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Biochar From Biomass And Waste

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Biochar from Biomass and Waste

Biochar from Biomass and Waste Book
Author : Yong Sik Ok,Daniel C.W. Tsang,Nanthi Bolan,Jeffrey M. Novak
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-11-02
ISBN : 0128117303
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biochar from Biomass and Waste: Fundamentals and Applications provides the fundamentals of biochar, such as its basic concepts, production technology and characterization methods, also including comprehensive examples for readers. This book includes information on state-of-art biochar application technologies in the fields of agriculture, energy and environmental sciences with step-by-step case studies. Biochar has received worldwide interests in the past decade because it encompasses high priority research areas, including bioenergy production, global warming mitigation and sustainable agriculture. Offers comprehensive coverage of biochar production, characterization and modification methods Provides global case studies covering a wide range of application fields, including environmental, agricultural, syngas and bio-oil Covers the sustainability and future of biochar

Agrochemicals Detection Treatment and Remediation

Agrochemicals Detection  Treatment and Remediation Book
Author : Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
Release : 2020-02-28
ISBN : 0081030177
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Agrochemicals Detection, Treatment and Remediation focuses on the latest research surrounding the detection and remediation of a new generation of agrochemical contaminants. The book defines the occurrence, sources, types and effects of agrochemicals, including herbicides, insecticides, fungicides and soil fumigants in the environment. The book covers both advanced physical and chemical methods for the abatement of these emerging contaminants in environmental media. Environmental Engineers and Researchers will find this to be a valuable reference on advanced processes for resource recovery, including nanotechnology for the recovery of phosphate from fertilizer industry wastewater.

Biochar Derived from Agricultural Waste Biomass Act as a Clean and Alternative Energy Source of Fossil Fuel Inputs

Biochar Derived from Agricultural Waste Biomass Act as a Clean and Alternative Energy Source of Fossil Fuel Inputs Book
Author : Swapan Suman
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this study, pyrolysis was used to upgrade the agricultural biomass waste (ABW) and increase its energy at pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 350 to 950°C and a residence time of 60 minutes. The produced biochars were characterized and their fuel qualities (such as, fixed carbon and carbon percentage, gross calorific value, pH and surface area) were evaluated. Physiochemical analysis showed that the biochar has improved fuel qualities compared to the raw biomass, such as decreased volatile matter, increased carbon content, pH and its gross calorific value with lower ash content. The evolution of derived biochar, as determined by TG-DTG and FT-IR, showed that most hemicellulose and cellulose were decomposed at below 350°C while the decomposition of lignin only occurs at higher pyrolysis temperatures. The biochars had increased ignition temperatures and higher combustion temperature regions compared to raw biomass feedstock. The present study showed that pyrolysis pointed the differences in fuel qualities among different agricultural biomass feedstocks. It also compromises with a promising conversion process for the production of biochar which has an alternative, clean and environment friendly energy source.

Carbon Nanomaterials for Agri Food and Environmental Applications

Carbon Nanomaterials for Agri Food and Environmental Applications Book
Author : Kamel Ahmed Abd-Elsalam
Publisher : Micro & Nano Technologies
Release : 2019-11
ISBN : 0128197862
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbon Nanomaterials for Agri-food and Environmental Applications discusses the characterization, processing and applications of carbon-based nanostructured materials in the agricultural and environmental sectors. Sections discuss the synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotubes, the technological developments in environmental applications of carbon-based nanomaterials, and agri-food applications. The book also covers the toxic effects of engineered carbon nanoparticles on the environment, and in plants and animals. Finally, quality control and risk management are addressed to assess health and environmental risks. This is an applicable book for graduate students, researchers and those in industrial sectors of science and technology who want to learn more about carbon nanomaterials. Compares a range of carbon-based nanomaterials, showing how they are used for a range of agricultural and environmental applications Discusses the challenges and toxicity of different types of carbon-based nanomaterials for environmental and agricultural applications Explores when different classes of nanomaterial should be used in different environments

