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Biodiesel Soot

Biodiesel Soot Book
Author : Chuan Li,Xianguo Hu
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-10-27
ISBN : 0128205547
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biodiesel Soot: Tribology, Properties, and Formation covers the basic properties of biodiesel soot, focusing particularly on its tribological behaviors, dispersion characteristics, and techniques for controlling and altering its tribological and material behavior. The book begins with a concise overview of the fundamentals of the properties and preparation of biodiesel, including coverage of the processes involved in the formation of soot particulates, the influence of different fuels on formation, and the effects of different soot on air pollution, friction reduction, and wear resistance of lubricating oil. Other sections cover the influence of biodiesel soot on engine parts and combustion devices. This book will be of particular interest to graduate students and academic or industrial researchers in materials science, as well as mechanical, automotive and chemical engineering. Covers the tribology, morphology, composition, structure and dispersion of biodiesel soot in engines Guides problem-solving related to the effects of biodiesel soot on the tribological properties of lubricating oil Provides fundamental knowledge on the performance and preparation of biodiesel fuel Discusses the physical-chemical properties of biodiesel soot from the combustion of different fuels

Biodiesel Soot

Biodiesel Soot Book
Author : Chuan Li,Xianguo Hu
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-11-16
ISBN : 0128205539
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biodiesel Soot: Tribology, Properties, and Formation covers the basic properties of biodiesel soot, focusing particularly on its tribological behaviors, dispersion characteristics, and techniques for controlling and altering its tribological and material behavior. The book begins with a concise overview of the fundamentals of the properties and preparation of biodiesel, including coverage of the processes involved in the formation of soot particulates, the influence of different fuels on formation, and the effects of different soot on air pollution, friction reduction, and wear resistance of lubricating oil. Other sections cover the influence of biodiesel soot on engine parts and combustion devices. This book will be of particular interest to graduate students and academic or industrial researchers in materials science, as well as mechanical, automotive and chemical engineering. Covers the tribology, morphology, composition, structure and dispersion of biodiesel soot in engines Guides problem-solving related to the effects of biodiesel soot on the tribological properties of lubricating oil Provides fundamental knowledge on the performance and preparation of biodiesel fuel Discusses the physical-chemical properties of biodiesel soot from the combustion of different fuels

