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Biomass Biofuels Biochemicals

Biomass  Biofuels  Biochemicals Book
Author : Ashok Pandey,Duu Jong Lee,Jo-Shu Chang,Yusuf Chisti,Carlos Ricardo Soccol
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-11-14
ISBN : 0444642145
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomass, Biofuels and Biochemicals: Biofuels from Algae, Second Edition provides information on strategies for commercial microalgae based biofuel production, including their cultivation, pre-treatment and conversion methods. The book discusses methods for producing microalgal biomass in large scale by outdoor culturing and outlines new technologies for their use. In addition, it explains how modern genetic engineering enables the generation of recombinant strains that generate higher quantities of feedstock. The complete utilization of microalgal biomass, which can also be obtained from valorizing nutrients from wastewater and industrial exhaust gases, can be efficiently converted to energy rich biofuels and high value pharmaceuticals in a well-defined biorefinery. Includes the current technologies for the cultivation and conversion of energy rich microalgal biomass into biofuels Provides information on all the conversion methods – biochemical and thermochemical conversions Covers other high value products from microalgae and less conventional applications, such as fine chemical production and aviation fuel generation Discusses the economics of microalgal biofuel production and how to accomplish cost competitive results

Biofuels from Algae

Biofuels from Algae Book
Author : Ashok Pandey,Duu-Jong Lee,Yusuf Chisti,Carlos R. Soccol
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-08-08
ISBN : 0444595821
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides in-depth information on basic and applied aspects of biofuels production from algae. It begins with an introduction to the topic, and follows with the basic scientific aspects of algal cultivation and its use for biofuels production, such as photo bioreactor engineering for microalgae production, open culture systems for biomass production and the economics of biomass production. It provides state-of-the-art information on synthetic biology approaches for algae suitable for biofuels production, followed by algal biomass harvesting, algal oils as fuels, biohydrogen production from algae, formation/production of co-products, and more. The book also covers topics such as metabolic engineering and molecular biology for algae for fuel production, life cycle assessment and scale-up and commercialization. It is highly useful and helps you to plan new research and design new economically viable processes for the production of clean fuels from algae. Covers in a comprehensive but concise way most of the algae biomass conversion technologies currently available Lists all the products produced from algae, i.e. biohydrogen, fuel oils, etc., their properties and potential uses Includes the economics of the various processes and the necessary steps for scaling them up

Algae for Biofuels and Energy

Algae for Biofuels and Energy Book
Author : Michael A. Borowitzka,Navid R. Moheimani
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-11
ISBN : 9400754795
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microalgae are one of the most studied potential sources of biofuels and bioenergy. This book covers the key steps in the production of renewable biofuels from microalgae - strain selection, culture systems, inorganic carbon utilisation, lipid metabolism and quality, hydrogen production, genetic engineering, biomass harvesting, extraction. Greenhouse gas and techno-economic modelling are reviewed as is the 100 year history of microalgae as sources of biofuels and of commercial-scale microalgae culture. A summary of relevant basic standard methods used in the study of microalgae culture is provided. The book is intended for the expert and those starting work in the field.​

Biofuels from Algae

Biofuels from Algae Book
Author : Kuan-Yeow Show,Duu-Jong Lee
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-08-08
ISBN : 0128083697
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Extensive effort is being made globally to develop various biofuels as an inexhaustible and renewable energy source. Biofuels are viewed as promising alternatives to conventional fossil fuels because they have the potential to eliminate major environmental problems such as global warming and climate change created by fossil fuels. Among the still-developing biofuel technologies, biodiesel production from algae offers a good prospect for large-scale practical use, considering the fact that algae are capable of producing much more yield than other biofuels such as corn and soybean crops. Although research on algae-based biofuel is still in its developing stage, extensive work on laboratory- and pilot-scale algae-harvesting systems with promising prospects has been reported. This chapter presents a discussion of the literature review of recent advances in algal biomass harvesting. The chapter focuses on stability and separability of algae and algae-harvesting methods. Challenges and prospects of algae harvesting are also outlined. The review aims to provide useful information for future development of efficient and commercially viable algal biodiesel production.

Biofuels from Algae

Biofuels from Algae Book
Author : Man Kee Lam,Keat Teong Lee
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-08-08
ISBN : 012808376X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Algae are currently being considered as a versatile feedstock for biofuel production because of their fast growth rate and high biomass productivity. Algae could simultaneously act as a carbon sink and water purifier if their cultivation were coupled with flue gas and wastewater treatment, respectively. Hence, an understanding of the overall supply chains for algal biofuel production is exceptionally important to determine whether it is worthwhile to scale up and commercialize algal cultivation for biofuel production. In this chapter, various aspects and constraints associated with the commercialization of algal biofuels are deliberated in detail, especially from the perspective of life-cycle energy balance. In addition, discussions on the economic assessments of algal biofuels are included in this chapter to provide an overview of the current state of algal biofuels in the fuel market. Potential algal biofuel conversion technologies, such as transesterification, starch hydrolysis and fermentation, pyrolysis, and hydrothermal liquefaction are also presented.

