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Biodiversity And Evolution

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Biodiversity and Evolution

Biodiversity and Evolution Book
Author : Philippe Grandcolas,Marie-Christine Maurel
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-04-17
ISBN : 008102567X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biodiversity and Evolution includes chapters devoted to the evolution and biodiversity of organisms at the molecular level, based on the study of natural collections from the Museum of Natural History. The book starts with an epistemological and historical introduction and ends with a critical overview of the Anthropocene epoch. Explores the study of natural collections of the Museum of Natural History Examines evolution and biodiversity at the molecular level Features an introduction focusing on epistemology and history Provides a critical overview

Governing Global Biodiversity

Governing Global Biodiversity Book
Author : Philippe G. Le Prestre
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2017-05-15
ISBN : 1351932535
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Predictions about the success of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) are pessimistic. It has now become commonplace to bemoan the scope, ambition, and deeply political nature of a convention that addresses issues ranging from ecosystems protection to the exploitation of genetic resources, from conservation to justice, and from commerce to scientific knowledge. Ten years after its adoption, how can we assess the difference that the CBD has made? Is it in danger of collapsing under its own weight or is it building the foundations of new patterns of relations between societies and nature? What achievements can we record and what challenges does it face? In this book, which is unique in its scope, diversity and the wealth of information it contains, contributors from a variety of academic disciplines tackle an issue of enduring importance to the protection of biodiversity and enhance our understanding of humanity's capacity to reconcile its various aspirations and halt the destructive path upon which it is set.

Origin and Evolution of Biodiversity

Origin and Evolution of Biodiversity Book
Author : Pierre Pontarotti
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-08-27
ISBN : 3319959549
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book includes 19 selected contributions presented at the 21st Evolutionary Biology Meeting, which took place in Marseille in September 2017. The chapters are grouped into the following five categories: · Genome/Phenotype Evolution · Self/Nonself Evolution · Origin of Biodiversity · Origin of Life · Concepts The annual Evolutionary Biology Meetings in Marseille serve to gather leading evolutionary biologists and other scientists using evolutionary biology concepts, e.g. for medical research. The aim of these meetings is to promote the exchange of ideas to encourage interdisciplinary collaborations. Offering an up-to-date overview of recent findings in the field of evolutionary biology, this book is in invaluable source of information for scientists, teachers and advanced students.

Biodiversity Conservation and Phylogenetic Systematics

Biodiversity Conservation and Phylogenetic Systematics Book
Author : Roseli Pellens,Philippe Grandcolas
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-02-24
ISBN : 3319224611
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is about phylogenetic diversity as an approach to reduce biodiversity losses in this period of mass extinction. Chapters in the first section deal with questions such as the way we value phylogenetic diversity among other criteria for biodiversity conservation; the choice of measures; the loss of phylogenetic diversity with extinction; the importance of organisms that are deeply branched in the tree of life, and the role of relict species. The second section is composed by contributions exploring methodological aspects, such as how to deal with abundance, sampling effort, or conflicting trees in analysis of phylogenetic diversity. The last section is devoted to applications, showing how phylogenetic diversity can be integrated in systematic conservation planning, in EDGE and HEDGE evaluations. This wide coverage makes the book a reference for academics, policy makers and stakeholders dealing with biodiversity conservation.

Evolution in Action

Evolution in Action Book
Author : Matthias Glaubrecht
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-07-24
ISBN : 3642124259
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Radiations, or Evolution in Action We have just celebrated the “Darwin Year” with the double anniversary of his 200th birthday and 150th year of his masterpiece, “On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection”. In this work, Darwin established the factual evidence of biological evolution, that species change over time, and that new organisms arise by the splitting of ancestral forms into two or more descendant species. However, above all, Darwin provided the mechanisms by arguing convincingly that it is by natural selection – as well as by sexual selection (as he later added) – that organisms adapt to their environment. The many discoveries since then have essentially con?rmed and strengthened Darwin’s central theses, with latest evidence, for example, from molecular genetics, revealing the evolutionary relationships of all life forms through one shared history of descent from a common ancestor. We have also come a long way to progressively understand more on how new species actually originate, i. e. on speciation which remained Darwin’s “mystery of m- teries”, as noted in one of his earliest transmutation notebooks. Since speciation is the underlying mechanism for radiations, it is the ultimate causation for the biological diversity of life that surrounds us.