Biochar for Environmental Management

Biochar for Environmental Management Book
Author : Dr. Johannes Lehmann
Publisher : Earthscan
Release : 2012-05-16
ISBN : 1849770557
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Biochar is the carbon-rich product when biomass (such as wood, manure, or crop residues) is heated in a closed container with little or no available air. It can be used to improve agriculture and the environment in several ways, and its stability in soil and superior nutrient-retention properties make it an ideal soil amendment to increase crop yields. In addition to this, biochar sequestration, in combination with sustainable biomass production, can be carbon-negative and therefore used to actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, with major implications for mitigation of climate change. Biochar production can also be combined with bioenergy production through the use of the gases that are given off in the pyrolysis process.This book is the first to synthesize the expanding research literature on this topic. The book's interdisciplinary approach, which covers engineering, environmental sciences, agricultural sciences, economics and policy, is a vital tool at this stage of biochar technology development. This comprehensive overview of current knowledge will be of interest to advanced students, researchers and professionals in a wide range of disciplines"--Provided by publisher.

Applications of Biochar for Environmental Safety

Applications of Biochar for Environmental Safety Book
Author : Ahmed Abdelhafez,Mohamed Abbas
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2020-07-22
ISBN : 178985895X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biochar is a carbon-rich material produced from the pyrolysis of organic materials from agricultural and forestry biomass at a relatively low temperature in the absence of oxygen. As such, it has potential for solving many agricultural and environmental problems.This book is divided into five sections: “Introduction,” “Production and Legislation of Biochar,” “Applications of Biochar for Soil Fertility Improvement,” “Role of Biochar for Soil Remediation and Ameliorating Salinity Effects” and “Applications of Biochar for Water Treatment.” Chapters address topics such as the pros and cons of biochar, its production, and its role in remediating and treating contaminated soils and water.

Bio Based Materials and Biotechnologies for Eco Efficient Construction

Bio Based Materials and Biotechnologies for Eco Efficient Construction Book
Author : Fernando Pacheco-Torgal,Volodymyr Ivanov,Daniel C. W. Tsang
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing Limited
Release : 2020-03-02
ISBN : 0128194812
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bio-based Materials and Biotechnologies for Eco-efficient Construction fills a gap in the published literature, discussing bio-based materials and biotechnologies that are crucial for a more sustainable construction industry. With comprehensive coverage and contributions from leading experts in the field, the book includes sections on Bio-based materials and biotechnologies for infrastructure applications, Bio-based materials and biotechnologies for building energy efficiency, and other applications, such as using biotechnology to reduce indoor air pollution, for water treatment, and in soil decontamination. The book will be an essential reference resource for academic researchers, civil engineers, contractors working in construction works, postgraduate students and other professionals.

Biochar for Environmental Management

Biochar for Environmental Management Book
Author : Johannes Lehmann,Stephen Joseph
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2015-02-20
ISBN : 1134489536
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biochar is the carbon-rich product which occurs when biomass (such as wood, manure or crop residues) is heated in a closed container with little or no available air. It can be used to improve agriculture and the environment in several ways, and its persistence in soil and nutrient-retention properties make it an ideal soil amendment to increase crop yields. In addition to this, biochar sequestration, in combination with sustainable biomass production, can be carbon-negative and therefore used to actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, with potentially major implications for mitigation of climate change. Biochar production can also be combined with bioenergy production through the use of the gases that are given off in the pyrolysis process. The first edition of this book, published in 2009, was the definitive work reviewing the expanding research literature on this topic. Since then, the rate of research activity has increased at least ten-fold, and biochar products are now commercially available as soil amendments. This second edition includes not only substantially updated chapters, but also additional chapters: on environmental risk assessment; on new uses of biochar in composting and potting mixes; a new and controversial field of studying the effects of biochar on soil carbon cycles; on traditional use with very recent discoveries that biochar was used not only in the Amazon but also in Africa and Asia; on changes in water availability and soil water dynamics; and on sustainability and certification. The book therefore continues to represent the most comprehensive compilation of current knowledge on all aspects of biochar.

