune responses induced by double stranded DNA (dsDNA) through its influencing functions in disease pathology and immune activity of adjuvants for vaccines. Though discussed in specific subsections of existing books, dsDNA and its immunogenic properties has never received the complete treatment given in this book. Biological DNA Sensor approaches the impact of dsDNA's immunogenicity on disease and vaccinology holistically. It paints a complete and concise picture on the topic so you can understand this area of study and make more informed choices for your respective research needs. Chapters are authored by researchers who are renowned for their research focus, ensuring that this book provides the most complete views on the topics. Multi-authored by a distinguished panel of world-class experts Ideal source of information for those wanting to learn about DNA sensing Provides in-depth explanations of DNA sensing pathways and the innate immune system, bridging the gap between them

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Christophe J. Desmet
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 012806885X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aluminum-based adjuvants (alum) are among the oldest and most widely used vaccine adjuvants. After decades of largely empirical use, the last years have witnessed a flurry of studies aiming to decipher the immunological mechanisms of action of alum. Along with other hypotheses, recent reports support that alum induces the release by host cells of their own DNA at sites of injection. Extracellular self-DNA would in turn activate the innate immune system through known and yet to be identified innate immune pathways and in this way boost the adaptive response to vaccine antigens. This chapter discusses the evidence supporting the view of self-DNA as a damage-associated molecular pattern implicated in the adjuvant activity of alum, its possible links with other proposed mechanisms, as well as future directions in the area of the sensing of self-nucleic acids in the modulation of immunological responses to vaccines.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Søren R. Paludan,Andrew G. Bowie
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068817
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microbial and host DNA are potent stimulators of innate immune responses and have been implicated in both host defense and autoimmune diseases. To date more than 10 immunological sensors of DNA have been proposed, and we are now beginning to understand the functions and mechanism of action of these proposed DNA sensors in host defense and diseases. Much of the current knowledge on DNA sensing has been obtained through studies with herpesviruses. Hence, in this chapter, we review and critically assess the literature on innate DNA recognition from the perspective of herpesviruses sensing. Finally, we extend the discussion beyond herpesviruses, and propose important questions that need to be addressed in the emerging field of innate immune activation by DNA.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Glen N. Barber
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068760
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Invading microbes are detected by cellular sensors, the consequences of which result in the production of potent anti-pathogen proteins such as type I interferon (IFN) as well as other cytokines capable of stimulating the adaptive immune response. Examples comprise the RIG-I-like helicase (RLH) and the Toll-like receptor (TLR) families which recognize non-self-pathogen derived molecules (PAMPs) including bacterial lipopolysaccharides as well as nucleic acids. In addition, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) associated transmembrane protein referred to as STING (for stimulator of interferon genes) was established as being essential for triggering the production of innate immune proteins in response to the sensing of cytosolic DNA. Such DNA can be ‘self’-DNA produced from necrotic or apoptotic cells, or the actual genomes of DNA pathogens that become exposed following infection. Moreover, while STING appears essential for controlling innate signaling events triggered by DNA microbes, chronic STING activation also appears to be responsible for certain inflammatory diseases manifested by ‘self’-DNA. Thus, understanding STING function may lead to the design of new compounds that may facilitate vaccine development or conversely that may provide new therapies for the treatment of inflammatory disease.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Sivapriya Kailasan Vanaja,Vijay A.K. Rathinam,Katherine A. Fitzgerald
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068752
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The innate immune response serves as the first line of defense against microbial infections by detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns through germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors. Proteins of the PYHIN family have gained substantial research focus in recent years as central mediators of innate immune responses induced by cytosolic microbial DNA. Sensing of DNA by PYHINs typically leads to activation of inflammasomes and/or type I interferon responses that are crucial for host defense against invading pathogens. Certain members of the family are also involved in the development of autoimmune diseases as well as transcriptional regulation. Although the generation of knockout mice strains has unraveled the essential role of PYHIN proteins such as AIM2 in the development of antimicrobial innate immune responses, the exact biological role of several other PYHIN family members remains to be understood. This chapter reviews the important discoveries on PYHIN proteins and their role in microbial defense, autoimmunity and transcriptional regulation.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Rebecca Schmidt,Laurel L. Lenz