Experimental Evolution and the Nature of Biodiversity

Experimental Evolution and the Nature of Biodiversity Book
Author : Rees Kassen
Publisher : Roberts Publishers
Release : 2014-06-02
ISBN : 9781936221462
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Why and how did life become so diverse? This has been a central problem in biology. Experimen-tal Evolution and the Nature of Biodiversity explores how diversity evolves in microbial popula-tions that occupy some of the simplest environments imaginable, laboratory test tubes. Microbial evolution experiments allow researchers to watch the evolutionary process unfold in real time while tracking diversification in both phenotype and genotype along the way. When combined with new insights coming from next-generation sequencing, these experiments can tell us much more about the sorts of problems and questions related to adaptation and diversity"--"Why and how did life become so diverse? This has been a central problem in biology. Experimental Evolution and the Nature of Biodiversity explores how diversity evolves in microbial populations that occupy some of the simplest environments imaginable--laboratory test tubes"--

The Dynamical Processes of Biodiversity

The Dynamical Processes of Biodiversity Book
Author : Oscar Grillo,Gianfranco Venora
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2011-12-02
ISBN : 9533077727
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Driven by the increasing necessity to define the biological diversity frame of widespread, endemic and threatened species, as well as by the stimulating chance to describe new species, the study of the evolutive and spatial dynamics is in constant execution. Systematic overviews, biogeographic and phylogenic backgrounds, species composition and distribution in restricted areas are focal topics of the 15 interesting independent chapters collected in this book, chosen to offer to the reader an overall view of the present condition in which our planet is.

Biodiversity Dynamics

Biodiversity Dynamics Book
Author : Michael L. McKinney,James A. Drake
Publisher : Columbia University Press
Release : 2001-04-12
ISBN : 9780231505802
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

How will patterns of human interaction with the earth's eco-system impact on biodiversity loss over the long term--not in the next ten or even fifty years, but on the vast temporal scale be dealt with by earth scientists? This volume brings together data from population biology, community ecology, comparative biology, and paleontology to answer this question.

In the Light of Evolution

In the Light of Evolution Book
Author : National Academy of Sciences
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2017-01-01
ISBN : 0309444225
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biodiversity-the genetic variety of life-is an exuberant product of the evolutionary past, a vast human-supportive resource (aesthetic, intellectual, and material) of the present, and a rich legacy to cherish and preserve for the future. Two urgent challenges, and opportunities, for 21st-century science are to gain deeper insights into the evolutionary processes that foster biotic diversity, and to translate that understanding into workable solutions for the regional and global crises that biodiversity currently faces. A grasp of evolutionary principles and processes is important in other societal arenas as well, such as education, medicine, sociology, and other applied fields including agriculture, pharmacology, and biotechnology. The ramifications of evolutionary thought also extend into learned realms traditionally reserved for philosophy and religion. The central goal of the In the Light of Evolution (ILE) series is to promote the evolutionary sciences through state-of-the-art colloquia-in the series of Arthur M. Sackler colloquia sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences-and their published proceedings. Each installment explores evolutionary perspectives on a particular biological topic that is scientifically intriguing but also has special relevance to contemporary societal issues or challenges. This tenth and final edition of the In the Light of Evolution series focuses on recent developments in phylogeographic research and their relevance to past accomplishments and future research directions.

Opportunities in Biology

Opportunities in Biology Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Board on Biology,Committee on Research Opportunities in Biology
Publisher : National Academies
Release : 1989-01-01
ISBN : 0309039274
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biology has entered an era in which interdisciplinary cooperation is at an all-time high, practical applications follow basic discoveries more quickly than ever before, and new technologiesâ€"recombinant DNA, scanning tunneling microscopes, and moreâ€"are revolutionizing the way science is conducted. The potential for scientific breakthroughs with significant implications for society has never been greater. Opportunities in Biology reports on the state of the new biology, taking a detailed look at the disciplines of biology; examining the advances made in medicine, agriculture, and other fields; and pointing out promising research opportunities. Authored by an expert panel representing a variety of viewpoints, this volume also offers recommendations on how to meet the infrastructure needsâ€"for funding, effective information systems, and other supportâ€"of future biology research. Exploring what has been accomplished and what is on the horizon, Opportunities in Biology is an indispensable resource for students, teachers, and researchers in all subdisciplines of biology as well as for research administrators and those in funding agencies.