Biochar

Biochar Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021-04-16
ISBN : 1107117097
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Biochar book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Torrefaction Performance and Energy Usage of Biomass Wastes and Their Correlations with Torrefaction Severity Index

Torrefaction Performance and Energy Usage of Biomass Wastes and Their Correlations with Torrefaction Severity Index Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Graphical abstract: Highlights: Three biomass wastes are torrefied to produce biochars. Torrefaction severity index (TSI) in terms of biomass weight loss is introduced. Torrefaction performance can be correlated well by TSI. Upgrading energy index (UEI) is defined to account for the energy efficiency. Biochar quality is intensified at a higher TSI, but the energy efficiency is lowered. Abstract: Weight loss has been suggested as an important indicator of torrefaction severity for describing the performance of this thermal pretreatment process. The present study establishes a correlation of torrefaction performance, severity, and energy usage for the applications of this pretreatment for solid fuel (biochar) production. Three different biomass wastes, namely, spent coffee grounds, Chinese medicine residue, and microalga residue, have been torrefied in nitrogen at a temperature range of 200–300°C for 15–60min to produce biochars. Their properties such as the enhancement factor of higher heating value, energy yield, decarbonization, dehydrogenation, deoxygenation, and atomic O/C and H/C ratios have been investigated. The obtained results indicate that the introduced dimensionless parameter (the torrefaction severity index in terms of the weight loss of biomass) correlates sufficiently with the biochar properties; the exception is the O/C ratio as a consequence of the intrinsic difference in components between the utilized wastes. A new parameter (the upgrading energy index) was also defined to account for the energy efficiency of the torrefaction system. This index follows a decreasing trend with increasing torrefaction severity index. This shows that biochar quality or heating value is intensified at a higher torrefaction severity; however, the energy efficiency is lowered.

Handbook on Characterization of Biomass Biowaste and Related By products

Handbook on Characterization of Biomass  Biowaste and Related By products Book
Author : Ange Nzihou
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-02-17
ISBN : 3030350207
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides authoritative information, techniques and data necessary for the appropriate understanding of biomass and biowaste (understood as contaminated biomass) composition and behaviour while processed in various conditions and technologies. Numerous techniques for characterizing biomass, biowaste and by-product streams exist in literature. However, there lacks a reference book where these techniques are gathered in a single book, although such information is in increasingly high demand. This handbook provides a wealth of characterization methods, protocols, standards, databases and references relevant to various biomass, biowaste materials and by-products. It specifically addresses sampling and preconditioning methods, extraction techniques of elements and molecules, as well as biochemical, mechanical and thermal characterization methods. Furthermore, advanced and innovative methods under development are highlighted. The characterization will allow the analysis, identification and quantification of molecules and species including biomass feedstocks and related conversion products. The characterization will also provide insight into physical, mechanical and thermal properties of biomass and biowaste as well as the resulting by-products.

Grassland Carbon Sequestration

Grassland Carbon Sequestration Book
Author : M. T. Abberton,Richard Theodore Conant,Caterina Batello
Publisher : Food & Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO)
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book profiles 13 contributions by some of the world's most active scientists on the subject of measuring soil carbon in grassland systems and sustainable grassland management practices. While many different aspects of carbon sequestration in grasslands are covered, many gaps in our knowledge are also revealed, and it is hoped that this book will promote discussion, prompt further research, contribute to develop global and national grassland strategies and contribute to sustainable production intensification.

Biomass Valorization to Bioenergy

Biomass Valorization to Bioenergy Book
Author : R. Praveen Kumar,B. Bharathiraja,Rupam Kataki,V. S. Moholkar
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-10-11
ISBN : 9811504105
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book covers topics related to bioenergy production from various biomass sources, including agricultural residues and waste biomass from both domestic and industrial use. It includes useful data, illustrations, and case studies of bioenergy production facilities. The contents of this book will be of interest to readers looking to scale up production and evaluate the selection and optimization of resources in order to overcome the current limitations of biomass to bioenergy conversions. The book will be of interest to researchers and industry professional alike.

