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Beyond Agricultural Impacts

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Beyond Agricultural Impacts

Beyond Agricultural Impacts Book
Author : Nkulumo Zinyengere,Theobald Frank Theodory,Million Gebreyes,Chinwe Ifejika Speranza
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-06-20
ISBN : 0128126256
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Beyond Agricultural Impacts: Multiple Perspectives on Climate Change in Africa presents the theories and methods commonly applied in climate change assessment from various locations in Africa, also inspiring further research that addresses the broad spectrum of societal impacts that result from altered climate status. Using case studies, the work provides insights into climate change impacts and adaptation with a lens on vulnerable groups in African agriculture, e.g. smallholder crop and livestock farmers, women and youth. The book also highlights areas of further interest in climate change and agriculture research in Africa, all done through views from multiple disciplines in the agriculture and climate change nexus. Presents themes, theories, tools and methods for mitigating the impact of climate change in African agriculture Highlights the research gaps and opportunities in research on climate change and agriculture Uses examples and cases to provide insights into shaping future research Provides insights from African countries, including Lesotho, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Uganda, Ghana and Cameroon

Looking Beyond the Horizon

Looking Beyond the Horizon Book
Author : William R. Sutton,Jitendra P. Srivastava,James E. Neumann
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2013-04-04
ISBN : 0821397680
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Agriculture is one of the most climate-sensitive of all economic sectors. In many countries, such as the fourexamined in Looking Beyond the Horizon, the risks of climate change are an immediate and fundamentalproblem because the majority of the rural population depends either directly or indirectly on agriculture forits livelihood.The risks of climate change to agriculture cannot be eff ectively dealt with—and the opportunities cannot beeff ectively exploited—without a clear plan for aligning agricultural policies with climate change, developingthe capabilities of key agricultural institutions, and investing in infrastructure, support services, and on-farmimprovements. Developing such a plan ideally involves a combination of high-quality quantitative analysis;consultation with key stakeholders, particularly farmers and local agricultural experts; and investments inboth human and physical capital. The diverse experiences of Albania, the former Yugoslav Republic ofMacedonia, Moldova, and Uzbekistan, highlighted in this book, show that it is possible to develop a plan tomeet these objectives—one that is comprehensive and empirically driven as well as consultative and quickto develop.The approach of this volume is predicated on strong country ownership and participation, and is defi ned byits emphasis on “win-win” or “no regrets” solutions to the multiple challenges posed by climate change for thefarmers of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The solutions are measures that increase resilience to futureclimate change, boost current productivity despite the greater climate variability already occurring, and limitgreenhouse gas emissions—also known as “climate-smart agriculture.”Looking Beyond the Horizon draws on the experiences of applying this approach to these four nations inEastern Europe and Central Asia with the goal of helping each country mainstream climate changeadaptation into its agricultural policies, programs, and investments. The book also highlights the projectedimpacts of climate change on agriculture in these countries through forecast variations in temperature andrainfall patterns, which are crucial to farming, and off ers a map for navigating the risks and realizingthe opportunities. Finally, a detailed e xplanation of the approach, as well as lessons learned from itsimplementation, is provided for those who would like to implement similar programs in other countries ofEurope, Central Asia, or anywhere else in the world.

Farming in a Changing Climate

Farming in a Changing Climate Book
Author : Ellen Wall,Barry Smit,Johanna Wandel
Publisher : UBC Press
Release : 2011-11-01
ISBN : 077484020X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In farming systems across Canada, effective risk management is necessary to deal with drought, flooding, and extreme weather, and to adapt to altered climate and weather conditions. Unfortunately, climate change risks and opportunities are not always well understood among researchers and policy makers in the Canadian agri-food sector. This book addresses that gap by providing a wide-ranging synopsis of what climate change means for Canadian agriculture, exploring different approaches to the topic, and presenting examples of current research. It covers all agricultural regions and a wide variety of commodity production and farming systems. This comprehensive survey synthesizes twenty years of research on climate change and Canadian agriculture.

Climate Change

Climate Change Book
Author : Nelson, Gerald C.,Rosegrant, Mark W.,Koo, Jawoo,Robertson, Richard,Sulser, Timothy,Zhu, Tingju,Ringler, Claudia,Msangi, Siwa,Palazzo, Amanda,Batka, Miroslav,Magalhaes, Marilia,Valmonte-Santos, Rowena,Ewing, Mandy,Lee, David
Publisher : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0896295354
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This Food Policy Report presents research results that quantify the climate-change impacts mentioned above, assesses the consequences for food security, and estimates the investments that would offset the negative consequences for human well-being.

