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Biofilms And Implantable Medical Devices

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Biofilms and Implantable Medical Devices

Biofilms and Implantable Medical Devices Book
Author : Ying Deng,Wei Lv
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2016-10-24
ISBN : 0081003986
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biofilms and Implantable Medical Devices: Infection and Control explores the increasing use of permanent and semi-permanent implants and indwelling medical devices. As an understanding of the growth and impact of biofilm formation on these medical devices and biomaterials is vital for protecting the health of the human host, this book provides readers with a comprehensive treatise on biofilms and their relationship with medical devices, also reporting on infections and associated strategies for prevention. Provides useful information on the fundamentals of biofilm problems in medical devices Discusses biofilm problems in a range of medical devices Focuses on strategies for prevention of biofilm formation

Biofilm Eradication and Prevention

Biofilm Eradication and Prevention Book
Author : Tamilvanan Shunmugaperumal
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2010-12-28
ISBN : 9781118043554
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biofilm Eradication and Preventions presents the basics of biofilm formation on medical devices, diseases related to this formation, and approaches pharmaceutical researchers need to take to limit this problem. Split into three parts, the first deals with the development and characterization of biofilm on the surfaces of implanted or inserted medical devices. Questions as to why biofilms form over medical device surfaces and what triggers biofilm formation are addressed. In the second section, the author discusses biofilm-mediated chronic infections occurred in various organs (eyes, mouth, wounds) and pharmaceutical and drug delivery knowledge gained from research in these area. The third part explores pharmaceutical approaches like lipid-and polymer-based drug delivery carriers for eradicating biofilm on device-related infections. In addition, this section also explores the topic of novel small molecule (like iron and its complexes/metal chelators) and a quorum-sensing inhibitors to control medical biofilm formation.

Medical Implications of Biofilms

Medical Implications of Biofilms Book
Author : Michael Wilson,Deirdre Devine
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2003-09-01
ISBN : 9781139438018
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Human tissues often support large, complex microbial communities growing as biofilms that can cause a variety of infections. As a result of an increased use of implanted medical devices, the incidence of these biofilm-associated diseases is increasing: the non-shedding surfaces of these devices provide ideal substrata for colonisation by biofilm-forming microbes. The consequences of this mode of growth are far-reaching. As microbes in biofilms exhibit increased tolerance towards antimicrobial agents and decreased susceptibility to host defence systems, biofilm-associated diseases are becoming increasingly difficult to treat. Not surprisingly, therefore, interest in biofilms has increased dramatically. The application of microscopic and molecular techniques has revolutionised our understanding of biofilm structure, composition, organisation, and activities, resulting in important advances in the prevention and treatment of biofilm-related diseases. The purpose of this book, which was first published in 2003, is to bring these advances to the attention of clinicians and medical researchers.

The Role of Biofilms in Device Related Infections

The Role of Biofilms in Device Related Infections Book
Author : Mark Shirtliff,Jeff G. Leid
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-12-19
ISBN : 3540681191
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Approximately 60% of all hospital-associated infections, over one million cases per year, are due to biofilms that have formed on indwelling medical devices. Device-related biofilm infections increase hospital stays and add over one billion dollars/year to U.S. hospitalization costs. Since the use and the types of indwelling medical devices commonly used in modern healthcare are continuously expanding, especially with an aging population, the incidence of biofilm infections will also continue to rise. The central problem with microbial biofilm infections of foreign bodies is their propensity to resist clearance by the host immune system and all antimicrobial agents tested to date. In fact, compared to their free floating, planktonic counterparts, microbes within a biofilm are 50 – 500 times more resistant to antimicrobial agents. Therefore, achieving therapeutic and non-lethal dosing regimens within the human host is impossible. The end result is a conversion from an acute infection to one that is persistent, chronic, and recurrent, most often requiring device removal in order to eliminate the infection. This text will describe the major types of device-related infections, and will explain the host, pathogen, and the unique properties of their interactions in order to gain a better understanding of these recalcitrant infections.