Combustion Chemistry of Biodiesel for the Use in Urban Transport Buses

Combustion Chemistry of Biodiesel for the Use in Urban Transport Buses Book
Author : Hamid Omidvarborna
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biofuels, such as biodiesel, offer benefits as a possible alternative to conventional fuels due to their fuel source sustainability and their reduced environmental impact. Before they can be used, it is essential to understand their combustion chemistry and emission characterizations due to a number of issues associated with them (e.g., high emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx), lower heating value than diesel, etc.). During this study, emission characterizations of different biodiesel blends (B0, B20, B50, and B100) were measured on three different feedstocks (soybean methyl ester (SME), tallow oil (TO), and waste cooking oil (WCO)) with various characteristics, while an ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) was used as base fuel at low-temperature combustion (LTC). A laboratory combustion chamber was used to analyze soot formation, NOx emissions, while real engine emissions were measured for further investigation on PM and NOx emissions. For further study, carbon emissions (CO, CO2, and CH4) were also measured to understand their relations with feedstocks' type. The emissions were correlated with fuel's characteristics, especially unsaturation degree (number of double bonds in methyl esters) and chain length (oxygen-to-carbon ratio). The experimental results obtained from laboratory experiments were confirmed by field experiments (real engines) collected from Toledo area regional transit authority (TARTA) buses. Combustion analysis results showed that the neat biodiesel fuels had longer ignition delays and lower ignition temperatures compared to ULSD at the tested condition. The results showed that biodiesel containing more unsaturated fatty acids emitted higher levels of NOx compared to biodiesel with more saturated fatty acids. A paired t-test on fuels showed that neat biodiesel fuels had significant reduction in the formation of NOx compared with ULSD. In another part of this study, biodiesel fuel with a high degree of unsaturation and high portion of long chains of methyl esters (SME) produced more CO and less CO2 emissions than those with low degrees of unsaturation and short chain lengths (WCO and TO, respectively). In addition, biodiesel fuels with long and unsaturated chains released more CH4 than the ones with shorter and less unsaturated chains. Experimental results on soot particles showed a significant reduction in soot emissions when using biodiesel compared to ULSD. For neat biodiesel, no soot particles were observed from the combustion regardless of their feedstock origins. The overall morphology of soot particles showed that the average diameter of ULSD soot particles was greater than the average soot particle from biodiesel blends. Eight elements were detected as the marker metals in biodiesel soot particles. The conclusion suggests that selected characterization methods are valuable for studying the structure and distribution of particulates. Experiments on both PM and NOx emissions were conducted on real engines in parallel with laboratory study. Field experiments using TARTA buses were performed on buses equipped with/without post-treatment technologies. The performance of the bus that ran on blended biodiesel was found to be very similar to ULSD. As a part of this study, the toxic nature of engine exhausts under different idling conditions was studied. The results of the PM emission analysis showed that the PM mean value of emission is dependent on the engine operation conditions and fuel type. Besides, different idling modes were investigated with respect to organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and elemental analysis of the PMs collected from public transit buses in Toledo, Ohio. In the modeling portion of this work, a simplified model was developed by using artificial neural network (ANN) to predict NOx emissions from TARTA buses via engine parameters. ANN results showed that the developed ANN model was capable of predicting the NOx emissions of the tested engines with excellent correlation coefficients, while root mean square errors (RMSEs) were in acceptable ranges. The ANN study confirmed that ANN can provide an accurate and simple approach in the analysis of complex and multivariate problems, especially for idle engine NOx emissions. Finally, in the last part of the modeling study, a biodiesel surrogate has been proposed and main pathways have been derived to present a simple model for NOx formation in biodiesel combustion via stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA). The main reaction pathways are obtained by simplifying the previously derived skeletal mechanisms, including saturated methyl decenoate (MD), unsaturated methyl 5-decanoate (MD5D), and n-decane (ND). ND is added to match the energy content and the C/H/O ratio of actual biodiesel fuel. The predicted results are in good agreement with a limited number of experimental data at LTC conditions for three different biodiesel fuels consisting of various ratios of unsaturated and saturated methyl esters. The SSA model shows the potential to predict NOx emission concentrations, when the peak combustion temperature increases through the addition of ULSD to biodiesel. The SSA method demonstrates the possibility of reducing the computational complexity in biodiesel emissions modeling. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that both alternative renewable fuels (biodiesel blends) as well as the LTC condition are suitable choices for existing diesel engines to improve the sustainability of fuel and to reduce environmental emissions.

Advanced Engine Diagnostics

Advanced Engine Diagnostics Book
Author : Avinash Kumar Agarwal,Jai Gopal Gupta,Nikhil Sharma,Akhilendra Pratap Singh
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-11-07
ISBN : 9811332754
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes the discusses advanced fuels and combustion, emission control techniques, after-treatment systems, simulations and fault diagnostics, including discussions on different engine diagnostic techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV), phase Doppler interferometry (PDI), laser ignition. This volume bridges the gap between basic concepts and advanced research in internal combustion engine diagnostics, making it a useful reference for both students and researchers whose work focuses on achieving higher fuel efficiency and lowering emissions.

Plant Oils as Fuels

Plant Oils as Fuels Book
Author : Norbert Martini,Jozef S. Schell
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 3642722695
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Among renewable energy resources, Biodiesel fuel made from rapeseed is of special importance in Europe. Economical, technological, ecological and toxicological arguments have been advanced implying that, at present, Biodiesel is at best just a "niche" product that can only compete with traditional fossil diesel fuel because of significant tax incentives. Given the present state of knowledge in these very different areas, the decisive question to be asked is whether the competitiveness, and thus marketability, of Biodiesel can be enhanced by biotechnological manipulations of the rape plant.

