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Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Ken Ishii,Choon Kit Tang
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0124051685
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biological DNA Sensor defines the meaning of DNA sensing pathways and demonstrates the importance of the innate immune responses induced by double stranded DNA (dsDNA) through its influencing functions in disease pathology and immune activity of adjuvants for vaccines. Though discussed in specific subsections of existing books, dsDNA and its immunogenic properties has never received the complete treatment given in this book. Biological DNA Sensor approaches the impact of dsDNA's immunogenicity on disease and vaccinology holistically. It paints a complete and concise picture on the topic so you can understand this area of study and make more informed choices for your respective research needs. Chapters are authored by researchers who are renowned for their research focus, ensuring that this book provides the most complete views on the topics. Multi-authored by a distinguished panel of world-class experts Ideal source of information for those wanting to learn about DNA sensing Provides in-depth explanations of DNA sensing pathways and the innate immune system, bridging the gap between them

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Ken J. Ishii,Choon Kit Tang
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-11-07
ISBN : 9780124047327
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biological DNA Sensor defines the meaning of DNA sensing pathways and demonstrates the importance of the innate immune responses induced by double stranded DNA (dsDNA) through its influencing functions in disease pathology and immune activity of adjuvants for vaccines. Though discussed in specific subsections of existing books, dsDNA and its immunogenic properties has never received the complete treatment given in this book. Biological DNA Sensor approaches the impact of dsDNA's immunogenicity on disease and vaccinology holistically. It paints a complete and concise picture on the topic so you can understand this area of study and make more informed choices for your respective research needs. Chapters are authored by researchers who are renowned for their research focus, ensuring that this book provides the most complete views on the topics. Multi-authored by a distinguished panel of world-class experts Ideal source of information for those wanting to learn about DNA sensing Provides in-depth explanations of DNA sensing pathways and the innate immune system, bridging the gap between them