Climate change and agriculture in the Sudan Impact pathways beyond changes in mean rainfall and temperature

Climate change and agriculture in the Sudan  Impact pathways beyond changes in mean rainfall and temperature Book
Author : Siddig, Khalid,Stepanyan, Davit,Wiebelt, Manfred,Zhu, Tingju,Grethe, Harald
Publisher : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Release : 2018-09-26
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Several environmental changes have occurred in the Sudan in the past; several are ongoing; and others are projected to happen in the future. The Sudan has witnessed increases in temperature, floods, rainfall variability, and concurrent droughts. In a country where agriculture, which is mainly rainfed, is a major contributor to gross domestic product, foreign exchange earnings, and livelihoods, these changes are especially important, requiring measurement and analysis of their impact. This study not only analyzes the economy-wide impacts of climate change, but also consults national policy plans, strategies, and environmental assessments to identify interventions which may mitigate the effects. We feed climate forcing, water demand, and macro-socioeconomic trends into a modelling suite that includes models for global hydrology, river basin management, water stress, and crop growth, all connected to the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT). The outcomes of this part of the modeling suite are annual crop yields and global food prices under various climate change scenarios until 2050. The effects of such changes on production, consumption, macroeconomic indicators, and income distribution are assessed using a single country dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model for the Sudan. Additionally, we introduce yield variability into the CGE model based on stochastic projections of crop yields until 2050. The results of the model simulations reveal that, while the projected mean climate changes bring some good news for the Sudan, extreme negative variability costs the Sudan cumulatively between 2018 and 2050 US$ 109.5 billion in total absorption and US$ 105.5 billion in GDP relative to a historical mean climate scenario without climate change.

Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change Book
Author : Suruchi Singh,Pardeep Singh,S. Rangabhashiyam,K.K. Srivastava
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-03-11
ISBN : 0128230975
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Global Climate Change presents both practical and theoretical aspects of global climate change from across geological periods. It addresses holistic issues related to climate change and its contribution in triggering the temperature increase with a multitude of impacts on natural processes. As a result, it helps to identify the gaps between policies that have been put in place and the continuously increasing emissions. The challenges presented include habitability, biodiversity, natural resources, and human health. It is organized into information on the past, present, and future of climate change to lead to a more complete understanding and therefore effective solutions. Placing an emphasis on recent climate change research, Global Climate Change helps to bring researchers and graduate students in climate science, environmental science, and sustainability up to date on the science of climate change so far and presents a baseline for how to move into the future effectively. Addresses the variety of challenges associated with climate change, along with possible solutions Includes suggestions for future research on climate change Covers climate change holistically, including global and regional scales, ecosystems, agriculture, energy, and sustainability Presents both practical and theoretical research, including coverage of climate change over various geological periods

Reducing the Vulnerability of Uzbekistan s Agricultural Systems to Climate Change

Reducing the Vulnerability of Uzbekistan s Agricultural Systems to Climate Change Book
Author : William R Sutton,Jitendra P Srivastava,James E Neuman,Peter Droogers,Brent B Boehlert
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014-02-11
ISBN : 9781306155809
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Agriculture is one of the most climate-sensitive of all economic sectors. In many countries, such as in Uzbekistan, the risks of climate change are an immediate and fundamental problem because the majority of the rural population depends either directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. The risks of climate change to agriculture in Uzbekistan cannot be effectively dealt withand the opportunities cannot be effectively exploitedwithout a clear plan for aligning agricultural policies with climate change, developing the capabilities of key agricultural institutions, and making needed investments in infrastructure, support services and on-farm improvements. Developing such a plan ideally involves a combination of high-quality quantitative analysis, consultation with key stakeholders, particularly farmers and local agricultural experts, and investments in both human and physical capital. The experience of Uzbekistan, highlighted in this work, shows that it is possible to develop a plan to meet these objectivesone that is comprehensive and empirically driven as well as consultative and quick to develop. The approach of this study is predicated on strong country ownership and participation, and is defined by its emphasis on win-win or no regrets solutions to the multiple challenges posed by climate change for farmers in Uzbekistan. The solutions are measures that increase resilience to future climate change, boost current productivity despite the greater climate variability already occurring, and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Reducing The Vulnerability of Uzbekistan's Agricultural Systems to Climate Change: Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options applies this approach to Uzbekistan with the goal of helping the country mainstream climate change adaptation into its agricultural policies, programs, and investments. The study projects impacts of climate change on agriculture across Uzbekistans three agro-ecological areas through forecast variations in temperature and rainfall patterns so crucial to farming. It offers a map for navigating the risks and realizing the opportunities, outlined through a series of consultations with local farmers. A detailed explanation of the approach is provided for those who would like to implement similar programs in other countries of Europe, Central Asia, or anywhere else in the world. This is one of four country studies that were produced under the World Banks program, Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change in European and Central Asian Agricultural Systems. The other countries included in this series are Albania, FYR Macedonia, and Moldova. The results from the four studies are consolidated in the book Looking Beyond the Horizon: How Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Responses Will Reshape Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia website.