Application of Hydrothermal Reactions to Biomass Conversion

Application of Hydrothermal Reactions to Biomass Conversion Book
Author : Fangming Jin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2014-04-11
ISBN : 3642544584
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book reviews the recent advances in hydrothermal conversion of biomass into chemicals and fuels, and consists of 15 chapters. It introduces the properties of high-temperature water, the merits of hydrothermal conversion of biomass, and some novel hydrothermal conversion processes, mainly including hydrothermal production of value-added products, hydrothermal gasification, hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal carbonization. This book introduces a new concept for counteracting the imbalance in the carbon cycle, which is caused by the rapid consumption of fossil fuels in anthropogenic activities in combination with the slow formation of fossil fuels. Accordingly, the book is useful in conveying a fundamental understanding of hydrothermal conversion of biomass in the carbon cycle so that a contribution can be made to achieving sustainable energy and environment. It is also interesting to a wide readership in various fields including chemical, geologic and environmental science and engineering. Fangming Jin is a Distinguished Professor at the School of Environmental Science & Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China

Energy Systems and Environment

Energy Systems and Environment Book
Author : Pavel Tsvetkov
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2018-09-12
ISBN : 1789237106
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book looks at environmental aspects of energy technologies, from common traditional sources in use, new sources, and emerging sources and technologies. The objective of this book is to serve as a one-stop comprehensive information resource on energy and environment topics, from energy science to energy engineering to energy politics. Starting with science and technology topics we link them to economics and politics showcasing interconnections between energy sources, energy utilization, energy conversion, and sustainability under the common theme of energy and environment. The book achieves its objective by offering and integrating deeply technical and socioeconomics papers together on energy and environment topics.

Agricultural Waste and Residues

Agricultural Waste and Residues Book
Author : Anna Aladjadjiyan
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2018-08-29
ISBN : 1789235723
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is dedicated to the reuse of waste and residues from the agricultural sector. Plant residues, as well as animal manure and residues from animal breeding, contain useful elements that can be processed for production of fertilizers, compost for soil recultivation, and biofuels. The emerging energy and resources crisis calls for development of sustainable reuse of waste and residues. This book contains eight chapters divided into four sections. The first section contains the introductory chapter from the editor. The second section is related to the preparation of fertilizers and compost for soil amelioration from agricultural residues and waste water. The third section considers the use of agricultural waste for solid biofuels and biogas. The fourth section discusses sustainability and risk assessment related to the use of agricultural waste and residues.

Prospects for Biochar in a Bio Waste Cascade

Prospects for Biochar in a Bio Waste Cascade Book
Author : Daniel Meyer-Kohlstock
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the early 2000s the pre-Columbian, anthropologically produced black soil in the Amazon basin, "Terra Preta de Índio", received greater scientific attention. Compared to the surrounding poor soils, this very fertile anthrosol contains significantly higher levels of microorganisms and nutrients. The reason for this was determined to be the likewise high levels of charred biomass. This stable carbon, now called biochar, has since been intensively examined as an option to improve soil and to store carbon. Although the creation of Terra Preta was most likely based on a purposeful utilization of organic residues from households and gardens, biochar plays no role in the current recycling of bio-waste. However, the implementation of biochar could lead to many improvements. Results from agricultural research suggest that not only the yield capacity of soils can be increased but also the process performance of composting and biogas plants. The latter is especially relevant since currently about 40% of all collected bio-waste in Germany is recycled in an energy-material cascade consisting of anaerobic digestion and composting. The use of biochar in this cascade could then sequentially increase biogas yields, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and improve compost quality. To realize the aforementioned advantages, the concept of biochar has to be integrated into the existing bio-waste cascade as practically as possible. This was done by the development of a theoretical scenario that allowed the analysis of energy and material flows to evaluate biochar's recycling performance. Furthermore, the legal and economic framework were examined to assess the feasibility of the extended cascade and to suggest possible adjustments to the frameworks.

Biotransformation of Waste Biomass into High Value Biochemicals

Biotransformation of Waste Biomass into High Value Biochemicals Book
Author : Satinder Kaur Brar,Gurpreet Singh Dhillon,Carlos Ricardo Soccol
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-09-24
ISBN : 1461480051
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Agro-industrial wastes are end-products emerging after industrial processing operations and also from their treatment and disposal e.g. solid fruit wastes and sludge. The agro-industrial wastes are often present in multiphase and comprise multicomponent. Nevertheless, these wastes are a goldmine as they possess valuable organic matter which can be diverted towards high value products ranging from polymers to antibiotics to platform chemicals. There have been plenty of books published on bioenergy, enzymes and organic acids, among others. However, this emerging field of biochemical has not yet been covered so far which is an important entity of the biorefinery model from waste biomass and needs to be understood from fundamental, applied as well as commercial perspective which has been laid out in this book.