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068868
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cyclic dinucleotides (c-di-NMPs), such as c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP were first discovered in bacteria, where they play important roles as second messenger molecules that regulate bacterial cellular functions. In addition, these and other c-di-NMPs exert potent biological effects on mammalian cells, such as the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, immune cell activation, and the triggering of type I interferon production. Here, we introduce the biology of c-di-NMPs in bacterial systems and review the current state of the literature on their biological effects in mammalian cells. Emphasis is placed on evaluating the evidence that c-di-NMPs have potent immune stimulatory effects on cultured mouse and human cells and can act as adjuvants and immune stimulants in animal models. In addition, we highlight areas where further experimentation could hasten the development of c-di-NMPs as adjuvants in potent and safe systemic and mucosal vaccines.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Jan Naujoks,Bastian Opitz
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068809
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The detection of bacterial pathogens by the innate immune system is mediated by various pattern recognition receptors that sense microbial molecules such as cell wall components, virulence factors or nucleic acids. Bacterial DNA is recognized by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) at endosomal compartments and by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, polymerase III/RIG-I, AIM2-like receptors (ALRs), DNA helicases as well as other incompletely characterized proteins in the host cell cytosol. Depending on the receptor and specific engagement of the adapter molecules MyD88, STING, MAVS or ASC, sensing of bacterial DNA triggers expression of NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory genes, type I IFN responses, and/or inflammasome activation. Whereas inflammatory gene expression and inflammasome activation are required for an effective host defense to most bacterial infections, type I IFNs appear to play a regulatory role and can be beneficial or detrimental for the host. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge about the mechanisms of DNA sensing and its function in bacterial infections.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Cevayir Coban,Miyuki Tozuka,Nao Jounai,Kouji Kobiyama,Fumihiko Takeshita,Choon Kit Tang,Ken J. Ishii
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068841
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ideal vaccines are expected to give lifetime protection from infectious diseases, and if possible, from allergic diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer. DNA vaccination was introduced two decades ago as a simple plasmid inoculation method with a capability of inducing both cellular and humoral immune responses. Recent studies have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms by which the double-stranded structure of DNA vaccine induces the activation of type-I interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immune responses via STING/TBK1 complex, similar to cytosolic double stranded DNA (dsDNA) recognition of immune cells. In this chapter, DNA vaccines and the current knowledge on their mechanism of action will be introduced. The possibilities of using this knowledge for improving immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in humans will then be discussed.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Tatsuya Saitoh
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068779
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microbial double-stranded (ds)DNA potently stimulates innate immunity. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) plays a major role in dsDNA-induced expression of type I interferons (IFNs) and elimination of invading pathogens. After stimulation, STING translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to cytoplasmic punctate structures where it associates with TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). TBK1 phosphorylates interferon regulatory factor 3 to induce type I IFNs and optineurin to induce autophagy, an intracellular clearance system. Autophagy-related protein, Atg9a, regulates membrane trafficking involved in STING movement and suppresses type I IFN expression. Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) plays a major role in dsDNA-induced inflammatory responses. After stimulation, AIM2 forms an inflammasome with an adaptor protein, ASC, and caspase-1, a protease, to induce the production of IL-1β, an inflammatory cytokine. Autophagy mediates degradation of activated AIM2-inflammasome to terminate the response. Thus, autophagy-related proteins, essential components of autophagy machinery, regulate innate immune responses induced by dsDNA.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Kenichi Shimada,Timothy R. Crother,Moshe Arditi
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068833
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