Biofuels from Algae

Biofuels from Algae Book
Author : S. Venkata Mohan,M. Prathima Devi,G. Venkata Subhash,Rashmi Chandra
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-08-08
ISBN : 0128083727
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biologically produced fuels are considered potential and viable alternatives to meet the world’s fuel requirements. In this context, algal-based oil is of significant importance due to its renewable and carbon-neutral nature. Biosynthesis of triglycerides by utilizing CO2 (by biofixation) or wastewater under stress conditions via photoautotrophic, heterotrophic (photo/dark), or mixotrophic mechanisms enumerates the potential of microalgae for generation of renewable biodiesel. In addition to the algal cultivation, the conversion of the accumulated lipids to biodiesel is gaining considerable interest. Though there exist some constraints, the process of harnessing biofuel from microalgae is both economically viable and environmentally sustainable compared to the other oil-producing terrestrial crops. This chapter explores biofuel production using microalgae. Concerted efforts are made in this chapter to discuss the biochemistry pertaining to algal lipid synthesis, nutritional modes of algae, cultivation systems used for algal oil production, and the cascade of steps involved, from biomass cultivation to transesterification of the fuel. The ability of microalgae to capture CO2 and its survivability in wastewater is also elaborated in the context of lipid synthesis.

Biofuels from Algae

Biofuels from Algae Book
Author : Carlos José DalmasNeto,Eduardo Bittencourt Sydney,Ricardo Assmann,DolivarCoraucci Neto,Carlos Ricardo Soccol
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-08-08
ISBN : 0128083719
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biofuel production from microalgae has been gaining importance in recent years as an alternative (nonpolluting) fuel source, but the industry faces economic challenges. In this context, a feasible technology of bio-oil production from microalgal biomass through fast pyrolysis is presented in this chapter. A microalga was cultivated in a cheap ethanol-wastewater-based medium, harvested, dried, and subjected to fast pyrolysis, the conditions of which were controlled to generate high yield of bio-oil. Bio-oil yield was 17.4% (m/m), with lower heating value (LHV) of 8,071kcal/kg. Volumetric energetic density was then calculated as 9,927.33kcal/L. Besides bio-oil, coal (10.8% m/m), acid extract (32.3% m/m), and gases (39.5% m/m) were produced. This technology combined low cost and simplicity of operation, turning fast pyrolysis of microalgae into a potential alternative in the free-carbon-emission fuel production process.

Algae Energy

Algae Energy Book
Author : Ayhan Demirbas,Muhammet Fatih Demirbas
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-07-10
ISBN : 9781849960502
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Algae Energy covers the production of algae culture and the usage of algal biomass conversion products. It also reviews modern biomass-based transportation fuels, including biodiesel, bio-oil, biomethane and biohydrogen. Each chapter opens with fundamental explanations suitable for those with a general interest in algae energy and goes on to provide in-depth scientific details for more expert readers. Algae energy is discussed within the wider context of green energy, with chapters covering topics such as: green energy facilities, algae technology, energy from algae and biodiesel from algae. Algae Energy addresses the needs of energy researchers, chemical engineers, fuel and environmental engineers, postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students, and others interested in a practical tool for pursuing their interest in bio-energy.

Biofuels from Algae

Biofuels from Algae Book
Author : Kristian Spilling
Publisher : Humana
Release : 2019-12-13
ISBN : 9781493994151
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume provides a comprehensive overview of different ways to grow algae and the techniques used to start algal cultivation, monitor algal growth, environmental impact of growing algae, and various methods for characterizing the biomass. The chapters in this book discuss a range of topics such as step-by-step protocols on how to isolate and grow algae; descriptions on how to use fluorescence to estimate algal biomass and lipid content; and instructions on using advanced techniques to determine the carbohydrates and lipids in algal biomass. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Biofuels from Algae: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for novice and experienced researchers who want to learn more about this impactful and developing field.

