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Bioenergy And Biomass From Industrial Crops On Marginal Lands

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Bioenergy and Biomass from Industrial Crops on Marginal Lands

Bioenergy and Biomass from Industrial Crops on Marginal Lands Book
Author : Efthymia Alexopoulou
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-09-15
ISBN : 9780128188644
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomass from Industrial Crops on Marginal Lands provides a thorough overview of the value chain and available land for industrial crops, from field to use for energy and bioproducts. It discusses the role of industrial crops in the biobased economy, which industrial crops can be successfully grown on marginal or contaminated lands, and how much of that kind of land is available. The book categorizes these crops into four main groups: oilseeds, lignocellulosic, carbohydrate and specialty crops. It analyzes the most promising industrial crops to be grown on marginal lands per category, giving information from production to end use. The structure of these chapters allows for comparisons and better informed choices between different crops for specific industry requirements and land conditions. Finally, in its final chapter, phytomanagement of contaminated lands as an effect of growing industrial crops will be discussed.Bioenergy and Biomass from Industrial Crops on Marginal Lands gathers in a single volume information that has so far been scattered in the available scientific literature. Therefore, it is a valuable tool for the scientists and industry practitioners working in the area of biomass production, biofuels production and biorefining. Graduate students in master courses on industrial crops as source for value added products and bioenergy also benefit from this comprehensive reference. Content spans the entire value chain of various types of biomass derived from industrial crops, and their application in bioenergy and biorefining within the context of the bioeconomy Covers the challenges for sustainable management and production chains of industrial crops grown on marginal or contaminated land for use in bioenergy and biorefining Includes examples of field and lab experiments, and case-studies from field to fuel

Innovations and Perspectives of Industrial and Bioenergy Crops for Bioeconomy Development

Innovations and Perspectives of Industrial and Bioenergy Crops for Bioeconomy Development Book
Author : Mariusz J Stolarski
Publisher : Mdpi AG
Release : 2022-03-21
ISBN : 9783036535197
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The production of industrial and bioenergy crops has been the subject of scientific research for many years; however, the implementation of previously proposed solutions for commercial production is still at an early stage. It should be emphasized that when developing the production of industrial and bioenergy crops on agricultural lands, it is important to avoid land-use competition with the production of food and feed. It is well justified, for initiating the sustainable production of industrial and bioenergy crops, to promote efficient species for growing on marginal lands, which are unsuitable or less suitable for food or feed production. Another important point is that industrial and bioenergy crops should include nonfood and nonfeed crops and generate agricultural products categorized as commodities and/or raw materials for industrial goods and bioenergy. These industrial and bioenergy crops can become an important source of biomass. Of course, the concept of their cultivation for nonfood (and/or nonfeed) uses is not new but, despite considerable investment in research and development, little progress has been made with regard to the introduction of such crops and their products into the market. Therefore, the papers focus on innovations and perspectives regarding sustainable industrial and bioenergy crops production, logistic chains, biomass quality, utilization and cascade biomass use for bioeconomy, socio-economic and energy analyses, etc.

Perennial Grasses for Bioenergy and Bioproducts

Perennial Grasses for Bioenergy and Bioproducts Book
Author : Efthymia Alexopoulou
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-01-10
ISBN : 0128129018
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Perennial Grasses for Bioenergy and Bioproducts: Production, Uses, Sustainability and Markets for Giant Reed, Miscanthus, Switchgrass, Reed Canary Grass and Bamboo brings together a team of international authors to explore the current utilization, sustainability and future perspectives of perennial grasses in the bioeconomy. The book begins by examining the role of these crops as feedstock for bioenergy, in particular advanced biofuels and bioproducts. It then offers five chapters, each covering one perennial grass type, namely giant reed, miscanthus, switchgrass, reed canary grass and bamboo. The book covers their breeding, cultivation, harvesting, pre-treatment, economics and characterization. The book goes on to present the thermochemical conversion pathways for different types of feedstock. The last chapter explores issues concerning sustainability of perennial grasses, including their production in marginal lands. This thorough overview is a helpful reference for engineering researchers and professionals in the bioenergy sector, whose understanding of feedstock characterization, sustainability and production is critical in the development of conversion technologies. Those in the industrial crops sector will benefit from discussion of various issues surrounding crop production, which can guide their feedstock cultivation, harvesting and pre-treatment for specific conversion processes or end use. The book is also a useful resource for instructors and students in Masters and PhD programs in the area of biomass and energy crops. Policy makers and government agents involved in regulating the bioenergy and bioproducts sector will find comprehensive information to guide their decision making. Explores the whole value chain of grassy feedstock for advanced biofuels and bioproducts, from cultivation to end use, including biomass characterization (physical properties, chemical composition, etc.) and conversion and sustainability Examines the sustainability and economic factors related to perennial grasses and their conversion into biofuels and bioproducts Includes a complete list of grasses relevant for energy uses, and tables with their current and expected future uses and markets