Coexistence

Coexistence Book
Author : Jan Sapp
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2016-10-18
ISBN : 0190632453
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is about tropical biology in action- how biologists grapple with the ecology and evolution of the great species diversity in tropical rainforests and coral reefs. Tropical rainforests are home to 50% of all the plant and animal species on earth, though they cover only about 2% of the planet. Coral reefs hold 25% of the world's marine diversity, though they represent only 0.1 % of the world's surface. The increase in species richness from the poles to the tropics has remained enigmatic to naturalists for more than 200 years. How have so many species evolved in the tropics? How can so many species coexist there? At a time when rainforests and coral reefs are shrinking, when the earth is facing what has been called the sixth mass extinction, understanding the evolutionary ecology of the tropics is everyone's business. Despite the fundamental importance of the tropics to all of life on earth, tropical biology has evolved relatively slowly and with difficulties - economic, political, and environmental. This book is also about tropical science in context, situated in the complex socio-political history, and the rich rainforests and coral reefs of Panama. There are no other books on the history of tropical ecology and evolution or on the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Thus situated in historical context, Jan Sapp's aim is to understand how naturalists have studied and conceptualized the great biological diversity and entangled ecology of tropics. This book has potential to be used in tropical biology classes, ecology courses, evolutionary ecology and it could also be useful in classes on the history of biology.

Conservation Biology for All

Conservation Biology for All Book
Author : Navjot S. Sodhi,Paul R. Ehrlich
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2010-01-08
ISBN : 0191574252
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Conservation Biology for All provides cutting-edge but basic conservation science to a global readership. A series of authoritative chapters have been written by the top names in conservation biology with the principal aim of disseminating cutting-edge conservation knowledge as widely as possible. Important topics such as balancing conversion and human needs, climate change, conservation planning, designing and analyzing conservation research, ecosystem services, endangered species management, extinctions, fire, habitat loss, and invasive species are covered. Numerous textboxes describing additional relevant material or case studies are also included. The global biodiversity crisis is now unstoppable; what can be saved in the developing world will require an educated constituency in both the developing and developed world. Habitat loss is particularly acute in developing countries, which is of special concern because it tends to be these locations where the greatest species diversity and richest centres of endemism are to be found. Sadly, developing world conservation scientists have found it difficult to access an authoritative textbook, which is particularly ironic since it is these countries where the potential benefits of knowledge application are greatest. There is now an urgent need to educate the next generation of scientists in developing countries, so that they are in a better position to protect their natural resources.

Biotic Evolution and Environmental Change in Southeast Asia

Biotic Evolution and Environmental Change in Southeast Asia Book
Author : David Gower,Kenneth Johnson,James Richardson,Brian Rosen,Lukas Rüber,Suzanne Williams
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2012-07-19
ISBN : 1139536222
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The flora and fauna of Southeast Asia are exceptionally diverse. The region includes several terrestrial biodiversity hotspots and is the principal global hotspot for marine diversity, but it also faces the most intense challenges of the current global biodiversity crisis. Providing reviews, syntheses and results of the latest research into Southeast Asian earth and organismal history, this book investigates the history, present and future of the fauna and flora of this bio- and geodiverse region. Leading authorities in the field explore key topics including palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, biogeography, population genetics and conservation biology, illustrating research approaches and themes with spatially, taxonomically and methodologically focused case studies. The volume also presents methodological advances in population genetics and historical biogeography. Exploring the fascinating environmental and biotic histories of Southeast Asia, this is an ideal resource for graduate students and researchers as well as environmental NGOs.