Biofuels from Algae

Biofuels from Algae Book
Author : Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa,Michele Greque de Morais
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-08-08
ISBN : 0128083654
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microalgal biomasses have a long history of industrial production for application in a variety of fields. The success of commercial large-scale production of microalgae depends on many factors, one which is the development of cost-effective systems. Open pond reactors are the most widely used system in large-scale microalgal cultivation due to their low cost of construction, maintenance, and operation. However, closed photobioreactors have a high photosynthetic efficiency and biomass productivity. This study presents the advantages and disadvantages of open ponds compared with other photobioreactors and examines the factors that affect the cultures and their bioproducts.

Algal Biofuels

Algal Biofuels Book
Author : Sanjay Kumar Gupta,Anushree Malik,Faizal Bux
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-02-26
ISBN : 331951010X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This edited volume focuses on comprehensive state-of-the-art information about the practical aspects of cultivation, harvesting, biomass processing and biofuel production from algae. Chapters cover topics such as synthetic ecological engineering approaches towards sustainable production of biofuel feedstock, and algal biofuel production processes using wastewater. Readers will also discover more about the role of biotechnological engineering in improving ecophysiology, biomass and lipid yields. Particular attention is given to opportunities of commercialization of algal biofuels that provides a realistic assessment of various techno-economical aspects of pilot scale algal biofuel production. The authors also explore the pre-treatment of biomass, catalytic conversion of algal lipids and hydrothermal liquefaction with the biorefinery approach in detail. In a nut shell, this volume will provide a wealth of information based on a realistic evaluation of contemporary developments in algal biofuel research with an emphasis on pilot scale studies. Researchers studying and working in the areas of environmental science, biotechnology, genetic engineering and biochemistry will find this work instructive and informative.

Biofuels from Algae

Biofuels from Algae Book
Author : Eduardo Bittencourt Sydney,Alessandra Cristine Novak,Julio Cesar de Carvalho,Carlos Ricardo Soccol
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-08-08
ISBN : 0128083689
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Despite being known for a long time, microalgae are gaining importance in recent decades because of their high capacity to fixate atmospheric carbon, assisting in the reduction of global warming. Concurrently with carbon fixation, the production of compounds of commercial interest and reuse of industrial and domestic wastewater turned microalgal culture into one of the most commented-on subjects in the scientific community. In this chapter the photosynthetic metabolism of microalgae is described and discussed, with emphasis on carbon sequestration. The chapter covers the basics of growing algae, the most influential factors in CO2 fixation, and quantification methodologies. Practical data on rates of carbon fixation by microalgae are presented, especially those genera of algae with the greatest potential for industrial application: Spirulina, Chlorella, Haematococcus, Dunaliella, and Botryococcus. Finally, aspects of the growing global carbon market and the role microalgal technologies can play are also discussed.

Algal Biofuels

Algal Biofuels Book
Author : Leonel Pereira
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-07-28
ISBN : 1351648594
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Algae presents a viable biofuel alternative because the production of algae for fuel, unlike other agro-based biofuels, does not compete with food production. This book covers algae-based biofuel options and discusses the design and economic viability of algal bioenergy co-production concepts.

Algae and Environmental Sustainability

Algae and Environmental Sustainability Book
Author : Bhaskar Singh,Kuldeep Bauddh,Faizal Bux
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-12-22
ISBN : 8132226410
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents the dynamic role of algae in a sustainable environment. Two major aspects, namely bioenergy and bioremediation, have been elaborated in various chapter contributed by scientists and teachers from different geographical areas throughout the world. Algal biofuels is an emerging area of equal interest to researchers, industries, and policy makers working or focusing on alternative (i.e. renewable) fuels. Algae have been an area of interest due to their wide range of applications. Over the last 5 decades, eukaryotic algae have been used in the aquaculture industry as feed for invertebrates, providing a rich source of antioxidants, dietary fiber, minerals and protein. More recently, there has been a focus on the use of algal biomass in the development of alternative fuels. The extraction of oil from algae has been widely explored as a much more viable feedstock than plant-based oils in large-scale fuel production. using algae as feedstock has the advantages that it doesn’t require arable land and that wastewater can be used as a source of nutrients in their culture. The multifunctional approach of algae includes pollution remediation, carbon sequestration, biofuels production, and delivery of value-added products. However, there are still some obstacles that need to be overcome to make their use as potential feedstock for biofuels techno-economically feasible. In order to maintain the sustainability aspect of algal biofuels, various aspects have to be studied and critically analyzed to assess the long-term sustainability of algal derived biofuels. This book discusses the role of algae as a promising future feedstock for biofuels. They are known to sequester carbon in much larger amounts than plants and as such the book also describes their phycoremediation potential for conventional as well as emerging contaminants. It describes the role of anaerobic digestion in algal biorefineries; bioreactions and process parameters; biogas recovery and reuse. The role of algal biofilm based technology in wastewater treatment and transforming waste into bio-products is discussed, and remediation of sewage water through algae is assessed. The book also describes the production of biohydrogen, bio-oil, biodiesel; and the major bottlenecks in their usage. The emerging characterization techniques of these biofuels (bio-oil and biodiesel) are described, as are the decolorizing potential of algae and the genetic engineering techniques that could enhance the production of lipids in algae. Other aspects of the book include the role of remote sensing technology in the monitoring of algae and a life cycle assessment of algal biofuels.