Microbial Biofilms in Healthcare Formation Prevention and Treatment

Microbial Biofilms in Healthcare  Formation  Prevention and Treatment Book
Author : Karen Vickery
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 9783039284115
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biofilms are ubiquitous and their presence in industry can lead to production losses. However, nowhere do biofilms impact human health and welfare as much as those that are found contaminating the healthcare environment, surgical instruments, equipment, and medical implantable devices. Approximately 70% of healthcare-associated infections are due to biofilm formation, resulting in increased patient morbidity and mortality. Biofilms formed on medical implants are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment, which leaves implant removal as the principal treatment option. In this book, we investigate the role of biofilms in breast and dental implant disease and cancer. We include in vitro models for investigating treatment of chronic wounds and disinfectant action against Candida sp. Also included are papers on the most recent strategies for treating biofilm infection ranging from antibiotics incorporated into bone void fillers to antimicrobial peptides and quorum sensing.

Bismuth Ethanedithiol

Bismuth Ethanedithiol Book
Author : Jithendra Gunawardana
Publisher : Universal-Publishers
Release : 2010-08
ISBN : 1599423049
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Staphylococcus epidermidis is the leading cause of hospital-acquired infections associated with implanted medical devices. Likewise, Proteus mirabilis is one of the leading causes of nosocomial Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) and is associated with urinary catheter blockage. Both organisms produce biofilms, which make them less susceptible to antibiotics. Therefore, these infections are often notoriously difficult to treat and in many cases lead to complications. Preventing biofilm formation or killing a pre-existing biofilm would be useful solutions since biofilm formation is a phenomenon commonly observed in these organsims. This study investigated the in vitro efficacy of Bismuth-ethanedithiol (BisEDT) against biofilms produced by P. mirabilis and S. epidermidis. Anti-biofilm activity of BisEDT was evaluated in terms of inhibiting/preventing biofilm formation and eradicating/killing pre-formed biofilm produced by single species S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis.

Microbial Biofilms in Healthcare

Microbial Biofilms in Healthcare Book
Author : Karen Vickery
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-03-16
ISBN : 303928410X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biofilms are ubiquitous and their presence in industry can lead to production losses. However, nowhere do biofilms impact human health and welfare as much as those that are found contaminating the healthcare environment, surgical instruments, equipment, and medical implantable devices. Approximately 70% of healthcare-associated infections are due to biofilm formation, resulting in increased patient morbidity and mortality. Biofilms formed on medical implants are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment, which leaves implant removal as the principal treatment option. In this book, we investigate the role of biofilms in breast and dental implant disease and cancer. We include in vitro models for investigating treatment of chronic wounds and disinfectant action against Candida sp. Also included are papers on the most recent strategies for treating biofilm infection ranging from antibiotics incorporated into bone void fillers to antimicrobial peptides and quorum sensing.

Thermal Deactivation of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilms

Thermal Deactivation of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilms Book
Author : Ann Marie O'Toole
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bacterial biofilm infection is a common (~ 2 to 4%) complication for recipients of surgically implanted medical devices. Due to the tremendous increase in antibiotic resistance when these bacteria enter the biofilm phenotype, present treatment requires explantation and replacement of the device, often with multiple surgeries and always with much longer patient recovery time. The specific objective of this study was to quantify the degree of biofilm deactivation from exposure to thermal shock for varying temperature and time durations. While extreme temperature (>150°C) is routinely used to sterilize (e.g. autoclaves), such temperatures have a severe cost within the body. Despite extensive studies on thermal deactivation of bacteria in the planktonic phenotype over a wide range of temperatures (e.g., pasteurization protocols), surprisingly little is known about the thermal deactivation of biofilms except under extreme conditions. Here, the deactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms is reported. These biofilms were cultured at 37°C for 24 hours in a drip-flow reactor and subjected to heat shocks on the range of 50°C to 80°C for durations of 1 to 30 minutes. Heat shocks were delivered by immersion in thermostatted media for the prescribed time and the resulting concentration of colony forming units (CFU/mL) were quantified using direct enumeration. Up to 6.6 orders of magnitude reduction in CFU concentration was observed, indicating that thermal deactivation is a reasonable approach to biofilm mitigation. Integrating this approach with a magnetic nanoparticle implant coating will result in an innovative treatment for implant infections in situ without explantation or device replacement.