Attack Surface

Attack Surface Book
Author : Cory Doctorow
Publisher : Tor Books
Release : 2020-10-13
ISBN : 1250757525
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cory Doctorow's Attack Surface is a standalone novel set in the world of New York Times bestsellers Little Brother and Homeland. Most days, Masha Maximow was sure she'd chosen the winning side. In her day job as a counterterrorism wizard for an transnational cybersecurity firm, she made the hacks that allowed repressive regimes to spy on dissidents, and manipulate their every move. The perks were fantastic, and the pay was obscene. Just for fun, and to piss off her masters, Masha sometimes used her mad skills to help those same troublemakers evade detection, if their cause was just. It was a dangerous game and a hell of a rush. But seriously self-destructive. And unsustainable. When her targets were strangers in faraway police states, it was easy to compartmentalize, to ignore the collateral damage of murder, rape, and torture. But when it hits close to home, and the hacks and exploits she’s devised are directed at her friends and family--including boy wonder Marcus Yallow, her old crush and archrival, and his entourage of naïve idealists--Masha realizes she has to choose. And whatever choice she makes, someone is going to get hurt. At the Publisher's request, this title is being sold without Digital Rights Management Software (DRM) applied.

Can Biochar Mitigate Nitrogen Losses in Organic Farming Systems

Can Biochar Mitigate Nitrogen Losses in Organic Farming Systems  Book
Author : Engil Isadora Pujol Pereira
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 9781321363654
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nitrogen (N) management represents a challenge for organic farming systems. In particular, sufficient N mineralization is not always achieved, timing of N release and plant uptake is often not synchronized, and subsequent N transformations of mineralized N may be lost as environmental pollutants (e.g., leached N and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions). Biochar, the charcoal obtained from the thermal decomposition of biomass waste under limited oxygen supply, has the potential to alter soil physicochemical properties that regulate the retention of soil N. This dissertation evaluates biochar as a means to improve N management in organic farming systems by reducing environmental N losses and stabilizing N within the agricultural landscape. The following three experiments investigated these conditions using a multi-scale approach, including an on-farm trial and greenhouse experiments, high-frequency assessment of greenhouse gases (GHGs), 15N pool dilution techniques, and microbial analysis. The first experiment examined the effects of a variety of biochar amendments on plant performance, soil properties and N transformation rates in a mesocosm representing an organic lettuce production system (Lactuca sativa). N2O fluxes were monitored throughout the growing period as well as functional genes that encode nitrification (amoA) and denitrification (nirK, nirS, and nosZ) enzymes of bacteria. Findings from this study indicate that some biochars may accelerate N mineralization from organic fertilizer and increase net nitrification. Decreases in N2O fluxes were only observed for a short period, not leading to significant effects in total emissions. The second experiment examined whether biochar amendments reduce N losses from soils and improve plant performance and whether these effects are N level dependent. Fertilizer inputs, N output through harvest, leachate, and N2O emissions were used to assess N utilization and environmental losses of biochar-amended soils. These evaluations were carried out for two growing seasons in a mesocosm representing an organic lettuce production system. Analyses of plant performance indicate that biochar amendments did not provide any increases in plant biomass in soils that received less than commercial fertilization rates (225 kg N ha−1). At commercial fertilization rates, biochar increased N use efficiency (NUE) and decreased N losses via leaching, which lead to a significant decrease in ratio of N lost over N exported in biomass. N2O emissions were altered by biochar amendments only in soils that received 50% of commercial fertilization rates (112 kg N ha−1), which did not alter the ratio of N lost over N exported in biomass. The third experiment provides an on-farm high frequency assessment of GHG emissions from biochar amended-soils in an organic walnut orchard, in addition to an estimate of the GHG savings from the conversion of orchard residue into utility grade energy. Despite observed short-term decreases, biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total CO2 and N2O emissions from soils; whereas, the conversion of orchard residue into energy and C sequestration through soil amendment lead to a carbon credit of 100.3 Mg CO2-Ceq per year.In conclusion, biochar did not decrease total N2O emissions from soils, but occasionally reduced N losses via leachate and improved plant utilization of N. A larger long-term environmental benefit of biochar was found to occur when using orchard residue for energy generation and C sequestration in soils.