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Søren R. Paludan,Andrew G. Bowie
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068817
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microbial and host DNA are potent stimulators of innate immune responses and have been implicated in both host defense and autoimmune diseases. To date more than 10 immunological sensors of DNA have been proposed, and we are now beginning to understand the functions and mechanism of action of these proposed DNA sensors in host defense and diseases. Much of the current knowledge on DNA sensing has been obtained through studies with herpesviruses. Hence, in this chapter, we review and critically assess the literature on innate DNA recognition from the perspective of herpesviruses sensing. Finally, we extend the discussion beyond herpesviruses, and propose important questions that need to be addressed in the emerging field of innate immune activation by DNA.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Choon Kit Tang,Cevayir Coban,Shizuo Akira,Ken J. Ishii
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068744
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this chapter, we reflect on our early understanding of the immunogenic properties of dsDNA and give a chronological account of the journey we have taken to discover the individual cellular DNA sensors which have played important roles in mediating DNA induced inflammation.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Glen N. Barber
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068760
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Invading microbes are detected by cellular sensors, the consequences of which result in the production of potent anti-pathogen proteins such as type I interferon (IFN) as well as other cytokines capable of stimulating the adaptive immune response. Examples comprise the RIG-I-like helicase (RLH) and the Toll-like receptor (TLR) families which recognize non-self-pathogen derived molecules (PAMPs) including bacterial lipopolysaccharides as well as nucleic acids. In addition, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) associated transmembrane protein referred to as STING (for stimulator of interferon genes) was established as being essential for triggering the production of innate immune proteins in response to the sensing of cytosolic DNA. Such DNA can be ‘self’-DNA produced from necrotic or apoptotic cells, or the actual genomes of DNA pathogens that become exposed following infection. Moreover, while STING appears essential for controlling innate signaling events triggered by DNA microbes, chronic STING activation also appears to be responsible for certain inflammatory diseases manifested by ‘self’-DNA. Thus, understanding STING function may lead to the design of new compounds that may facilitate vaccine development or conversely that may provide new therapies for the treatment of inflammatory disease.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Cevayir Coban,Miyuki Tozuka,Nao Jounai,Kouji Kobiyama,Fumihiko Takeshita,Choon Kit Tang,Ken J. Ishii
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068841
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ideal vaccines are expected to give lifetime protection from infectious diseases, and if possible, from allergic diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer. DNA vaccination was introduced two decades ago as a simple plasmid inoculation method with a capability of inducing both cellular and humoral immune responses. Recent studies have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms by which the double-stranded structure of DNA vaccine induces the activation of type-I interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immune responses via STING/TBK1 complex, similar to cytosolic double stranded DNA (dsDNA) recognition of immune cells. In this chapter, DNA vaccines and the current knowledge on their mechanism of action will be introduced. The possibilities of using this knowledge for improving immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in humans will then be discussed.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Rebecca Schmidt,Laurel L. Lenz
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068868
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cyclic dinucleotides (c-di-NMPs), such as c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP were first discovered in bacteria, where they play important roles as second messenger molecules that regulate bacterial cellular functions. In addition, these and other c-di-NMPs exert potent biological effects on mammalian cells, such as the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, immune cell activation, and the triggering of type I interferon production. Here, we introduce the biology of c-di-NMPs in bacterial systems and review the current state of the literature on their biological effects in mammalian cells. Emphasis is placed on evaluating the evidence that c-di-NMPs have potent immune stimulatory effects on cultured mouse and human cells and can act as adjuvants and immune stimulants in animal models. In addition, we highlight areas where further experimentation could hasten the development of c-di-NMPs as adjuvants in potent and safe systemic and mucosal vaccines.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Christophe J. Desmet
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 012806885X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aluminum-based adjuvants (alum) are among the oldest and most widely used vaccine adjuvants. After decades of largely empirical use, the last years have witnessed a flurry of studies aiming to decipher the immunological mechanisms of action of alum. Along with other hypotheses, recent reports support that alum induces the release by host cells of their own DNA at sites of injection. Extracellular self-DNA would in turn activate the innate immune system through known and yet to be identified innate immune pathways and in this way boost the adaptive response to vaccine antigens. This chapter discusses the evidence supporting the view of self-DNA as a damage-associated molecular pattern implicated in the adjuvant activity of alum, its possible links with other proposed mechanisms, as well as future directions in the area of the sensing of self-nucleic acids in the modulation of immunological responses to vaccines.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Y.J. Shen,A.R. Lam,S.W.S. Ho,C.X. Koo,N. Le Bert,S. Gasser
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068825
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors and numerous intracellular sensors that detect nucleotides in the cytosol help to initiate immune responses to viral infections. Many of the cytosolic nucleotide sensors and their downstream mediators also play a role in RNA metabolism, DNA repair and cancer. Here we review the evidence that links cytosolic DNA sensors to processes that are activated in cancer cells.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Jan Naujoks,Bastian Opitz
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068809
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The detection of bacterial pathogens by the innate immune system is mediated by various pattern recognition receptors that sense microbial molecules such as cell wall components, virulence factors or nucleic acids. Bacterial DNA is recognized by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) at endosomal compartments and by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, polymerase III/RIG-I, AIM2-like receptors (ALRs), DNA helicases as well as other incompletely characterized proteins in the host cell cytosol. Depending on the receptor and specific engagement of the adapter molecules MyD88, STING, MAVS or ASC, sensing of bacterial DNA triggers expression of NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory genes, type I IFN responses, and/or inflammasome activation. Whereas inflammatory gene expression and inflammasome activation are required for an effective host defense to most bacterial infections, type I IFNs appear to play a regulatory role and can be beneficial or detrimental for the host. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge about the mechanisms of DNA sensing and its function in bacterial infections.

Biological DNA Sensor

Biological DNA Sensor Book
Author : Sivapriya Kailasan Vanaja,Vijay A.K. Rathinam,Katherine A. Fitzgerald
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-30
ISBN : 0128068752
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The innate immune response serves as the first line of defense against microbial infections by detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns through germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors. Proteins of the PYHIN family have gained substantial research focus in recent years as central mediators of innate immune responses induced by cytosolic microbial DNA. Sensing of DNA by PYHINs typically leads to activation of inflammasomes and/or type I interferon responses that are crucial for host defense against invading pathogens. Certain members of the family are also involved in the development of autoimmune diseases as well as transcriptional regulation. Although the generation of knockout mice strains has unraveled the essential role of PYHIN proteins such as AIM2 in the development of antimicrobial innate immune responses, the exact biological role of several other PYHIN family members remains to be understood. This chapter reviews the important discoveries on PYHIN proteins and their role in microbial defense, autoimmunity and transcriptional regulation.

DNA Sensors and Inflammasomes

DNA Sensors and Inflammasomes Book
Author : Jungsan Sohn
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-09
ISBN : 9780128183595
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

DNA Sensors and Inflammasomes, Volume 625, the latest release in the Methods in Enzymology series, continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. New sections in this release include Phosphorylation and dimerization of STING and IRF3, cGAS enzymology, Synthesis and identification of immuno-stimulatory CDNs, Tracking cGAS activity/ cGAMP formation using SPR/NMR, Using an enzyme coupled assay to track cGAS activity under steady states, Tracking the polymerization of DNA sensors, inflammasome receptors, and downstream signaling partners using FRET, NLRC4 structure, Tracking TREX1 activity, DNA association and dissociation kinetics of PARP1, and more. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the Methods in Enzymology series Includes the latest information on DNA sensors and inflammasomes

