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Biojet Fuel in Aviation Applications

Biojet Fuel in Aviation Applications Book
Author : Cheng Tung Chong,Jo-Han Ng
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-06-27
ISBN : 012823072X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biojet fuels have the potential to make an important contribution towards decarbonising the aviation sector. Biojet Fuel in Aviation Applications: Production, Usage and Impact of Biofuels covers all aspects of this sustainable aviation fuel including aviation biofuel public policies, production technologies, physico-chemical properties, combustion performances, techno-economics of sustainable fuel production, sustainability and energywater-food (EWF) nexus. This must-have book also charts the current state of the industry by discussing the relevant industry players who are currently producing alternative aviation fuels and flight tests, while also providing a glimpse of the future of the industry. This comprehensive book is written for undergraduate students, postgraduate students, researchers, engineers and policy makers wanting to build up knowledge in the specific area of biojet fuel or the broader fields of sustainable energy and aeronautics. Reviews major aviation and biojet fuel policies, legislations, initiatives and roadmaps around the world Features existing and emerging biojet fuel production pathways from various feedstocks Highlights the key properties of biojet fuels that ensures inter-operability with conventional jet aviation fuel Discusses the economic aspects of the biojet fuel industry and the barriers preventing its commercialisation Examines the sustainability of biojet fuel from a life cycle assessment, energy balance and EWF nexus point of views

Aviation and the Emerging Use of Biofuels

Aviation and the Emerging Use of Biofuels Book
Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Technology (2007). Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Aviation and the Emerging Use of Biofuels book written by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Technology (2007). Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Accounting Methods for Biojet Fuel

Accounting Methods for Biojet Fuel Book
Author : Gemma Toop,Maarten Cuijpers,Bram Borkent,Mathhias Spöttle
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Accounting Methods for Biojet Fuel book written by Gemma Toop,Maarten Cuijpers,Bram Borkent,Mathhias Spöttle, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Production Processes of Renewable Aviation Fuel

Production Processes of Renewable Aviation Fuel Book
Author : Claudia Gutierrez-Antonio,Araceli Guadalupe Romero-Izquierdo,Fernando Israel Gomez Castro,Salvador Hernández
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-01-22
ISBN : 0128231718
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Production Processes of Renewable Aviation Fuel: Present Technologies and Future Trends presents the available production processes for renewable aviation fuel, including the application of intensification and energy integration strategies. Despite biofuels have gained a lot of interest in the last years, renewable aviation fuel is one of the less studied. In the last ten years, there has been an incredible growth in the number of patents and articles related with its production processes. Several transformation pathways have been proposed, and new ones have been outlined. The book contains the main information about the production processes of renewable aviation fuel, considering international standards, available technologies, and recent scientific contributions. It also outlines the motivation for the development of renewable aviation fuel, and its main processing pathways from the different renewable raw materials. In addition, the application of intensification and energy integration strategies is presented, along with the identified future trends in this area Includes the motivation for the development of renewable aviation fuel and applicable standards Describes the processing pathways from biomass to produce renewable aviation fuel Presents the application of intensification and energy integration strategies for the production of renewable aviation fuel The future trends in the production processes of renewable aviation fuel are discussed

Handbook of Nanotechnology Applications

Handbook of Nanotechnology Applications Book
Author : Kajornsak Faungnawakij,Woei Jye Lau,Uracha Rungsardthong Ruktanonchai,Kuakoon Piyachomkwan
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-10-22
ISBN : 0128215097
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Nanotechnology Applications: Environment, Energy, Agriculture and Medicine presents a comprehensive overview on recent developments and prospects surrounding nanotechnology use in water/wastewater separation and purification, energy storage and conversion, agricultural and food process, and effective diagnoses and treatments in medical fields. The book includes detailed overviews of nanotechnology, including nanofiltration membrane for water/wastewater treatment, nanomedicine and nanosensor development for medical implementation, advanced nanomaterials of different structural dimensions (0D, 1D, 2D and 3D) for energy applications, as well as food and agricultural utilization. Other sections discuss the challenges of lab-based research transitioning towards practical industrial use. Helps scientists and researchers quickly learn and understand the key role of nanotechnology in important industrial applications Takes an interdisciplinary approach, demonstrating how nanotechnology is being used in a wide range of industry sectors Outlines the role nanotechnology plays in creating safer, cheaper and more energy-efficient projects and devices