Biofilm formation by staphylococci and streptococci Structural functional and regulatory aspects and implications for pathogenesis

Biofilm formation by staphylococci and streptococci  Structural  functional and regulatory aspects and implications for pathogenesis Book
Author : Joan A. Geoghegan, Pietro Speziale
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-06-25
ISBN : 2889195635
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Members of the genus Staphylococcus and Streptococcus are the causative agnets of many human and animal diseases. Over the past decade the complete sequencing of many staphylococcal and streptococcal genomes has promoted a significant advance in our knowledge of these important pathogens. The pathogenicity of these bacteria is due to the expression of a large variety of virulence factors. Such determinants, which are cell wall-associated and secreted proteins, include adhesins that confer to the pathogen the ability to attach to extracellular matrix/plasma and host cell surfaces, proteins that contribute to host cell invasion and intracellular survival and soluble factors that decrease phagocytosis and modulate the immune response. Furthermore, these Gram-positive cocci in many natural environments (heart valve, lung, oral cavity, throat) and infections on implanted devices live in matrix-encased groups known as biofilms. Biofilms are specialized bacterial communities with high order organization analogous to that of a tissue in multicellular organism that adhere to abiotic or biological substrata and produce an exopolymeric matrix composed of polysaccarides, proteins, DNA or combination thereof. Bacteria within a biofilm persist in adverse conditions, show resistance to killing by antibiotics and to host immune defences and are difficult to eradicate and treat clinically. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of biofilm development will allow us to effectively combat staphylococcal/streptococcal biofilm-based infections. This Research Topic will focus on the molecular components involved in biofilm formation by staphylococci and streptococci, the role they play in the development, maturation and dispersal of biofilm and on the regulatory aspects of such complex processes. The implication for the pathogenesis of infective diseases and potential therapeutic strategies against biofilm-based infections will be also discussed. The articles will highlight both the recent advances and future challenges inherent in this rapidly evolving area.

Biofilm Mediated Diseases Causes and Controls

Biofilm Mediated Diseases  Causes and Controls Book
Author : Rina Rani Ray,Moupriya Nag,Dibyajit Lahiri
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2021-05-06
ISBN : 9789811607448
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book reviews the current concepts in biofilm formation and its implications in human health and disease. The initial chapters introduce the mechanisms of biofilm formation and its composition. Subsequently, the chapters discuss the role of biofilm in acute and chronic infections. It also explores the pivotal role of both innate and adaptive immunity on the course of biofilm infection. In addition, the book elucidates the bacterial biofilm formation on implantable devices and the current approaches to its treatment and prevention. It analyzes the possible relationship between antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation. Finally, the book also summarizes the current state-of-the-art therapeutic approaches for preventing and treating biofilms. This book is a useful resource for researchers in the field of microbiology, clinical microbiology, and also medical practitioners.

Staphylococcus Epidermidis

Staphylococcus Epidermidis Book
Author : CL Udia Sousa
Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release : 2011-05
ISBN : 9783844391343
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Staphylococcus epidermidis often colonizes the skin and mucous membranes of the human body, as part of its normal microflora. However, when a rupture of the cutaneous surface occurs, staphylococci can enter the host and become pathogenic. Therefore, S. epidermidis has emerged in recent years as a major nosocomial pathogen associated with infections of implanted medical devices. Staphylococci adhere to such devices and have the ability to develop biofilms, which constitutes an important virulence factor and the most relevant pathogenic mechanism of staphylococcal infection. The work presented in this book aimed at evaluating the adhesion and biofilm formation capabilities of S. epidermidis clinical strains to biomaterials. This book, hence, covers important topics such as: the surface properties that affect initial bacterial adhesion as well as of ways to prevent it; the properties of mature biofilms and the phenotypic differences between sessile and planktonic cells; the assessment of cell wall and extracellular matrix proteins profiles to evaluate their importance on the process of biofilm formation, among others.