Third Generation Biofuels

Third Generation Biofuels Book
Author : Pratima Bajpai
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-10-10
ISBN : 981132378X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Growing concerns about the rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves, rising crude oil prices, energy security and global climate change have led to increased worldwide interest in renewable energy sources such as biofuels. In this context, biofuel production from renewable sources is considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and a viable means of achieving environmental and economic sustainability. Although biofuel processes hold great potential to provide a carbon-neutral route to fuel production, first-generation production systems are characterized by considerable economic and environmental limitations. The advent of second-generation biofuels is intended to produce fuels from lignocellulosic biomass, the woody part of plants that does not compete with food production. However, converting woody biomass into fermentable sugars requires costly technologies. Therefore, third-generation biofuels from microalgae are considered to be a viable alternative energy resource, free from the major drawbacks associated with first and second-generation biofuels. This book examines the background of third-generation biofuel production; the advantages of algae over traditional biofuel crops; algal biomass production; algae harvesting and drying methods; production of biofuel from microalgae; and future prospects.

Microalgae Biotechnology for Development of Biofuel and Wastewater Treatment

Microalgae Biotechnology for Development of Biofuel and Wastewater Treatment Book
Author : Md. Asraful Alam,Zhongming Wang
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-04-30
ISBN : 9811322643
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book addresses microalgae, which represent a very promising biomass resource for wastewater treatment and producing biofuels. Accordingly, microalgae are also an expanding sector in biofuels and wastewater treatment, as can be seen in several high-profile start-ups from around the globe, including Solix Biofuels, Craig Venter’s Synthetic Genomics, PetroSun, Chevron Corporation, ENN Group etc. In addition, a number of recent studies and patent applications have confirmed the value of modern microalgae for biofuels production and wastewater treatment systems. However, substantial inconsistencies have been observed in terms of system boundaries, scope, the cultivation of microalgae and oil extraction systems, production costs and economic viability, cost-lowering components, etc. Moreover, the downstream technologies and core principles involved in liquid fuel extraction from microalgae cells are still in their early stages, and not always adequate for industrial production. Accordingly, multilateral co-operation between universities, research institutes, governments, stakeholders and researchers is called for in order to make microalgae biofuels economical. Responding to this challenge, the book begins with a general introduction to microalgae and the algae industry, and subsequently discusses all major aspects of microalgal biotechnology, from strain isolation and robust strain development, to biofuel development, refinement and wastewater treatment.

Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels in the United States

Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels in the United States Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Committee on the Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2013-01-18
ISBN : 0309260329
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biofuels made from algae are gaining attention as a domestic source of renewable fuel. However, with current technologies, scaling up production of algal biofuels to meet even 5 percent of U.S. transportation fuel needs could create unsustainable demands for energy, water, and nutrient resources. Continued research and development could yield innovations to address these challenges, but determining if algal biofuel is a viable fuel alternative will involve comparing the environmental, economic and social impacts of algal biofuel production and use to those associated with petroleum-based fuels and other fuel sources. Sustainable Development of Algal Biofuels was produced at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Biofuels

Biofuels Book
Author : Ashok Pandey,Christian Larroche,Steven C Ricke,Claude-Gilles Dussap,Edgard Gnansounou
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2011-08-25
ISBN : 0123851009
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Global concern for energy security and environmental protection has put great emphasis on the search for alternative energy sources, particularly for the transport sector. Biofuels have emerged as a highly promising source of alternative energy, and have drawn global R&D for their production using biomass. With the increasing worldwide demand of energy along with the depletion of conventional fossil fuel reserves, there has been growing global interest in developing alternative sources of energy. There has also been concern in growing economies regarding energy security. Biofuels offer much promise on these frontiers. In addition to the above, they also have a reduced environmental impact in comparison to fossil fuels. Biofuels provides state-of-the-art information on the status of biofuel production and related aspects. Detailed overview of the alternative energy field and the role of biofuels as new energy sources Gives a detailed account of the production of biodiesel from non conventional bio-feedstocks such as algae and vegetable oils Includes production of biohydrogen: the fourth generation biofuel