Building Resilience to Climate Change in South Caucasus Agriculture

Building Resilience to Climate Change in South Caucasus Agriculture Book
Author : Nicolas Ahouissoussi,James E. Neumann,Jitendra P. Srivastava
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2014-05-06
ISBN : 1464802157
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book illustrates the World Bank’s commitment to assist countries to respond to the opportunities and challenges posed by climate change. Undertaken in collaborative partnership with policy makers, farmers, civil society, and other stakeholders in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, it provides a much needed response to the call for action by quantifying the impact and identifying key priorities for policies, programs, and investments to reduce the vulnerability of agricultural systems to climate change in the South Caucasus. The study responds to the urgent need for climate adaptation, as highlighted in the World Bank’s “Turn Down the Heat” report. Notably, the South Caucasus is already contending with increasing aridity and more frequent extreme weather events (e.g. severe droughts, floods and hailstorms). It presents practical solutions for a more climate smart agriculture, at the regional, national and agro-ecological zone level in each country. The recommendations offered in this book are a compilation of the results of the three national studies, and highlight the need and potential for regional collaborative action to increase benefits, while also continuing to emphasize the need for an effective response at the national level. The national level results are supported by country reports, which provide more details. This work is but an important beginning. To achieve the goals of climate resilience in the agriculture sector, more work is needed to translate the proposals into reality. The analysis demonstrates that investments in irrigation infrastructure and on-farm technologies have great potential to raise agricultural productivity and improve the climate resilience of the sector. Demand-side agricultural water management will have high short-term payoffs, and these short-term payoffs are complementary to the success of long- term irrigation, drainage and other infrastructure investments. Strengthening the disaster risk management strategies (beyond agricultural measures) are also needed to help mitigate household risks from extreme events, especially for the poorest, who are the most vulnerable.

Beyond the business case for agricultural value chain development An economywide approach applied to Egypt

Beyond the business case for agricultural value chain development  An economywide approach applied to Egypt Book
Author : Breisinger, Clemens,Raouf, Mariam,Thurlow, James,Wiebelt, Manfred
Publisher : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Release : 2019-03-21
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This paper goes beyond the “business” case for agricultural value chain development and presents an economy-wide framework to make the “development” case. We show that there are several key transmission channels that determine the economy-wide impacts of promoting various value chains, including forward and backward economic linkages, price responses, and net employment effects. These impacts all matter for household incomes, poverty, and dietary diversity. Results for Egypt show that agricultural value chain development generates economy-wide growth as well as growth in the agri-food system, but the impacts on employment suggest that agricultural growth can create new (and better) jobs in and beyond the agri-food system, but not necessarily more jobs. The results also show that productivity-driven agricultural growth in all crops is pro-poor and improves nutrition. However, potential adverse effects of livestock-led growth show that growth acceleration in single sectors can be negative, highlighting the importance of a systems analysis or, in our case, an economy-wide analysis. It is clear that no single sub-sector is best at achieving all the development outcomes examined. Moreover, the ranking of value chains by their development outcomes differs across sub-national regions. As such, results from this paper may provide useful decision support for the government and its development partners to select value chains depending on their priority development outcomes.