Biofilm based Healthcare associated Infections

Biofilm based Healthcare associated Infections Book
Author : Gianfranco Donelli
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-11-10
ISBN : 3319097822
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The aim of this book is to provide readers with a wide overview of the main healthcare-associated infections caused by bacteria and fungi able to grow as biofilm. The recently acquired knowledge on the pivotal role played by biofilm-growing microorganisms in healthcare-related infections has given a new dynamic to detection, prevention and treatment of these infections in patients admitted to both acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities. Clinicians, hygienists and microbiologists will be updated by leading scientists on the state-of-art of biofilm-based infections and on the most innovative strategies for prevention and treatment of these infections, often caused by emerging multidrug-resistant biofilm-growing microorganisms.

Characterization and Optimization of Non thermal Plasma for Biofilm Sterilization

Characterization and Optimization of Non thermal Plasma for Biofilm Sterilization Book
Author : Tripti Thapa Gupta
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Adherence of bacteria to implanted medical devices or damaged tissues lead to biomaterial-associated infections (BAIs) often resulting in life threatening disease and implant failures. BAIs are mostly associated to the ability of bacteria to encase and protect themselves in a matrix composed of polysaccharide and protein known as biofilm. Initial bacterial colonization on an implanted biomaterial usually occurs by either direct inoculation, or hematogenous spread. Later, when the organisms change into the biofilm state, antibiotics treatment nor immediate surgical debridement are effective in removing them from surfaces. Instead of direct debridement, removal of the medical device or internal prosthesis is the primary surgical treatment for such BAIs. However, such removal is associated with increased patient morbidity and mortality which further elevates the healthcare costs because of repeated surgeries, extended hospitalization, rehabilitation, and antibiotic therapy. The use of conventional sterilization techniques such as high heat (autoclave) and chemical treatments are not the desired options for biofilm sterilization as these methods eventually degrade the surface of the treated material. Moreover, chemical usage could be toxic and lead to environmental pollution. Therefore, a technique known as non-thermal plasma that generates antimicrobial byproducts such as reactive species (reactive oxygen and nitrogen species), charged particles, radicals, UV radiation, and electromagnetic fields can be a potential solution for the removal or sterilization of biofilm from the contaminated surfaces. Since there are no known side effects to the patients, and the medical devices and implants, this technique has been used by many researchers to deactivate, sterilize, and kill planktonic bacteria, biofilm, and cancer cells, however, very few studies have been conducted to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of non-thermal plasma over biofilm grown on titanium surfaces in in vivo conditions in a bioreactor which is employed in this study. Thus, in this study we have studied the antimicrobial effect of plasma alone as well as the effects when it is used in conjunction of commonly used biocide known as chlorhexidine (CHX) digluconate at clinically safe doses. The results demonstrate the decontamination of the biofilm and sterilization of the planktonic bacteria when treated with plasma alone using the regular dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) or the jet plasma. Furthermore, we implemented a novel concept of combining two techniques namely plasma treatment and the use of CHX at clinically safe doses for the complete sterilization of the biofilm. The combinatorial treatment of jet plasma and CHX proved to be effective in fulfilling the required objective of completely sterilizing the contaminated surfaces. Additionally, a mathematical model was developed to better understand the engineering behind the complete sterilization when utilizing the combinatorial approach. It was found that the plasma was able to make the biofilm porous and decontaminate it to some extent resulting to a higher diffusivity of CHX making it possible to completely sterilize the biofilm. As a conclusion, we propose that the implementation of this combinatorial technology would lead to a cost-effective antimicrobial device that can be used in nosocomial settings for decontamination or sterilization purposes in future.