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Claudia Gutiérrez-Antonio,Fernando Israel Gómez-Castro,Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández,Abel Briones-Ramírez
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 0128085010
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aviation sector contributes with 2% of the total CO2 emissions due to human activities. Moreover, predictions estimate that air traffic will duplicate in the next 20 years, with the corresponding increasing in CO2 emissions. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) has established four strategies to reduce CO2 emissions; one strategy is the development of aviation fuel from renewable feedstocks, known as biojet fuel. In 2009 UOP Honeywell received a patent for its process to produce aviation fuel from renewable feedstocks. The process considers the transformation of vegetable oil through hydrogenating, deoxygenating, isomerizing and selective hydrocracking to generate propane and hydrocarbons fuels. The resulting aviation fuel is very similar to the fossil one, with the only difference that the first one does not contain aromatic compounds. Due to this, the ASTM standard established the use of biojet fuel in mixtures with fossil jet fuel with up to 50% of the bio-fuel. Also, it is important to remark that in this moment the process of UOP Honeywell is the only one certified for the production of aviation fuel from renewable feedstocks. In this work we propose a model for the production of biojet fuel, obtaining an estimation of the conversion of the reactions of the process of UOP Honeywell. Also, the optimization of the purification stage is performed using a multiobjective genetic algorithm with constraints, which is coupled to Aspen Plus process simulator, in order to generate results considering the complete models of the process. Results show a high conversion of the vegetable oil (castor oil) to biofuels (biojet fuel and green diesel); also, energy can be generated in the process as result of the conditioning of the stream that is fed to the distillation train.

Nordic Sustainable Aviation

Nordic Sustainable Aviation Book
Author : Ydersbond, Inga Margarete,Buus Kristensen, Niels,Thune-Larsen, Harald
Publisher : Nordic Council of Ministers
Release : 2020-12-22
ISBN : 928936761X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Globally, aviation accounts for a modest share of World total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from today’s energy use. However, air transport has been rapidly increasing and many other sectors are expected to reduce their emissions. Hence, aviation’s share of global emissions can be foreseen to rise and will constitute a significant part of the problem unless strong counteracting initiatives are taken. Efforts regarding aviation have so far been limited, although despite significant technological improvements of aircraft energy efficiency over the past decades. The Nordic countries all have high ambitions to become more environmentally sustainable. The aim of this report is to examine challenges and opportunities for increased Nordic cooperation with regards to increasing sustainability of aviation and, based on evaluation of alternative options, propose common policy measures.

Biofuels for Aviation

Biofuels for Aviation Book
Author : Christopher Chuck
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-06-02
ISBN : 0128032154
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biofuels for Aviation: Feedstocks, Technology and Implementation presents the issues surrounding the research and use of biofuels for aviation, such as policy, markets, certification and performance requirements, life cycle assessment, and the economic and technical barriers to their full implementation. Readers involved in bioenergy and aviation sectors—research, planning, or policy making activities—will benefit from this thorough overview. The aviation industry’s commitment to reducing GHG emissions along with increasing oil prices have sparked the need for renewable and affordable energy sources tailored to this sector’s very specific needs. As jet engines cannot be readily electrified, turning to biofuels is the most viable option. However, aviation is a type of transportation for which traditional biofuels, such as bioethanol and biodiesel, do not fulfill key fuel requirements. Therefore, different solutions to this situation are being researched and tested around the globe, which makes navigating this scenario particularly challenging. This book guides readers through this intricate subject, bringing them up to speed with its current status and future prospects both from the academic and the industry point of view. Science and technology chapters delve into the technical aspects of the currently tested and the most promising technology in development, as well as their respective feedstocks and the use of additives as a way of adapting them to meet certain specifications. Conversion processes such as hydrotreatment, synthetic biology, pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction and Fisher-Tropsch are explored and their results are assessed for current and future viability. Presents the current status of biofuels for the aviation sector, including technologies that are currently in use and the most promising future technologies, their production processes and viability Explains the requirements for certification and performance of aviation fuels and how that can be achieved by biofuels Explores the economic and policy issues, as well as life cycle assessment, a comparative techno-economic analysis of promising technologies and a roadmap to the future Explores conversion processes such as hydrotreatment, synthetic biology, pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction and Fisher-Tropsch

Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technologies for Building and Environmental Applications

Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technologies for Building and Environmental Applications Book
Author : Mardiana Idayu Ahmad,Mazran Ismail,Saffa Riffat
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-04-20
ISBN : 3319318403
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This diverse resource on renewable energy and sustainable technologies highlights the status, state of the art, challenges, advancements and options in areas such as energy recovery systems, turbine ventilators, green composites, biofuels and bio-resources for energy production, wind energy, integrated energy-efficient systems, thermal energy storage, natural ventilation & day-lighting systems, and low carbon technologies for building and environmental applications. It is designed to serve as a reference book for students, researchers, manufacturers and professionals working in these fields. The editors have gathered articles from world-leading experts that clearly illustrate key areas in renewable energy and sustainability. The distinct role of these technologies in future endeavors is stressed by taking into account the opportunities to contribute with new approaches, methods and directions for building and environmental applications. The in-depth discussion presented in this book will give readers a clear understanding of every important aspect of each technology’s applications, optimum configuration, modifications, limitations and their possible improvements.

Laminar Flame Speed of Jet Fuel Surrogates and Second Generation Biojet Fuel Blends

Laminar Flame Speed of Jet Fuel Surrogates and Second Generation Biojet Fuel Blends Book
Author : Jeffrey Munzar
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"An understanding of the fundamental combustion properties of alternative fuels is essential for their adoption as replacements for non-renewable sources. In the aviation industry, a promising candidate is hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJF). HRJF can be synthesized in a sustainable and economically viable manner from long chain fatty-acid methyl esters found in jatropha and camelina seed, and the laboratory-scale characterization of the combustion properties of HRJF is an active area of research. Such research is motivated, in part, by the chemical complexity of biojet fuels which are composed of hundreds of hydrocarbon species, similar to conventional aviation grade fuels. The laminar flame speed has been identified as an important combustion parameter for many combustion applications, and is especially relevant to the aviation community. The laminar flame speed is also an important parameter in the validation of chemical kinetic mechanisms, as it is representative of the chemical reactivity of the fuel. In this study, laminar, atmospheric pressure, premixed stagnation flames were used to determine the laminar flame speed of HRJF blended in varying ratios with Jet A-1 aviation fuel, requiring a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Jet A-1 was also studied to allow for comparative benchmarking of the biojet blends. Experiments were carried out in a jet-wall stagnation flame geometry at a pre-heated temperature of 400 K. Centerline velocity profiles were obtained using particle image velocimetry, from which the strained reference flame speeds were determined. Simulations of each experiment were carried out using the CHEMKIN-PRO software package together with a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism, with the specification of necessary boundary conditions taken entirely from experimental measurements. A direct comparison method was used to infer the true laminar flame speed from the experimental and numerical strained reference flame speeds. In order to model the chemical kinetics of Jet A-1 and the biojet blends, it was necessary to identify a surrogate blend that emulates the reactivity of the biojet fuels, while consisting of a much smaller number of pure compounds. Published data shows significant discrepancies for many jet fuel surrogate components, motivating their inclusion in this study. Thus, laminar flame speeds were also obtained for three candidate jet fuel surrogate components: n-decane, methylcyclohexane and toluene, which are representative of the alkane, cycloalkane and aromatic components of conventional aviation fuel, respectively. Results for the pure surrogate components were used to generate a suitable surrogate blend for the biojet blends. The results form this work resolve conflicting laminar flame speed data for the surrogate components, which is essential for the further development of chemical kinetic mechanisms and contributes to the surrogate modelling of jet fuel combustion. The laminar flame speeds of the biojet blends are compared to the Jet A-1 benchmark over a wide range of equivalence ratios. The biojet blends are found to behave similarly to Jet A-1 for low to moderate levels of blending, but show a marked disagreement otherwise." --

An Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders

An Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders Book
Author : Carolyn Davidson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report is for biofuels stakeholders interested the U.S. aviation fuel market. Jet fuel production represents about 10% of U.S. petroleum refinery production. Exxon Mobil, Chevron, and BP top producers, and Texas, Louisiana, and California are top producing states. Distribution of fuel primarily involves transport from the Gulf Coast to other regions. Fuel is transported via pipeline (60%), barges on inland waterways (30%), tanker truck (5%), and rail (5%). Airport fuel supply chain organization and fuel sourcing may involve oil companies, airlines, airline consortia, airport owners and operators, and airport service companies. Most fuel is used for domestic, commercial, civilian flights. Energy efficiency has substantially improved due to aircraft fleet upgrades and advanced flight logistic improvements. Jet fuel prices generally track prices of crude oil and other refined petroleum products, whose prices are more volatile than crude oil price. The single largest expense for airlines is jet fuel, so its prices and persistent price volatility impact industry finances. Airlines use various strategies to manage aviation fuel price uncertainty. The aviation industry has established goals to mitigate its greenhouse gas emissions, and initial estimates of biojet life cycle greenhouse gas emissions exist. Biojet fuels from Fischer-Tropsch and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids processes have ASTM standards. The commercial aviation industry and the U.S. Department of Defense have used aviation biofuels. Additional research is needed to assess the environmental, economic, and financial potential of biojet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate long-term upward price trends, fuel price volatility, or both.