Proceedings of the IEEE ASME Joint Rail Conference

Proceedings of the     IEEE ASME Joint Rail Conference Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Proceedings of the IEEE ASME Joint Rail Conference book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles Directly Sampled in Diesel Spray Flame A Comparison Between US 2 and Biodiesel Soot

Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles Directly Sampled in Diesel Spray Flame   A Comparison Between US 2 and Biodiesel Soot Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles Directly Sampled in Diesel Spray Flame A Comparison Between US 2 and Biodiesel Soot book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Air Pollution and Control

Air Pollution and Control Book
Author : Nikhil Sharma,Avinash Kumar Agarwal,Peter Eastwood,Tarun Gupta,Akhilendra P Singh
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-12-13
ISBN : 9811071853
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book focuses on various aspects related to air pollution, including major sources of air pollution, measurement techniques, modeling studies and solution approaches to control. The book also presents case studies on measuring air pollution in major urban areas, such as Delhi, India. The book examines vehicles as a source of air pollution and addresses the quantitative analysis of engine exhaust emissions. Subsequent chapters discuss particulate matter from engines and coal-fired power plants as a major pollutant, as well as emission control techniques using various after treatment systems. The book’s final chapter considers future perspectives and a way forward for sustainable development. It also discusses several emission control techniques that will gain relevance in the future, when stricter emission norms will be enforced for international combustion (IC) engines as well as power plants. Given its breadth of coverage, the book will benefit a wide variety of readers, including researchers, professionals, and policymakers.

Journal of the Air Waste Management Association

Journal of the Air   Waste Management Association Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Journal of the Air Waste Management Association book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Investigation on Nitric Oxide and Soot of Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel Using a Medium Duty Diesel Engine

Investigation on Nitric Oxide and Soot of Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel Using a Medium Duty Diesel Engine Book
Author : Hoseok Song
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biodiesel has been suggested as an alternative fuel to the petroleum diesel fuel. It beneficially reduces regulated emission gases, but increases NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) Thus, the increase in NOx is the barrier for potential growth of the biodiesel fuel. In general, NOx formation is dominated by flame temperature. Interestingly, soot can play a role as a heat sink as well as a heat transfer media to high temperature gases. Thus, the cooling effect of soot may change the flame temperature and therefore, NOx emissions. In this study, emphasis is placed on the relationship between soot and NO (Nitric oxide) formation. For the experimental study, a metallic fuel additive is used since barium is known to be effective to suppress soot formation during combustion. The barium additive is applied to #2D (Number 2 diesel fuel) by volume basis: 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 %-v, and to the palm olein oil by 0.25 %-v. All the tests are carried out in a four-cylinder medium duty diesel engine, 4045 DI diesel engine, manufactured by John Deere. For the analysis, an analytical model is used to estimate combustion temperature, NO concentration and soot emissivity. The results show that NO concentration does not have the expected trade-off relation with soot. Rather, NO concentration is found to be more strongly affected by ambient temperature and combustion characteristics than by soot. The results of the analytical model show the reasonable NO estimation and the improvement on temperature calculation. However, the model is not able to explain the detailed changes of soot emissivity by the different fuels since the emissivity correlation is developed empirically for diesel fuel.

Encyclopedia of Automotive Engineering

Encyclopedia of Automotive Engineering Book
Author : David A. Crolla,David E. Foster,Toshio Kobayashi,Nicholas Vaughan
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0470974028
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Encyclopedia of Automotive Engineering book written by David A. Crolla,David E. Foster,Toshio Kobayashi,Nicholas Vaughan, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Innovative Design Analysis and Development Practices in Aerospace and Automotive Engineering I DAD 2018