Renewable Energy Production from Energy Crops and Agricultural Residues

Renewable Energy Production from Energy Crops and Agricultural Residues Book
Author : Luigi Pari
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2021-03-04
ISBN : 3036501061
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Energies is open to submissions for a Special Issue on “Renewable Energy Production from Energy Crops and Agricultural Residues”. Biomass represents an important source of renewable and sustainable energy production. Its increasing consumption is mainly related to the increase in global energy demand and fossil fuel prices, but also to a lower environmental impact compared to non-renewable fuels. These factors take RED II directives into consideration. In the past, forestry interventions were the main supply source of biomass, but in recent decades two others sources have entered the international scene. These are dedicated energy crops and agricultural residues, which are important sources of biomass for biofuel and bioenergy. Below, we consider four main value chains: • Oil crops: Oil production from non-food oilseed crops (such as camelina, Crambe, safflower, castor, cuphea, cardoon, etc.), oil extraction, and oil utilization for fuel production. • Lignocellulosic crops: Biomass production from perennial grasses (miscanthus, giant reed, switchgrass, reed canary grass, etc.), woody crops (willow, poplar, Robinia, eucalyptus, etc.), and agricultural residues (pruning, maize cob, maize stalks, wheat chaff, sugar cane straw, etc.), considering two main transformation systems: 1. Electricity/heat production 2. Second-generation ethanol production • Carbohydrate crops (cereals, sweet sorghum, sugar beets, sugar cane, etc.) for ethanol production. • Fermentable crops (maize, barley, triticale, Sudan grass, sorghum, etc.) and agricultural residues (chaff, maize stalks and cob, fruit and vegetable waste, etc.) for production of biogas and/or biomethane.

Political Ecology of Industrial Crops

Political Ecology of Industrial Crops Book
Author : Abubakari Ahmed,Alexandros Gasparatos
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2021-09-03
ISBN : 1000431207
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book employs a political ecology lens to unravel how industrial crops catalyse ecological, agrarian, socioeconomic, and institutional transformation. Using the conceptual tools and perspectives of political ecology, namely multi-scalar analysis and attention to marginalisation, social difference, and discourses and narratives, this volume provides a critical and comprehensive assessment of the transformative power of industrial cropping systems. It presents a truly international overview by drawing on a range of case studies from the global South, including soybeans in South America, cashew nuts in Guinea Bissau, cotton in India, maize in China, jatropha in Ghana, sugarcane in Peru and Eswatini, and oil palm in Ghana and Peru. The unique case studies are put into perspective with chapters introducing the key concepts of political ecology and critical dimensions of industrial cropping systems related to large-scale land acquisitions, land grabbing, and marginal land. The individual chapters employ different approaches all rooted in political ecology, thus offering a rich overview of how the field engages with such cropping systems. Overall, this volume contains valuable propositions for improving current policies and practices in industrial crop settings in both developed and developing countries. Through its comprehensive and interdisciplinary outlook, this volume will be of great interest to students and scholars of political ecology, agrarian studies, development studies, and ecological economics.