Biorefining of Biomass to Biofuels

Biorefining of Biomass to Biofuels Book
Author : Sachin Kumar,Rajesh K. Sani
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-11-06
ISBN : 3319676784
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume focuses on the prospects of the conversion of biomass into biofuels including ethanol, butanol, biogas, biohydrogen, biodiesel, syn-gas and other useful products. Biomass-derived fuels have gained tremendous attention worldwide. However, due to high raw material and processing costs, biofuels produced from lignocelluloses have been found to be more expensive than conventional fuels. Therefore, a concept of biorefining has been introduced, where more than one product or each and every component of biomass may be derived into useful products in a manner of petroleum refinery.

Green Aviation

Green Aviation Book
Author : Emily S. Nelson,D.R. Reddy
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-06-12
ISBN : 1136318194
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aircraft emissions currently account for ~3.5% of all greenhouse gas emissions. The number of passenger miles has increased by 5% annually despite 9/11, two wars and gloomy economic conditions. Since aircraft have no viable alternative to the internal combustion engine, improvements in aircraft efficiency and alternative fuel development become essential. This book comprehensively covers the relevant issues in green aviation. Environmental impacts, technology advances, public policy and economics are intricately linked to the pace of development that will be realized in the coming decades. Experts from NASA, industry and academia review current technology development in green aviation that will carry the industry through 2025 and beyond. This includes increased efficiency through better propulsion systems, reduced drag airframes, advanced materials and operational changes. Clean combustion and emission control of noise, exhaust gases and particulates are also addressed through combustor design and the use of alternative fuels. Economic imperatives from aircraft lifetime and maintenance logistics dictate the drive for "drop-in" fuels, blending jet-grade and biofuel. New certification standards for alternative fuels are outlined. Life Cycle Assessments are used to evaluate worldwide biofuel approaches, highlighting that there is no single rational approach for sustainable buildup. In fact, unless local conditions are considered, the use of biofuels can create a net increase in environmental impact as a result of biofuel manufacturing processes. Governmental experts evaluate current and future regulations and their impact on green aviation. Sustainable approaches to biofuel development are discussed for locations around the globe, including the US, EU, Brazil, China and India.

Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders

Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report is for biofuels stakeholders interested the U.S. aviation fuel market. Jet fuel production represents about 10% of U.S. petroleum refinery production. Exxon Mobil, Chevron, and BP top producers, and Texas, Louisiana, and California are top producing states. Distribution of fuel primarily involves transport from the Gulf Coast to other regions. Fuel is transported via pipeline (60%), barges on inland waterways (30%), tanker truck (5%), and rail (5%). Airport fuel supply chain organization and fuel sourcing may involve oil companies, airlines, airline consortia, airport owners and operators, and airport service companies. Most fuel is used for domestic, commercial, civilian flights. Energy efficiency has substantially improved due to aircraft fleet upgrades and advanced flight logistic improvements. Jet fuel prices generally track prices of crude oil and other refined petroleum products, whose prices are more volatile than crude oil price. The single largest expense for airlines is jet fuel, so its prices and persistent price volatility impact industry finances. Airlines use various strategies to manage aviation fuel price uncertainty. The aviation industry has established goals to mitigate its greenhouse gas emissions, and initial estimates of biojet life cycle greenhouse gas emissions exist. Biojet fuels from Fischer-Tropsch and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids processes have ASTM standards. The commercial aviation industry and the U.S. Department of Defense have used aviation biofuels. Additional research is needed to assess the environmental, economic, and financial potential of biojet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate long-term upward price trends, fuel price volatility, or both.