Innovative Design  Analysis and Development Practices in Aerospace and Automotive Engineering  I DAD 2018  Book
Author : U. Chandrasekhar,Lung-Jieh Yang,S. Gowthaman
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-12-20
ISBN : 9811327181
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book gathers the best articles presented by researchers and industrial experts at the International Conference on “Innovative Design and Development Practices in Aerospace and Automotive Engineering (I-DAD 2018)”. The papers discuss new design concepts, analysis and manufacturing technologies, with an emphasis on achieving improved performance by downsizing; improving the weight-to-strength ratio, fuel efficiency, and operational capability at room and elevated temperatures; reducing wear and tear; and addressing NVH aspects, while balancing the challenges of Euro IV/Barat Stage IV emission norms and beyond, greenhouse effects, and recyclable materials. The innovative methods discussed here offer valuable reference material for educational and research organizations, as well as industry, encouraging them to pursue challenging projects of mutual interest.

Advanced Biofuels

Advanced Biofuels Book
Author : Kalam Abul Azad,Mohammad Rasul
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2019-06-09
ISBN : 0081027923
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advanced Biofuels: Applications, Technologies, and Environmental Sustainability presents recent developments and applications of biofuels in the field of internal combustion engines, with a primary focus on the recent approaches of biodiesel applications, low emission alternative fuels, and environmental sustainability. Editors Dr. Azad and Dr. Rasul, along with their team of expert contributors, combine a collection of extensive experimental investigations on engine performance and emissions and combustion phenomena using different types of oxygenated fuel with in-depth research on fuel applications, an analysis of available technologies and resources, energy efficiency improvement methods, and applications of oxygenated fuel for the sustainable environment. Academics, researchers, engineers and technologists will develop a greater understanding of the relevant concepts and solutions to the global issues related to achieving alternative energy application for future energy security, as well as environmental sustainability in medium and large-scale industries. Fills a gap in the literature on alternative fuel applications with in-depth research and experimental investigations of different approaches, technologies and applications Considers the important issue of sustainability using case studies to deepen understanding Includes energy security within various industries, including aviation and transport

The Biodiesel Handbook

The Biodiesel Handbook Book
Author : Gerhard Knothe,Jürgen Krahl,Jon Van Gerpen
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-08-13
ISBN : 0983507260
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The second edition of this invaluable handbook covers converting vegetable oils, animal fats, and used oils into biodiesel fuel. The Biodiesel Handbook delivers solutions to issues associated with biodiesel feedstocks, production issues, quality control, viscosity, stability, applications, emissions, and other environmental impacts, as well as the status of the biodiesel industry worldwide. Incorporates the major research and other developments in the world of biodiesel in a comprehensive and practical format Includes reference materials and tables on biodiesel standards, unit conversions, and technical details in four appendices Presents details on other uses of biodiesel and other alternative diesel fuels from oils and fats

Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass

Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass Book
Author : Michael Boot
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2016-09-26
ISBN : 3527338136
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Written by experts in combustion technology, this is a unique and refreshing perspective on the current biofuel discussion, presenting the latest research in this important field. The emphasis throughout this reference is on applications, industrial perspectives and economics, focusing on new classes of biofuels such as butanols, levulinates, benzenoids and others. Clearly structured, each chapter presents a new class of biofuel and discusses such topics as production pathways, fuel properties and its impact on engines. The result is a fascinating, user-oriented overview of new classes of biofuels beyond bioethanol.

Combustion Generated Fine Carbonaceous Particles

Combustion Generated Fine Carbonaceous Particles Book
Author : Henning Bockhorn
Publisher : KIT Scientific Publishing
Release : 2009
ISBN : 3866444419
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Combustion Generated Fine Carbonaceous Particles book written by Henning Bockhorn, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Proceedings of the 19th Annual Fall Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division Advanced analysis for IC engines

Proceedings of the 19th Annual Fall Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division  Advanced analysis for IC engines Book
Author : American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Internal Combustion Engine Division. Technical Conference
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1997
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Proceedings of the 19th Annual Fall Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division Advanced analysis for IC engines book written by American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Internal Combustion Engine Division. Technical Conference, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.