Perennial Biomass Crops for a Resource Constrained World

Perennial Biomass Crops for a Resource Constrained World Book
Author : Susanne Barth,Donal Murphy-Bokern,Olena Kalinina,Gail Taylor,Michael Jones
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-11-18
ISBN : 3319445308
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents a flavour of activities focussed on the need for sustainably produced biomass to support European strategic objectives for the developing bioeconomy. The chapters cover five broad topic areas relating to the use of perennial biomass crops in Europe. These are: ‘Bioenergy Resources from Perennial Crops in Europe’, ‘European Regional Examples for the Use of Perennial Crops for Bioenergy’, ‘Genotypic Selection of Perennial Biomass Crops for Crop Improvement’, ‘Ecophysiology of Perennial Biomass Crops’ and ‘Examples of End-Use of Perennial Biomass Crops’. Two major issues relating to the future use of biomass energy are the identification of the most suitable second generation biomass crops and the need to utilise land not under intensive agricultural production, broadly referred to as ‘marginal land’. The two main categories of plants that fit these needs are perennial rhizomatous grasses and trees that can be coppiced. The overarching questions that are addressed in the book relate to the suitability of perennial crops for providing feedstocks for a European bioeconomy and the need to exploit environments for biomass crops which do not compete with food crops. Bioenergy is the subject of a wide range of national and European policy measures. New developments covered are, for example, the use of perennial grasses to produce protein for animal feed and concepts to use perennial biomass crops to mitigate carbon emissions through soil carbon sequestration. Several chapters also show how prudent selection of suitable genotypes and breeding are essential to develop high yielding and sustainable second generation biomass crops which are adapted to a wide range of unfavourable conditions like chilling and freezing, drought, flooding and salinity. The final chapters also emphasise the need to be kept an eye out for potential new end-uses of perennial biomass crops that will contribute further to the developing bioeconomy.

The Global Forest Products Model

The Global Forest Products Model Book
Author : Joseph Buongiorno,Shushuai Zhu,Dali Zhang,James Turner,David Tomberlin
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2003-02-24
ISBN : 0121413624
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) book provides a complete introduction to this widely applied computer model. The GFPM is a dynamic economic equilibrium model that is used to predict production, consumption, trade, and prices of 14 major forest products in 180 interacting countries. The book thoroughly documents the methods, data, and computer software of the model, and demonstrates the model's usefulness in addressing international economic and environmental issues. The Global Forest Products Model is written by an international multi-disciplinary team and is ideal for graduate students and professionals in forestry, natural resource economics, and related fields. It explains trends in world forest industries in the simplest terms by explaining the economic theory underlying the model. It describes six applications of the GFPM, three of which were commissioned by the Food Agriculture of the United Nations, the USDA Forest Service, and New Zealand Research. The authors show how to apply the model to real issues such as the effects of the Asian economic crisis on the forest sector, the effects of eliminating tariffs on international trade and production, and the international effects of national environmental policies. They provide complete explanations on how to use the GFPM software, prepare the data, make the forecasts, and summarize the results with tables and graphs. Comprehensive, and rigorous description of the world forestry sector Written by an international multi-disciplinary team Thorough description of data and methods In-depth applications to modern economic and policy issues Detailed documentation of the computer software Suitable for students, researchers, and decision makers

Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries-- biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R AND D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R AND D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America s future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors?

Agroforestry The Future of Global Land Use

Agroforestry   The Future of Global Land Use Book
Author : P.K. Ramachandran Nair,Dennis Garrity
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-08-22
ISBN : 9400746768
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume contains a solid body of the current state of knowledge on the various themes and activities in agroforestry worldwide. It is organized into three sections: the Introduction section consists of the summaries of six keynote speeches at the 2nd World Congress of Agroforestry held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 2009; that is followed by two sections of peer-reviewed thematic chapters grouped as “Global Perspectives” (seven chapters) and “Regional Perspectives” (eleven chapters), authored by professional leaders in their respective agroforestry-related fields worldwide. A total of 130 professionals from institutions in 33 countries in both developing and the industrialized temperate regions of the world contributed to the book as chapter authors and/or reviewers. Thus, the book presents a comprehensive and authoritative account of the global picture of agroforestry today.

Increasing Feedstock Production for Biofuels

Increasing Feedstock Production for Biofuels Book
Author : Gale Buchanan
Publisher : DIANE Publishing
Release : 2010-10
ISBN : 1437921078
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A large expansion in ethanol production, along with research and innovation to develop second-generation biofuels, is underway in the U.S., spurred by volatile oil prices and energy policies. This increased focus on ethanol and other biofuels is an important element of U.S. economic, energy, environmental, and national security policies. This report will inform research recommendations to address the constraints surrounding availability of biomass feedstocks. To meet this goal, an economic assessment, which links to an analysis of the consequences for greenhouse gas emissions and sustainability, has been developed that encompasses feedstock production from agriculture and forestry sources. Illustrations.