Medical Biofilms

Medical Biofilms Book
Author : Jana Jass,Susanne Surman,James Walker
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2003-04-02
ISBN : 9780471988670
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biofilms are formed by microorganisms growing on surfaces and comprise a series of microcolonies interspersed with spaces through which fluids and other microorganisms move. In medicine, the primary problems are biofilms associated with implants: infections are increasingly difficult to treat with traditional antibiotics and removal of the implant often becomes essential, frequently leading to higher morbidity and mortality. This will be the first book dedicated to medical biofilms. It will cover much recent information on the problems of biofilms, how to detect them and how to control their presence.

Silver Nanocomposite Material as Antibacterial Coating on Indwelling Medical Devices Based Biomaterials

Silver Nanocomposite Material as Antibacterial Coating on Indwelling Medical Devices Based Biomaterials Book
Author : Zohra Khatoon
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The most common type of adverse events in healthcare in Canada reported by the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) are nosocomial infections. Amongst nosocomial infections, implant associated infections have been reported to be most common. Despite having the implantation surgeries carefully performed, a small, but still considerable number of devices gets colonized by bacteria resulting in implant associated infections and/or surgical site infections. The patients are then started on high dose antibiotics, which if ineffective, is followed by reimplantation surgeries that leads to long hospital stays and detrimental effects in their lives. Due to this, an alternative to antibiotics is required which could prevent and/or treat bacterial colonization on implants. The main objective of this thesis was to demonstrate the effectiveness of an antimicrobial based CLKRS peptide capped silver nanoparticle coating on a metallic and polymeric based biomaterial used in various implantable medical devices. The CLKRS peptide capped silver nanoparticle formulation was specifically engineered and tested for its antibacterial and antibiofilm properties. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised by photochemical reduction of silver ions upon photocleavage of the photoinitiator I-2959. The metal nanostructure surfaces were protected with the CLKRS peptide and tested on planktonic and biofilms of P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The bacterial quantification was done by survival colony counting. The cytotoxicity of the silver nanoparticle formulation was also tested on human dermal fibroblast, mouse bone marrow derived macrophages, and human epithelial cells by cell proliferation assay. Results show the formation of a nanometric layer of nanosilver on the surface of the material inhibiting the growth of bacteria and eradicating pre-existing biofilms with no significant cell toxicity suggesting the prepared formulation could be a useful tool in preventing and controlling infections on implants during surgery and post implantation. This technology thus could serve as an alternative therapy for surgical site infections and/or implant associated infections.

Biofilms and Veterinary Medicine

Biofilms and Veterinary Medicine Book
Author : Steven L. Percival,Derek C. Knottenbelt,Christine A. Cochrane
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-08-08
ISBN : 9783642212895
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biofilms are implicated in many common medical problems including urinary tract infections, catheter infections, middle-ear infections, dental plaque, gingivitis, and some less common but more lethal processes such as endocarditis and infections in cystic fibrosis. However, the true importance of biofilms in the overall process of disease pathogenesis has only recently been recognized. Bacterial biofilms are one of the fundamental reasons for incipient wound healing failure in that they may impair natural cutaneous wound healing and reduce topical antimicrobial efficiency in infected skin wounds. Their existence explains many of the enigmas of microbial infection and a better grasp of the process may well serve to establish a different approach to infection control and management. Biofilms and their associated complications have been found to be involved in up to 80% of all infections. A large number of studies targeted at the bacterial biofilms have been conducted, and many of them are referred to in this book, which is the first of its kind. These clinical observations emphasize the importance of biofilm formation to both superficial and systemic infections, and the inability of current antimicrobial therapies to ‘cure’ the resulting diseases even when the in vitro tests suggest that they should be fully effective. In veterinary medicine the concept of biofilms and their role in the pathogenesis of disease has lagged seriously behind that in human medicine. This is all the more extraordinary when one considers that much of the research has been carried out using veterinary species in experimental situations. The clinical features of biofilms in human medicine is certainly mimicked in the veterinary species but there is an inherent and highly regrettable indifference to the failure of antimicrobial therapy in many veterinary disease situations, and this is probably at its most retrograde in veterinary wound management. Biofilms and Veterinary Medicine is specifically focused on discussing the concerns of biofilms to health and disease in animals and provides a definitive text for veterinary practitioners, medical and veterinary students, and researchers.