Electrochemical Biosensors

Electrochemical Biosensors Book
Author : Ali A. Ensafi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-07-25
ISBN : 0128164921
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Electrochemical Biosensors summarizes fundamentals and trends in electrochemical biosensing. It introduces readers to the principles of transducing biological information to measurable electrical signals to identify and quantify organic and inorganic substances in samples. The complexity of devices related to biological matrices makes this challenging, but this measurement and analysis are critically valuable in biotechnology and medicine. Electrochemical biosensors combine the sensitivity of electroanalytical methods with the inherent bioselectivity of the biological component. Some of these sensor devices have reached the commercial stage and are routinely used in clinical, environmental, industrial and agricultural applications. Describes several electrochemical methods used as detection techniques with biosensors Discusses different modifiers, including nanomaterials, for preparing suitable pathways for immobilizing biomaterials at the sensor Explains various types of signal monitoring, along with several recognition systems, including antibodies/antigens, DNA-based biosensors, aptamers (protein-based), and more

Technological Innovations in Sensing and Detection of Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear Threats and Ecological Terrorism

Technological Innovations in Sensing and Detection of Chemical  Biological  Radiological  Nuclear Threats and Ecological Terrorism Book
Author : Ashok Vaseashta,Eric Braman,Philip Susmann
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-01-05
ISBN : 940072487X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book arises from the NATO Advanced Study Institute “Technological Innovations in Detection and Sensing of CBRN Agents and Ecological Terrorism” held in Chisinau, Republic of Moldova in June 2010. It comprises a variety of invited contributions by highly experienced educators, scientists, and industrialists, and is structured to cover important aspects of the field that include developments in chemical-biological, and radiation sensing, synthesis and processing of sensors, and applications of sensors in detecting/monitoring contaminants introduced/dispersed inadvertently or intentionally in air, water, and food supplies. The book emphasizes nanomaterials and nanotechnology based sensing and also includes a section on sensing and detection technologies that can be applied to information security. Finally, it examines regional, national, and international policies and ethics related to nanomaterials and sensing. It will be of considerable interest and value to those already pursuing or considering careers in the field of nanostructured materials and nanotechnology based sensing, In general, it serves as a valuable source of information for those interested in how nanomaterials and nanotechnologies are advancing the field of sensing, detection, and remediation, policy makers, and commanders in the field.

Sensors for Chemical and Biological Applications

Sensors for Chemical and Biological Applications Book
Author : Manoj Kumar Ram,Venkat R. Bhethanabotla
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-10-03
ISBN : 1420005049
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent years, sensor research has undergone a quiet revolution that will have a significant impact on a broad range of applications in areas such as health care, the environment, energy, food safety, national security, and manufacturing. Sensors for Chemical and Biological Applications discusses in detail the potential of chemical and biological sensors and examines how they are meeting the challenges of chem-bio terrorism by monitoring through enhanced specificity, fast response times, and the ability to determine multiple hazardous substances. Exploring the nanotechnology approach, and carrying this theme throughout the book, the chapters cover the sensing principles for, chemical, electrical, chromatographic, magnetic, biological, fluidic, optical, and ultrasonic and mass sensing systems. They address issues associated with cost, synthesis, and testing of new low cost materials with high sensitivity, selectivity, robustness, and speed for defined sensor applications. The book extensively discusses the detailed analysis of future impact of chemical and biological sensors in day-to-day life. Successful development of improved chemical sensor and biosensor systems and manufacturing procedures will not only increase the breadth and depth of the sensor industry, but will spill over into the design and manufacture of other types of sensors and devices that use nanofabrication and microfabrication techniques. This reference not only supplies versatile, hands-on tools useful in a broad array of disciplines, but also lays the interdisciplinary groundwork required for the achievement of sentient processing.

Electrochemical Biosensors

Electrochemical Biosensors Book
Author : Serge Cosnier
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2015-01-26
ISBN : 9814411477
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since four decades, rapid detection and monitoring in clinical and food diagnostics and in environmental and biodefense have paved the way for the elaboration of electrochemical biosensors. Thanks to their adaptability, ease of use in relatively complex samples, and their portability, electrochemical biosensors now are one of the mainstays of analytical chemistry. In particular, electrochemistry has played a pivotal role in the development of transduction methods for biological processes and biosensors. In parallel, the explosion of activity in nanoscience and nanotechnology and their huge success have profoundly affected biosensor technology, opening new avenues of research for electrode materials and transduction. This book provides an overview of biosensors based on amperometry, conductimetry, potentiometry, square-wave voltammetry, impedance, and electrochemiluminescence and describes the use of ultramicroelectrodes for the real-time monitoring and understanding of exocytosis. Areas of particular interest are the use of silver and gold nanoparticles for signal amplification, photocurrent transduction, and aptamer design. Moreover, advanced insights in the innovative concept of self-powered biosensors derived from biofuel cells are also discussed.