Beyond Adaptation

Beyond Adaptation Book
Author : Udita Sanga
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Between the 1960s and 1980s, a series of abrupt, 'unprecedented' droughts occurred in the Sahel region of Sub Saharan Africa which created a regime shift in the Sahel where the socio-ecological and livelihood systems transitioned from a high resilience/low sensitivity to a low resilience /high sensitivity state. Mali, a landlocked country in sub-Saharan Africa, experienced dramatic impacts on food security and social, environmental, and institutional systems triggered by the droughts. As a result, Malian agriculture underwent significant transformations initiated by the cereal liberalization policies in the 1990s. Cereal production almost doubled in the early 2000s, yet the number of people facing chronic and persistent food insecurity and malnutrition has been steadily increasing in the past decade and may continue to rise in the context of current climate projections for a drier and hotter Sahel. This dissertation undertakes a closer investigation, beyond production, on the structural root causes and socio-ecological processes of food security and climate resilience in Mali using a mixed-method approach of process tracing, participatory game design, causal loop mapping, and system dynamics modeling. Paper 1, titled "The Malian Past: A historical analysis of the adaptive cycles in Malian socio-ecological systems", outlines the main environmental, social and institutional changes in Mali from 1960 to 2017 and situates these changes within the adaptive cycle framework. The paper challenges the existing narrative of Mali as a region that transitioned from a high resilience state to a low resilience state and suggests that Mali exhibited stages of high resilience during the collapse, reorganization and growth stages that followed the drought period in the 1960s and beyond. Paper 2 titled "The Malian Present: A participatory game design approach to examine causal pathways of Barriers and opportunities for food security and climate adaptation in Southern Mali" explores the current barriers of food security and climate adaptation faced by rural farming households in Southern Mali The paper elucidates on the development and implementation of the 'Food and Farm' game that was used as a tool to assess farming decision making under climate uncertainty. Using causal loop diagramming, this paper identifies unavailability of formal credit sources especially for non-cotton and female farmers; inadequate access to crop inputs; inadequate land access and user rights for female farmers; unavailability of adequate water; low soil fertility; climate risks and cost of early maturing varieties as the key barriers in agricultural adaptation. Paper 3 titled "The Malian Future: System Dynamics Modelling of Resilience of Malian Agriculture as a Socioecological System" discusses the results from a system dynamics model that performs a series of future climate and adaptation scenario analyses to assess the scope of future resilience of agricultural systems in Mali. The model suggests that the key drivers influencing food security in Mali are change in temperature during sowing phase which influences crop yields as well as rainfall patterns in growing season. Further increase in global temperatures and interdecadal fluctuations in rainfall patterns in crop growing phase will likely lead Mali to another famine and food insecurity phase by 2030. Adaptation strategies such as enhanced crop management, land-use change, stabilization of internal migration and urbanization rates and cereal land expansion will, at best, help in delaying the effects of declining food security as projected for 2025-2060. This dissertation recommends Malian policy-makers to move beyond incremental adaptation support and enhance preparedness for future food insecurity through systemic transformations in land rights and land use, especially among female farmers in Mali and support the cultivation of climate-resilient crops such as sorghum and millet as opposed to maize and rice.

International conference on impacts of agricultural research and development why has impact assessment research not made more of a difference

International conference on impacts of agricultural research and development  why has impact assessment research not made more of a difference  Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : CIMMYT
Release : 2022-08-08
ISBN : 9706481044
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Proceedings of a conference by the Standing Panel on Impact Assessment (SPIA) of the Interim Science Council, Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and the Economics Program, the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), 4-7 February 2002, San José, Costa Rica.

Agriculture and Climate Beyond 2015

Agriculture and Climate Beyond 2015 Book
Author : Floor Brouwer,Bruce A. McCarl
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2006-07-16
ISBN : 1402043686
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Interactions between agriculture, climate and patterns of land use are complex. Major changes in agriculture, and land use patterns are foreseen in the next couple of decades in response to shifts in climate, greenhouse gas management initiatives, population growth and other forces. The book explores key interactions between changes in agriculture, patterns of land use and efforts to reduce greenhouse emissions from agriculture. The volume is based on inter-disciplinary science and policy interactions, exploring the way land use may aid in addressing or be affected by the onset of climate change and alterations in food demand. Future forces shaping land use decisions are examined, and its sensitivity to climate change is highlighted. Patterns of land use and the agricultural role in climate change mitigation are explored. Also, policy and social responses to the new perspectives on future land use patterns are identified. The perspective of the book is beyond the year 2015.