Biofilms Extracellular Bastions of Bacteria

Biofilms  Extracellular Bastions of Bacteria Book
Author : Alan W. Decho
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2018-10-08
ISBN : 3906980944
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Biofilms: Extracellular Bastions of Bacteria" that was published in IJMS

Particle Tracking for Understanding the Properties and Dynamics of Bacterial Biofilms

Particle Tracking for Understanding the Properties and Dynamics of Bacterial Biofilms Book
Author : Alona Birjiniuk
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bacterial biofilms consist of surface adherent bacteria that surround themselves with a polymer matrix which provides environmental protection and antibiotic resistance. Biofilms can grow on most implanted medical devices, on heart valves, and in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis, resulting in difficult to treat infections that can become blood-borne and spread throughout the body. They also pose problems in industry by growing in pipes, on membrane reactors and on ship hulls. Understanding the physical properties and dynamics of biofilms is therefore of interest as such insight may lead to methods for their disruption and removal. Biofilms have been characterized biochemically, as the general composition of the matrix is known, as are the specific polysaccharides forming the bulk of the matrix for some species. Insight into physical properties of biofilms, such as elasticity and deformability, has been limited to macroscale techniques that assess averaged values. These techniques do not provide details on the spatial gradients of physical properties within a biofilm nor do they allow for evaluation of properties over time. In addition, while some methods have been used to understand the adhesive forces of bacteria leading to biofilm formation, little effort has been put forth to understand how bacteria that are natively non-motile can reach a surface to which they adhere. Particle tracking is a technique in which probe particles are placed in a material and observed using microscopy. The observed trajectories can be analyzed in various ways, for example to determine physical properties and structure of the material they are embedded in. Trajectories can also be analyzed to better understand motion patterns of motile probes or to assess for diffusive behavior. In this work, particle tracking was used in different contexts to assess various biofilm systems. The overall goal was to gain an understanding of the structure, physical properties and dynamics of biofilms. We first developed a method by which we performed single particle tracking in biofilms with beads of varying surface functionalization. With a combination of single particle tracking and microrheological concepts, it was found that Escherichia coli biofilms display height dependent charge density that evolves over time. Statistical analyses of bead trajectories and confocal microscopy showed inter-connecting micron scale channels that penetrate throughout the biofilm, which may be important for nutrient transfer through the system. This methodology provides significant insight into a particular biofilm system and can be applied to many others to provide comparisons of biofilm structure. The elucidation of structure provides evidence for the permeability of biofilms to microscale objects, and the ability of a biofilm to mature and change properties over time. Second, we applied particle tracking to elucidate the motions of non-motile bacteria in the presence of a motile species. In static co-culture, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus formed multispecies biofilms at an air-liquid interface, while monocultures of S. aureus were not capable of forming a biofilm at the interfacial region. Based on these observations, we tested if P. aeruginosa could facilitate the transport of S. aureus to the air-liquid interface by a motility-based mechanism. Using a cell tracking method, we compared the motion behavior of S. aureus in the presence or absence of P. aeruginosa. Our data revealed a shift in S. aureus motility, which changed from random motion in monoculture to directed horizontal and vertical migration when cultured with P. aeruginosa. Additionally, we observed a similar behavior between P. aeruginosa / S. epidermidis and E. coli/S. aureus co-cultures. Our results suggest that non-motile bacteria perhaps leverage motility from other species to promote exploration of new ecological niches. We envision that this observed behavior perhaps has significant implications during the establishment and dissemination of polymicrobial infections in the host organism. By using multiple techniques to assess trajectories of either bead or bacteria probes, we were able to improve understanding of biofilm dynamics. The first technique can be applied to other biofilm systems, such as those formed by genetically modified bacteria, to promote a comparison of biofilm structure and properties. The second can allow for further assessment of interspecies interactions, perhaps to probe the specific mechanisms by which bacteria can attach to one another to improve motility.