Commerce Justice Science and Related Agencies Appropriations for 2009

Commerce  Justice  Science  and Related Agencies Appropriations for 2009 Book
Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Commerce Justice Science and Related Agencies Appropriations for 2009 book written by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Biomass as Energy Source

Biomass as Energy Source Book
Author : Erik Dahlquist
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2013-03-25
ISBN : 0203120256
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Global energy use is approximately 140 000 TWh per year. Interestingly, biomass production amounts to approximately 270 000 TWh per year, or roughly twice as much, whereas the official figure of biomass use for energy applications is 10-13% of the global energy use. This shows that biomass is not a marginal energy resource but more than capable of

Process Systems Engineering for Biofuels Development

Process Systems Engineering for Biofuels Development Book
Author : Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet,Gade Pandu Rangaiah
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-07-23
ISBN : 1119580315
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A comprehensive overview of current developments and applications in biofuels production Process Systems Engineering for Biofuels Development brings together the latest and most cutting-edge research on the production of biofuels. As the first book specifically devoted to process systems engineering for the production of biofuels, Process Systems Engineering for Biofuels Development covers theoretical, computational and experimental issues in biofuels process engineering. Written for researchers and postgraduate students working on biomass conversion and sustainable process design, as well as industrial practitioners and engineers involved in process design, modeling and optimization, this book is an indispensable guide to the newest developments in areas including: Enzyme-catalyzed biodiesel production Process analysis of biodiesel production (including kinetic modeling, simulation and optimization) The use of ultrasonification in biodiesel production Thermochemical processes for biomass transformation to biofuels Production of alternative biofuels In addition to the comprehensive overview of the subject of biofuels found in the Introduction of the book, the authors of various chapters have provided extensive discussions of the production and separation of biofuels via novel applications and techniques.

Sustainable Development for Energy Power and Propulsion

Sustainable Development for Energy  Power  and Propulsion Book
Author : Ashoke De,Ashwani K. Gupta,Suresh K. Aggarwal,Abhijit Kushari,Akshai K. Runchal
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-09-03
ISBN : 9811556679
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book comprises state-of-the-art advances in energy, combustion, power, propulsion, environment, focusing on the production and utilization of fossil fuels, alternative fuels and biofuels. It is written by internationally renowned experts who provide the latest fundamental and applied research innovations on cleaner energy production as well as utilization for a wide range of devices extending from micro scale energy conversion to hypersonic propulsion using hydrocarbon fuels. The tailored technical tracks and contributions are portrayed in the respective field to highlight different but complementary views on fuels, combustion, power and propulsion and air toxins with special focus on current and future R&D needs and activities. This book will serve as a useful reference for practicing engineers, research engineers and managers in industry and research labs, academic institutions, graduate students, and final year undergraduate students in mechanical, chemical, aerospace, energy, and environmental engineering.

Green Energy to Sustainability Strategies for Global Industries

Green Energy to Sustainability  Strategies for Global Industries Book
Author : Alain A. Vertes,Nasib Qureshi,Hans P. Blaschek,Hideaki Yukawa
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-03-25
ISBN : 1119152046
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reviews the latest advances in biofuel manufacturing technologies and discusses the deployment of other renewable energy for transportation Aimed at providing an interface useful to business and scientific managers, this book focuses on the key challenges that still impede the realization of the billion-ton renewable fuels vision. It places great emphasis on a global view of the topic, reviewing deployment and green energy technology in different countries across Africa, Asia, South America, the EU, and the USA. It also integrates scientific, technological, and business development perspectives to highlight the key developments that are necessary for the global replacement of fossil fuels with green energy solutions. Green Energy to Sustainability: Strategies for Global Industries examines the most recent developments in biofuel manufacturing technologies in light of business, financial, value chain, and supply chain concerns. It also covers the use of other renewable energy sources like solar energy for transportation and proposes a view of the challenges over the next two to five decades, and how these will deeply modify the industrial world in the third millennium. The coming of age of electric vehicles is also looked at, as is the impact of their deployment on the biomass to biofuels value chain. Offers extensive updates on the field of green energy for global industries Covers the structure of the energy business; chemicals and diesel from biomass; ethanol and butanol; hydrogen and methane; and more Provides an expanded focus on the next generation of energy technologies Reviews the latest advances in biofuel manufacturing technologies Integrates scientific, technological and business perspectives Highlights important developments needed for replacing fossil fuels with green energy Green Energy to Sustainability: Strategies for Global Industries will appeal to academic researchers working on the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks and those working in green and sustainable chemistry, and chemical/process engineering. It is also an excellent textbook for courses in bioprocessing technology, renewable resources, green energy, and sustainable chemistry.