Bioenergy and Food Security

Bioenergy and Food Security Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Food & Agriculture Org
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"A potent argument for bioenergy development lies in the ability of the sector to unlock agricultural potential by bringing in much needed investments to raise agricultural productivity to spur food security and poverty reduction. This document presents the BEFS Analytical Framework (AF) developed to test this argument. Agriculture lies at the heart of the BEFS AF and allows governments to consider viable pro-poor strategies for bioenergy development. The set of tools within the BEFS AF offers an integrated approach to decision-making that combines the technical viability with the country's prevailing social and economic development objectives. This document explains the rationale and structure of the BEFS AF, provides a general overview of the tools and their application, and illustrates how the analytical information generated assists policy makers in making informed decisions concerning the many varied consequences of bioenergy developments on food security, poverty reduction and agriculture development and economic growth."--Provided by publisher.

Handbook of Bioenergy Crops

Handbook of Bioenergy Crops Book
Author : Nasir El Bassam
Publisher : Earthscan
Release : 2010
ISBN : 1849774781
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This completely revised second edition includes new information on biomass in relation to climate change, new coverage of vital issues including the "food versus fuel" debate, and essential new information on "second generation" fuels and advances in conversion techniques. The book begins with a guide to biomass accumulation, harvesting, transportation and storage, as well as conversion technologies for biofuels. This is followed by an examination of the environmental impact and economic and social dimensions, including prospects for renewable energy. The book then goes on to cover all the main potential energy crops.

Selected Papers from 27th European Biomass Conference Exhibition EUBCE 2019

Selected Papers from 27th European Biomass Conference   Exhibition  EUBCE 2019  Book
Author : David Baxter,Solange I. Mussatto
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2021-09-02
ISBN : 303650804X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book draws together a small selection of full-length papers based on presentations given at the 27th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition held in Lisbon, Portugal in 2019. The topics covered, which reflect the breadth of the program of the EUBCE conference itself, include biomass sources, various aspects of technologies used for the conversion of biomass to bioproducts and bioenergy, as well as different approaches to assessing environmental impacts, which include case studies based on different technologies in use in a range of countries.

Sustainable Bioenergy Production

Sustainable Bioenergy Production Book
Author : Lijun Wang
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-04-18
ISBN : 1466505524
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Given the environmental concerns and declining availability of fossil fuels, as well as the growing population worldwide, it is essential to move toward a sustainable bioenergy-based economy. However, it is also imperative to address sustainability in the bioenergy industry in order to avoid depleting necessary biomass resources. Sustainable Bioenergy Production provides comprehensive knowledge and skills for the analysis and design of sustainable biomass production, bioenergy processing, and biorefinery systems for professionals in the bioenergy field. Focusing on topics vital to the sustainability of the bioenergy industry, this book is divided into four sections: Fundamentals of Engineering Analysis and Design of Bioenergy Production Systems, Sustainable Biomass Production and Supply Logistics, Sustainable Bioenergy Processing, and Sustainable Biorefinery Systems. Section I covers the fundamentals of genetic engineering, novel breeding, and cropping technologies applied in the development of energy crops. It discusses modern computational tools used in the design and analysis of bioenergy production systems and the life-cycle assessment for evaluating the environmental sustainability of biomass production and bioenergy processing technologies. Section II focuses on the technical and economic feasibility and environmental sustainability of various biomass feedstocks and emerging technologies to improve feedstock sustainability. Section III addresses the technical and economic feasibility and environmental sustainability of different bioenergy processing technologies and emerging technologies to improve the sustainability of each bioenergy process. Section IV discusses the design and analysis of biorefineries and different biorefinery systems, including lignocellulosic feedstock, whole-crop, and green biorefinery.

Lignocellulose Conversion

Lignocellulose Conversion Book
Author : Vincenza Faraco
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-12
ISBN : 3642378617
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bioethanol has been recognized as a potential alternative to petroleum-derived transportation fuels. Even if cellulosic biomass is less expensive than corn and sugarcane, the higher costs for its conversion make the near-term price of cellulosic ethanol higher than that of corn ethanol and even more than that of sugarcane ethanol. Conventional process for bioethanol production from lignocellulose includes a chemical/physical pre-treatment of lignocellulose for lignin removal, mostly based on auto hydrolysis and acid hydrolysis, followed by saccharification of the free accessible cellulose portions of the biomass. The highest yields of fermentable sugars from cellulose portion are achieved by means of enzymatic hydrolysis, currently carried out using a mix of cellulases from the fungus Trichoderma reesei. Reduction of (hemi)cellulases production costs is strongly required to increase competitiveness of second generation bioethanol production. The final step is the fermentation of sugars obtained from saccharification, typically performed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The current process is optimized for 6-carbon sugars fermentation, since most of yeasts cannot ferment 5-carbon sugars. Thus, research is aimed at exploring new engineered yeasts abilities to co-ferment 5- and 6-carbon sugars. Among the main routes to advance cellulosic ethanol, consolidate bio-processing, namely direct conversion of biomass into ethanol by a genetically modified microbes, holds tremendous potential to reduce ethanol production costs. Finally, the use of all the components of lignocellulose to produce a large spectra of biobased products is another challenge for further improving competitiveness of second generation bioethanol production, developing a biorefinery.

Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration

Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration Book
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on Developing a Research Agenda for Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2019-04-08
ISBN : 0309484529
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

To achieve goals for climate and economic growth, "negative emissions technologies" (NETs) that remove and sequester carbon dioxide from the air will need to play a significant role in mitigating climate change. Unlike carbon capture and storage technologies that remove carbon dioxide emissions directly from large point sources such as coal power plants, NETs remove carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere or enhance natural carbon sinks. Storing the carbon dioxide from NETs has the same impact on the atmosphere and climate as simultaneously preventing an equal amount of carbon dioxide from being emitted. Recent analyses found that deploying NETs may be less expensive and less disruptive than reducing some emissions, such as a substantial portion of agricultural and land-use emissions and some transportation emissions. In 2015, the National Academies published Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration, which described and initially assessed NETs and sequestration technologies. This report acknowledged the relative paucity of research on NETs and recommended development of a research agenda that covers all aspects of NETs from fundamental science to full-scale deployment. To address this need, Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration: A Research Agenda assesses the benefits, risks, and "sustainable scale potential" for NETs and sequestration. This report also defines the essential components of a research and development program, including its estimated costs and potential impact.

The Biobased Economy

The Biobased Economy Book
Author : Hans Langeveld,Marieke Meeusen,Johan Sanders
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0415631327
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Providing an illuminating framework as to how policy and market players could and should drive the development of a biobased economy that is effective, sustainable, fair and cost efficient. The result is an essential resource for all those working in or concerned with biobased industries, their policy or research.

Large scale plantations bioenergy developments and land use change in Indonesia

Large scale plantations  bioenergy developments and land use change in Indonesia Book
Author : Anne Casson,Yohanes I Ketut Deddy Muliastra,Krystof Obidzinski
Publisher : CIFOR
Release : 2014-12-29
ISBN : 6021504666
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Indonesia’'s forests make up one of the world’s most biologically diverse ecosystems. They have long been harvested by local people to meet their daily needs. Since the 1970s, a combination of demographic, economic and policy factors has driven forest exploitation at the industrial scale and resulted in growing deforestation. Key factors behind the forest loss and land use change in present-day Indonesia are the expansion of oil palm, plywood production and pulp and paper industries. Oil palm has been one of the fastest-growing sectors of the Indonesian economy, increasing from less than 1 million hectares in 1991 to 8.9 million hectares in 2011. The plywood and pulp and paper industries have also expanded significantly since the log export ban in 1985. All three sectors have contributed to deforestation. Several measures are being taken to reduce the loss of tropical forests in Indonesia. These measures are driven by growing global concern about the impact of deforestation on biodiversity and global warming and the Indonesian government’s commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A major policy initiative revolves around developing renewable energy from biomass that can be sourced from oil palm, sugar, cassava, jatropha and timber plantations. This paper analyzes these measures and assesses the conditions under which they may be most effective.

Industrial Crops and Uses

Industrial Crops and Uses Book
Author : Bharat P. Singh
Publisher : CABI
Release : 2010-08-25
ISBN : 1845936175
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The demand for plant-based industrial raw materials has increased as well as research into expanding the utility of plants for current and future uses. Plants are renewable, have limited or positive environmental impact and have the potential to yield a wide range of products in contrast to petroleum-based materials. Plants can be used in a variety of different industries and products including bioenergy, industrial oil and starch, fibre and dye, rubber and related compounds, insecticide and land rehabilitation. This title offers a comprehensive coverage of each of these uses. Chapters discuss.

Forestburg Switchgrass

 Forestburg  Switchgrass Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1988
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Forestburg Switchgrass book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.