Bioenergy

Bioenergy Book
Author : Anju Dahiya
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014-11-10
ISBN : 0124081207
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Depleting fossil fuel reserves and adverse effects of fluctuating oil prices have renewed interest in alternative and sustainable sources of energy. Bioenergy: Biomass to Biofuels takes on this topic and examines current and emerging feedstocks and advanced processes and technologies enabling the development of all possible alternative energy sources: solid (wood energy, grass energy, and other biomass), liquid (biodiesel, algae biofuel, ethanol), and gaseous/electric (biogas, syngas, bioelectricity). Divided into seven parts, Bioenergy gives thorough consideration to topics such as feedstocks, biomass production and utilization, life cycle analysis, Energy Return on Invested (EROI), integrated sustainability assessments, conversions technologies, biofuels economics and policy. In addition, contributions from leading industry professionals and academics, augmented by related service-learning case studies and quizzes, provide readers with a comprehensive resource that connect theory to real-world implementation. Provides a comprehensive overview and in-depth technical information of all possible bioenergy resources (solid, liquid, and gaseous), including cutting-edge topics such as advanced fuels and biogas Integrates current state of art coverage from feedstocks to cost-effective conversion processes to biofuels economic analysis and environmental policy Features case studies and quizzes for each section derived from the implementation of actual hands-on biofuel projects as part of service learning.

Algae as a Feedstock for Biofuels

Algae as a Feedstock for Biofuels Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The pursuit of a stable, economically-sound, and environmentally-friendly source of transportation fuel has led to extensive research and development (R & D) efforts focused on the conversion of various feedstocks into biofuels. Some feedstocks, such as sugar cane, corn and woody biomass, are targeted because their structures can be broken down into sugars and fermented into alcohols. Other feedstocks, such as vegetable oils, are appealing because they contain considerable amounts of lipids, which can be extracted and converted into biodiesel or other fuels. While significant R & D and commercial strides have been made with each of these feedstocks, technical and market barriers (e.g., cost, scalability, infrastructure requirements, and 'food vs. fuel' debates) currently limit the penetration of the resultant biofuels into the mainstream. Because of algae's ability to potentially address several of these barriers, its use as a feedstock for biofuels has led to much excitement and initiative within the energy industry. Algae are highly diverse, singleor multi-cellular organisms comprised of mostly lipids, protein, and carbohydrates, which may be used to produce a wide variety of biofuels. Algae offer many competitive advantages over other feedstocks, including: 1) Higher potential lipid content than terrestrial plants, sometimes exceeding 50% of the cell's dry biomass (U.S. DOE, May '10; Tornabene et al., 1983) 2) Rapid growth rates that are 20-30 times higher than terrestrial crops (McDill, 2009) and, in some cases, capable of doubling in size with 10 hours 3) Diverse number of species that can collectively thrive in a wide range of environments throughout the world, presenting an overall high overall tolerance for climate, sunlight, nutrient levels, etc. 4) Daily harvesting potential instead of seasonal harvest periods associated with terrestrial crops 5) Potential to redirect CO2 from industry operations to algal cultivation facilities to be used in an algal biofuel cycle before it is released into the atmosphere 6) Ability to be cultivated on land that that is unsuitable for agriculture, so it does not directly compete with farmland Given microalgae's high lipid content and rapid growth rates, maximum oil yields of 20,000--115,000 L/ha/yr (2,140-13,360 gal/ac/yr) have been estimated. xiv 7) Ability to thrive in seawater, wastewater, or other non-potable sources, so it does not directly compete with fresh water resources. In fact, wastewater can provide algae with some essential nutrients, such as nitrogen, so algae may contribute to cleaning up wastewater streams. 8) Non-toxic and biodegradable 9) Co-products that may present high value in other markets, including nutriceuticals and cosmetics Given microalgae's high lipid content and rapid growth rate, maximum oil yields of 20,000 -- 115,000 liters per hectare per year (L/ha/yr) (2,140 -- 13,360 gallons per acre per year) (Baldos, 2009; Wijffels, 2008) have been estimated, which is considerably higher than any other competing feedstock. Although algae species collectively present many strong advantages (although one specific species is unlikely to possess all of the advantages listed), a sustainable algal biofuel industry is at least one or two decades away from maturity, and no commercial scale operations currently exist. Several barriers must first be overcome before algal biofuels can compete with traditional petroleum-based fuels. Production chains with net energy output need to be identified, and continued R & D is needed to reduce the cost in all segments of the production spectrum (e.g., harvesting, dewatering, extracting of oil). Further research to identify strains with high production rates and/or oil yields may also improve competitiveness within the market. Initiatives to seamlessly integrate algal biofuels into the existing transportation infrastructure may increase their convenience level.