Cell Surface Enolase of Candida Species is Involved in the Interactions with Human Host and the Formation of Polymicrobial Biofilms

Cell Surface Enolase of Candida Species is Involved in the Interactions with Human Host and the Formation of Polymicrobial Biofilms Book
Author : Maria Rapala-Kozik
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

ObjectivesEnolase, a well known cytoplasmic enzyme involved in the glycolytic pathway is also an important and abundant moonlighting protein found at the cell surface of different types of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. This protein plays and important role in fungal infections caused by Candida yeasts, which are the part of physiological microflora of more than half of individuals in the human population. However, in immunocompromised individuals as well as numerous patients with implanted medical devices, Candida yeast can cause life-threatening systemic infections. Biofilms, formed on implanted medical devices are resistant to host immune defense or conventional antifungal treatment, making the biofilm-based infections a significant clinical challenge.In the search for new therapeutic targets, a growing interest is aroused by candidal enolases which, via a yet unrecognized mechanism, can be relocated to the cell surface, where they acquire completely new functions, often becoming receptors for a number of important host ligands.MethodsThe identification of the cell surface-exposed enolase from different Candida species, grown under conditions, that differed in the source of carbon, amino acids and availability of oxygen, was carried out using the u201ccell surface shavingu201d with trypsin and u201cshotgunu201d proteomic approach. Similarly, the formation of mixed biofilm between Candida species and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was analyzed. The interactions between fungal enolases and bacterial cell surfaces were analyzed microscopically. Additionally, the direct interactions with host representative proteinsu2014fibrinogen and plasminogenu2014were studied using the surface plasmon resonance measurements and microscale thermophoresis.ResultsThe exposition of enolase on the cell surface of selected Candida species was confirmed under various growth conditions, that mimicked cellular stress, nutrient starvation or invasion of the host at various sites of infection. A significant enrichment with fungal enolase was also detected on the surface of mixed biofilms formed with bacteria at different oxygen access.The growth of Candida species in the presence of human proteins including fibrinogen or plasminogen also correlated with the increased presence of enolase on the surface of fungal cells. Studies on the interaction between plasminogen and the purified native Candida enolase revealed the dissociation constants (KD) for complexes of human plasminogen with fungal enolases in a 10-7 M range that corresponds to the strength of plasminogen binding by human enolase, which shares a high sequence similarity to microbial enolases. However, the enolase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not bind plasminogen, pointing to important differences between this protein derived from pathogenic or non-pathogenic yeasts. An attempt was made to identify fragments of candidal enolase molecule, responsible for this interaction. It was found that C-terminal lysine residues might be partly involved in plasminogen binding. The fungal enolase fragments involved in the biofilm formation was also determined.ConclusionEnolase produced by Candida species during mono- or poly-microbial host infections could serve as a bridging molecule that facilitate the host colonization and the regulation of host response.This work was supported by the National Science Centre of Poland (grant no. 2015/17/B/NZ6/02078) and the Leading National Research Center supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (grant no. 035p/12/2016/9200014).

Implication of Quorum Sensing and Biofilm Formation in Medicine Agriculture and Food Industry

Implication of Quorum Sensing and Biofilm Formation in Medicine  Agriculture and Food Industry Book
Author : Pallaval Veera Bramhachari
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-11-26
ISBN : 9813294094
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book illustrates the role of quorum sensing in the food industry, agriculture, veterinary sciences, and medicine. It highlights the importance of quorum sensing in regulating diverse cellular functions in microbes, including virulence, pathogenesis, controlled-gene expression systems, and antibiotic resistance. This book also describes the role of quorum sensing in survival behavior and antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Further, it reviews the major role played by quorum sensing in food spoilage, biofilm formation, and food-related pathogenesis. It also explores the methods for the detection and quantification of quorum sensing signals. It also presents antimicrobial and anti-quorum sensing activities of medicinal plants. Finally, the book elucidates a comprehensive yet representative description of basic and applied aspects of quorum sensing inhibitors. This book serves an ideal guide for researchers to understand the implications of quorum sensing in the food industry, medicine, and agriculture.