Biodiversity and Earth History

Biodiversity and Earth History Book
Author : Jens Boenigk,Sabina Wodniok,Edvard Glücksman
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-03-31
ISBN : 3662463946
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This uniquely interdisciplinary textbook explores the exciting and complex relationship between Earth’s geological history and the biodiversity of life. Its innovative design provides a seamless learning experience, clarifying major concepts step by step with detailed textual explanations complemented by detailed figures, diagrams and vibrant pictures. Thanks to its layout, the respective concepts can be studied individually, as part of the broader framework of each chapter, or as they relate to the book as a whole. It provides in-depth coverage of: - Earth’s formation and subsequent geological history, including patterns of climate change and atmospheric evolution; - The early stages of life, from microbial ‘primordial soup’ theories to the fossil record’s most valuable contributions; - Mechanisms of mutual influence between living organisms and the environment: how life changed Earth’s history whilst, at the same time, environmental pressures continue to shape the evolution of species; - Basic ideas in biodiversity studies: species concepts, measurement techniques, and global distribution patterns; - Biological systematics, from their historical origins in Greek philosophy and Biblical stories to Darwinian evolution by natural selection, and to phylogenetics based on cutting-edge molecular techniques. This book’s four major sections offer a fresh cross-disciplinary overview of biodiversity and the Earth’s history. Among many other concepts, they reveal the massive diversity of eukaryotes, explain the geological processes behind fossilisation, and provide an eye-opening account of the relatively short period of human evolution in the context of Earth’s 4.6 billion-year history. Employing a combination of proven didactic tools, the book is simultaneously a reading reference, illustrated guide, and encyclopaedia of organismal biology and geology. It is aimed at school- and university-level students, as well as members of the public fascinated by the intricate interrelationship of living organisms and their environment.

Plant Genome Biodiversity and Evolution Vol 1 Part D

Plant Genome  Biodiversity and Evolution Vol  1  Part D Book
Author : A K Sharma
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2006-01-11
ISBN : 9781578084203
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The coverage of this volume ranges from Cycads and Pines of Gymnosperms to monocot genera of significance in phylogeny, agri-horticulture and commerce. The previous volume (1C), dealt with dicot counterparts. Noteworthy features of the volume include molecular phylogeny of Cycads, correlation of genomics and micro habitat in Pinus, genome studies in oil and datepalm, correlation of molecular data with habit in orchids, congruence of karyotype and molecular data in Festuca and analysis of putative ancestors in Avena. The volume will be of interest to all students of genomics interested in phylogeny, agri-horticulture and commercial plants.

Origins of Biodiversity

Origins of Biodiversity Book
Author : Lindell Bromham,Marcel Cardillo
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019-04-18
ISBN : 0199608717
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is a unique introduction to the fields of macroevolution and macroecology, taking an enquiry-led approach to exploring the evolution and distribution of biodiversity across time, space and lineages.The only introduction to macroevolution and macroecology to adopt an innovative enquiry-led, case study-based framework to encourage active learning and critical thinking, this book:Extends the study of evolutionary biology and ecology beyond the topics covered in typical undergraduate textsExplores the nature of scientific investigation by emphasising hypothesis testing and highlighting the range of analytical tools available to contemporary researchersEncourages active student-driven learning by using open questions and current debates to promote critical thinking, identify interesting and important problems, and demonstrate how to frame testable research hypothesesCombines these three skills--an understanding of macroevolutionary and macroecological principles and patterns, a grasp of hypothesis testing, and the ability to identify important questions--to allow students to look at the world with new eyes, and develop an understanding of why the biological world is as it is.

What Is Biodiversity

What Is Biodiversity  Book
Author : James Maclaurin,Kim Sterelny
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2008-11-15
ISBN : 0226500829
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the life sciences, there is wide-ranging debate about biodiversity. While nearly everyone is in favor of biodiversity and its conservation, methods for its assessment vary enormously. So what exactly is biodiversity? Most theoretical work on the subject assumes it has something to do with species richness—with the number of species in a particular region—but in reality, it is much more than that. Arguing that we cannot make rational decisions about what it is to be protected without knowing what biodiversity is, James Maclaurin and Kim Sterelny offer in What Is Biodiversity? a theoretical and conceptual exploration of the biological world and how diversity is valued. Here, Maclaurin and Sterelny explore not only the origins of the concept of biodiversity, but also how that concept has been shaped by ecology and more recently by conservation biology. They explain the different types of biodiversity important in evolutionary theory, developmental biology, ecology, morphology and taxonomy and conclude that biological heritage is rich in not just one biodiversity but many. Maclaurin and Sterelny also explore the case for the conservation of these biodiversities using option value theory, a tool borrowed from economics. An erudite, provocative, timely, and creative attempt to answer a fundamental question, What Is Biodiversity? will become a foundational text in the life sciences and studies thereof.