DNA damage exists in all cellular organisms. While DNA damage is distinguished from mutation, mutation can result from unrepaired DNA. While most DNA damage can be repaired, such repair systems are not 100% efficient. Un-repaired DNA damage accumulates in non-replicating cells, such as neurons or myocytes of adult mammals, and can cause aging. DNA damage can be subdivided into two types: (1) endogenous damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are derived from metabolic byproducts and (2) exogenous damage caused by radiation (UV, X-ray, gamma), hydrolysis, plant toxins, and viruses. Current data suggest that increased oxidative stress is a major characteristic of hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis and that oxidative stress is most likely associated with DNA damage in the development of cholesterol-induced plaques. This chapter critically addresses the extent to which the DNA damage, the sensing of it, and DNA damage repair are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Ann Marshak-Rothstein,Michael P. Cancro
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068795
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In vitro analyses of autoreactive B cells and pDCs clearly demonstrate a critical role for both TLR7 and TLR9 in the detection of endogenous nucleic acid ligands and activation of autoreactive B cells and dendritic cell subsets. Ligands for TLR7 and TLR9 are bound by surface receptors, either the BCR or an FcγR, and then delivered to endolysomal compartments where TLR7 or TLR9 are subsequently engaged, leading to immune activation. However, in vivo analyses of autoimmune-prone mice have revealed a more complex interplay between TLR9- and TLR7-driven activation of key effector populations and the severity of systemic autoimmune diseases such as SLE. It is clear that TLR7/BCR co-engagement promotes B cell activation, autoantibody production, and clinical disease. By contrast, TLR9 has a biphasic role and appears to initially limit the activation of B cells reactive to DNA or DNA-binding proteins, either by contributing to the production of protective antibodies or by directly constraining B cell responses to endogenous ligands. Nevertheless, TLR9 is still required for the full-scale activation of B cells with similar DNA/DNA-binding autoanigen reactivities.

Biological and Medical Sensor Technologies

Biological and Medical Sensor Technologies Book
Author : Krzysztof Iniewski
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-12-19
ISBN : 1351832190
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biological and Medical Sensor Technologies presents contributions from top experts who explore the development and implementation of sensors for various applications used in medicine and biology. Edited by a pioneer in the area of advanced semiconductor materials, the book is divided into two sections. The first part covers sensors for biological applications. Topics include: Advanced sensing and communication in the biological world DNA-derivative architectures for long-wavelength bio-sensing Label-free silicon photonics Quartz crystal microbalance-based biosensors Lab-on-chip technologies for cell-sensing applications Enzyme biosensors Future directions for breath sensors Solid-state gas sensors for clinical diagnosis The second part of the book deals with sensors for medical applications. This section addresses: Bio-sensing and human behavior measurements Sweat rate wearable sensors Various aspects of medical imaging The future of medical imaging Spatial and spectral resolution aspects of semiconductor detectors in medical imaging CMOS SSPM detectors CdTe detectors and their applications to gamma-ray imaging Positron emission tomography (PET) Composed of contributions from some of the world’s foremost experts in their respective fields, this book covers a wide range of subjects. It explores everything from sensors and communication systems found in nature to the latest advances in manmade sensors. The end result is a useful collection of stimulating insights into the many exciting applications of sensor technologies in everyday life.