Electrochemical DNA Biosensors

Electrochemical DNA Biosensors Book
Author : Mehmet Sengun Ozsoz
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2012-04-23
ISBN : 9814241776
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book focuses on the basic electrochemical applications of DNA in various areas, from basic principles to the most recent discoveries. The book comprises theoretical and experimental analysis of various properties of nucleic acids, research methods, and some promising applications. The topics discussed in the book include electrochemical detection of DNA hybridization based on latex/gold nanoparticle and nanotubes; nanomaterial-based electrochemical DNA detection; electrochemical detection of microorganism-based DNA biosensors; gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical DNA biosensors; electrochemical detection of the aptamer-target interaction; nanoparticle-induced catalysis for DNA biosensing; basic terms regarding electrochemical DNA (nucleic acids) biosensors; screen-printed electrodes for electrochemical DNA detection; application of field-effect transistors to label free electrical DNA biosensor arrays; and electrochemical detection of nucleic acids using branched DNA amplifiers.

Electrochemical Sensors Biosensors and their Biomedical Applications

Electrochemical Sensors  Biosensors and their Biomedical Applications Book
Author : Xueji Zhang,Huangxian Ju,Joseph Wang
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2011-04-28
ISBN : 9780080554891
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book broadly reviews the modem techniques and significant applications of chemical sensors and biosensors. Chapters are written by experts in the field – including Professor Joseph Wang, the most cited scientist in the world and renowned expert on sensor science who is also co-editor. Each chapter provides technical details beyond the level found in typical journal articles, and explores the application of chemical sensors and biosensors to a significant problem in biomedical science, also providing a prospectus for the future. This book compiles the expert knowledge of many specialists in the construction and use of chemical sensors and biosensors including nitric oxide sensors, glucose sensors, DNA sensors, hydrogen sulfide sensors, oxygen sensors, superoxide sensors, immuno sensors, lab on chip, implatable microsensors, et al. Emphasis is laid on practical problems, ranging from chemical application to biomedical monitoring and from in vitro to in vivo, from single cell to animal to human measurement. This provides the unique opportunity of exchanging and combining the expertise of otherwise apparently unrelated disciplines of chemistry, biological engineering, and electronic engineering, medical, physiological. Provides user-oriented guidelines for the proper choice and application of new chemical sensors and biosensors Details new methodological advancements related to and correlated with the measurement of interested species in biomedical samples Contains many case studies to illustrate the range of application and importance of the chemical sensors and biosensors

Opportunities in Biotechnology for Future Army Applications

Opportunities in Biotechnology for Future Army Applications Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Army Science and Technology,Committee on Opportunities in Biotechnology for Future Army Applications
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2001-07-11
ISBN : 0309075556
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report surveys opportunities for future Army applications in biotechnology, including sensors, electronics and computers, materials, logistics, and medical therapeutics, by matching commercial trends and developments with enduring Army requirements. Several biotechnology areas are identified as important for the Army to exploit, either by direct funding of research or by indirect influence of commercial sources, to achieve significant gains in combat effectiveness before 2025.

Nanoporous Gold

Nanoporous Gold Book
Author : Arne Wittstock,Jürgen Biener,Jonah Erlebacher,Marcus Bäumer
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2012-03-28
ISBN : 184973528X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

High-surface-area materials have recently attracted significant interest due to potential applications in various fields such as electrochemistry and catalysis, gas-phase catalysis, optics, sensors and actuators, energy harvesting and storage. In contrast to classical materials the properties of high-surface-area materials are no longer determined by their bulk, but by their nanoscale architecture. Nanoporous gold (np-Au) represents the fascinating class of mesoporous metals that have been intensively investigated in recent years. The current interest and the increasing number of scientific publications show that np-Au by itself is an outstanding nano-material that justifies a book devoted to all aspects of its properties and applications. The resulting publication is a discussion of this unique nano-material and is an accessible and comprehensive introduction to the field. The book provides a broad, multi-disciplinary platform to learn more about the properties of nanoporous gold from an inter-disciplinary perspective. It starts with an introduction and overview of state-of-the-art applications and techniques characterizing this material and its applications. It then covers the progress in research within the last years. The chapters are in-depth overviews written by the world's leading scientists in the particular field. Each chapter covers one technique or application so that the reader can easily target their favoured topic and will get the latest and state-of-the-art information in the field.