In the Light of Evolution

In the Light of Evolution Book
Author : National Academy of Sciences
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2017-01-01
ISBN : 0309444225
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biodiversity-the genetic variety of life-is an exuberant product of the evolutionary past, a vast human-supportive resource (aesthetic, intellectual, and material) of the present, and a rich legacy to cherish and preserve for the future. Two urgent challenges, and opportunities, for 21st-century science are to gain deeper insights into the evolutionary processes that foster biotic diversity, and to translate that understanding into workable solutions for the regional and global crises that biodiversity currently faces. A grasp of evolutionary principles and processes is important in other societal arenas as well, such as education, medicine, sociology, and other applied fields including agriculture, pharmacology, and biotechnology. The ramifications of evolutionary thought also extend into learned realms traditionally reserved for philosophy and religion. The central goal of the In the Light of Evolution (ILE) series is to promote the evolutionary sciences through state-of-the-art colloquia-in the series of Arthur M. Sackler colloquia sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences-and their published proceedings. Each installment explores evolutionary perspectives on a particular biological topic that is scientifically intriguing but also has special relevance to contemporary societal issues or challenges. This tenth and final edition of the In the Light of Evolution series focuses on recent developments in phylogeographic research and their relevance to past accomplishments and future research directions.

Conserving Biodiversity

Conserving Biodiversity Book
Author : National Research Council,Board on Science and Technology for International Development
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1992-02-01
ISBN : 0309046831
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The loss of the earth's biological diversity is widely recognized as a critical environmental problem. That loss is most severe in developing countries, where the conditions of human existence are most difficult. Conserving Biodiversity presents an agenda for research that can provide information to formulate policy and design conservation programs in the Third World. The book includes discussions of research needs in the biological sciences as well as economics and anthropology, areas of critical importance to conservation and sustainable development. Although specifically directed toward development agencies, non-governmental organizations, and decisionmakers in developing nations, this volume should be of interest to all who are involved in the conservation of biological diversity.

How Life Increases Biodiversity

How Life Increases Biodiversity Book
Author : David Seaborg
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-09-09
ISBN : 0429802102
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book argues that organisms and their interactions create and maximize biodiversity. The evidence for this autocatalytic hypothesis has been collated and integrated into this provocative argument. Natural selection favors the increase of biodiversity. Organisms can be causative agents contributing to major macroevolutionary transitions. Species tend to have a net positive effect on biodiversity. All species are ecosystem engineers. Mutualism and commensalism are common and fundamental, and these coevolved interspecific interactions frequently generate enormous increases in biodiversity. Competition generally does not decrease biodiversity, and often leads to evolutionary innovation. Plants are ecosystem engineers that have made Earth more favorable to life and increased diversity in many ways. Herbivores and predators increase the diversity of the species they consume, and are necessary for ecosystem stability. Decomposers are essential to ecosystem health. All these examples illustrate the focus of this book – that organisms and their interactions stimulate biodiversity, and ecosystems maximize it. Key Features • Describes a hypothesis that life itself generates higher biodiversity • Suggests a highly modified version of the established paradigm in population biology and evolution • Asserts that all species are ecosystem engineers with a net positive effect on biodiversity and their ecosystems • Suggests that mutualism and commensalism are the rule • Presents a novel view likely to elicit deeper discussions of biodiversity Related Titles Dewdney, A. K. Stochastic Communities: A Mathematical Theory of Biodiversity (ISBN 978-1-138-19702-2) Curry, G. B. and C. J. Humphries, eds. Biodiversity Databases: Techniques, Politics, and Applications (ISBN 978-0-367-38916-1) Pullaiah, T, ed. Global Biodiversity. 4 Volume Set (ISBN 978-1-77188-751-9)