Organic and Printed Electronics for Biological Microfluidic Applications

Organic and Printed Electronics for Biological Microfluidic Applications Book
Author : Lakshmi Jagannathan
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in research and technology are happening now more than ever in the biotechnology industry. Efficient methods for biological processes and better detection and treatment methods are constantly being sought by researchers. Collaboration among different fields of science and technology has brought us one step closer towards achieving this goal in this work. One such technology that has the capability of providing efficient methods and processes for biology is printed electronics. Printed electronics is an attractive paradigm for realization of biological microfluidic systems. The large area of these systems makes printing valuable from a cost perspective. Furthermore, since printing allows for easy integration of disparate materials on the same substrate through spatially-specific deposition, printed electronics is particularly useful for integration of diverse biological microfluidic functionality on the same substrate. While there have been instances of printed transistors and passive components, there have been no demonstrations to date of the critical components required for biological microfluidic applications or lab on a chip (LOC) devices. In this work, for the first time, we present all-printed gold heaters, gold resistive temperature detectors, and electrostatically actuated PDMS microfluidic valves designed for biological microfluidic applications. In addition, work on DNA sensors using printable organic (pentacene) thin film transistors (OTFTs) is also presented for use in LOC devices. Many biological applications require precise control and stability of temperature, which is demonstrated here through the integration of printed heaters and printed RTDs into a microchip bioprocessor system capable of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Flow rate measurements and dynamic characteristics of printed PDMS valves are also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of these devices. With the 440 microns wide and 16 microns deep microfluidic channels used in this project, the valve with the thinnest PDMS membrane (55 microns) closed the channel completely (i.e. flow rate = 0) at a pull-in voltage of 250V. This valve closed and opened in approximately 1.5 and 5.5 seconds, respectively. Pentacene surface has also been optimized to arrive at the best sensitivity for DNA immobilization and hybridization, bringing us a step closer in realizing printed OTFT DNA sensors for t̀ag-free' electrical detection. To summarize the sensor results, thinner films, higher substrate temperature, and higher input current during pentacene evaporation ensured that DNA immobilized in the channel part of the transistor and therefore provided for highest sensitivity of pentacene film to DNA. This work has thus successfully revealed the potential of printed electronics in real-world biological applications and has also paved the way for exciting future research areas for this technology.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Ken Ishii,Choon Kit Tang
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0124051685
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biological DNA Sensor defines the meaning of DNA sensing pathways and demonstrates the importance of the innate immune responses induced by double stranded DNA (dsDNA) through its influencing functions in disease pathology and immune activity of adjuvants for vaccines. Though discussed in specific subsections of existing books, dsDNA and its immunogenic properties has never received the complete treatment given in this book. Biological DNA Sensor approaches the impact of dsDNA's immunogenicity on disease and vaccinology holistically. It paints a complete and concise picture on the topic so you can understand this area of study and make more informed choices for your respective research needs. Chapters are authored by researchers who are renowned for their research focus, ensuring that this book provides the most complete views on the topics. Multi-authored by a distinguished panel of world-class experts Ideal source of information for those wanting to learn about DNA sensing Provides in-depth explanations of DNA sensing pathways and the innate immune system, bridging the gap between them

Enzymes as Sensors

Enzymes as Sensors Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-03-21
ISBN : 0128092912
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Volume 589, the latest volume in the Methods in Enzymology series, focuses on enzymes as sensors. Contain contributions from leading authorities Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

Biological Identification

Biological Identification Book
Author : R. Paul Schaudies
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-05-08
ISBN : 0857099167
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biological Identification provides a detailed review of, and potential future developments in, the technologies available to counter the threats to life and health posed by natural pathogens, toxins, and bioterrorism agents. Biological identification systems must be fast, accurate, reliable, and easy to use. It is also important to employ the most suitable technology in dealing with any particular threat. This book covers the fundamentals of these vital systems and lays out possible advances in the technology. Part one covers the essentials of DNA and RNA sequencing for the identification of pathogens, including next generation sequencing (NGS), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, isothermal amplification, and bead array technologies. Part two addresses a variety of approaches to making identification systems portable, tackling the special requirements of smaller, mobile systems in fluid movement, power usage, and sample preparation. Part three focuses on a range of optical methods and their advantages. Finally, part four describes a unique approach to sample preparation and a promising approach to identification using mass spectroscopy. Biological Identification is a useful resource for academics and engineers involved in the microelectronics and sensors industry, and for companies, medical organizations and military bodies looking for biodetection solutions. Covers DNA sequencing of pathogens, lab-on-chip, and portable systems for biodetection and analysis Provides an in-depth description of optical systems and explores sample preparation and mass spectrometry-based biological analysis