Rethinking Food and Agriculture

Rethinking Food and Agriculture Book
Author : Ammir Kassam,Laila Kassam
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2020-10-18
ISBN : 0128164115
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Given the central role of the food and agriculture system in driving so many of the connected ecological, social and economic threats and challenges we currently face, Rethinking Food and Agriculture reviews, reassesses and reimagines the current food and agriculture system and the narrow paradigm in which it operates. Rethinking Food and Agriculture explores and uncovers some of the key historical, ethical, economic, social, cultural, political, and structural drivers and root causes of unsustainability, degradation of the agricultural environment, destruction of nature, short-comings in science and knowledge systems, inequality, hunger and food insecurity, and disharmony. It reviews efforts towards ‘sustainable development’, and reassesses whether these efforts have been implemented with adequate responsibility, acceptable societal and environmental costs and optimal engagement to secure sustainability, equity and justice. The book highlights the many ways that farmers and their communities, civil society groups, social movements, development experts, scientists and others have been raising awareness of these issues, implementing solutions and forging ‘new ways forward’, for example towards paradigms of agriculture, natural resource management and human nutrition which are more sustainable and just. Rethinking Food and Agriculture proposes ways to move beyond the current limited view of agro-ecological sustainability towards overall sustainability of the food and agriculture system based on the principle of ‘inclusive responsibility’. Inclusive responsibility encourages ecosystem sustainability based on agro-ecological and planetary limits to sustainable resource use for production and livelihoods. Inclusive responsibility also places importance on quality of life, pluralism, equity and justice for all and emphasises the health, well-being, sovereignty, dignity and rights of producers, consumers and other stakeholders, as well as of nonhuman animals and the natural world. Explores some of the key drivers and root causes of unsustainability , degradation of the agricultural environment and destruction of nature Highlights the many ways that different stakeholders have been forging 'new ways forward' towards alternative paradigms of agriculture, human nutrition and political economy, which are more sustainable and just Proposes ways to move beyong the current unsustainable exploitation of natural resources towards agroecological sustainability and overall sustainability of the food and agriculture system based on 'inclusive responsibility'

Agricultural Markets Beyond Liberalization

Agricultural Markets Beyond Liberalization Book
Author : Aad van Tilburg,Henk A.J. Moll,A. Kuyvenhoven
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461545234
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Agricultural markets have entered a long-term process of liberalization, with the aim of reducing imposed market imperfections such as monopolistic public trade, entry barriers and subsidies. The experience of more than a decade of agriculture liberalization offers a good opportunity to review and analyze the outcome of this process and to draw lessons for the future. The central topic in Agricultural Markets Beyond Liberalization is the relationship between market structure and how markets perform in a dynamic context during a liberalization process. The topic is studied from both a micro and macro viewpoint and refers to different types of agricultural markets. This volume brings together the dynamics of agricultural markets in several parts of the world, with a special focus on transition economics and Africa. The different studies cover geographical areas as wide as a district as well as a group of countries, and institutions from individual contracts to multi-national organizations. The analysis of liberalization under different circumstances, and the different methods of analysis used by the authors provide a valuable foundation for the assessment of liberalization.

Assessing Vulnerability

Assessing Vulnerability Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the next century, experts project a 2-5° C rise in global temperatures -- a change that will result in significant and lasting impacts to agriculture. The impacts of global warming will affect more than commercial agriculture; in fact, some argue that impacts will be most acute in regions where a majority of the population survives through subsistence farming. This shift will have direct impacts on those who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, such as fieldworkers and farmers, but will moreover impact the entire planet with effects to global food production and consumption. Because these impacts are urgent and wide-reaching, understanding and anticipating how agriculture will be affected by climate change is crucial for global adaptation efforts. Through a synthesis of 52 case studies conducted since 2001, this research examines patterns in agricultural vulnerability to climate change around the world. Vulnerability, a combination of exposures, sensitivities and adaptive capacity, is measured in myriad ways. A synthesis approach allows for the identification of common factors in sensitivity and adaptive capacity while respecting the heterogeneity of pressures and the diversity of studies. Despite a universal recognition in the literature that vulnerability is a combination of biophysical and socioeconomic factors, biophysical factors constitute the bulk of those identified in the case studies. In two thirds of the studies, variable precipitation and drought conditions are cited, and over half the studies cite temperature increase. Frequently cited factors that impact adaptive capacity include access to financial resources, credit and social networks. Important adaptive techniques to combat climate change impacts to agriculture are crop diversification, irrigation, and shifts to the timing of planting and harvesting. However, while these practices and many others identified in the case studies address the biophysical vulnerabilities of agriculture, fewer adaptive measures address the socioeconomic sensitivities that also comprise vulnerability. These findings suggest that addressing climate change vulnerability in policy and scholarship should go beyond the adaptive measures to improve farming systems and consider ways to expand access to financial, technical and social resources.

The Impact of Land Reform on Economic and Social Development

The Impact of Land Reform on Economic and Social Development Book
Author : United Nations. Economic and Social Council. Social Commission
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1965
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Impact of Land Reform on Economic and Social Development book written by United Nations. Economic and Social Council. Social Commission, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Impacts of agricultural investments on growth and poverty A review of literature

Impacts of agricultural investments on growth and poverty  A review of literature Book
Author : Martin, Will
Publisher : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Release : 2021-11-24
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Agricultural development is crucial in developing countries, and particularly in the poorest countries where it accounts for large shares of employment and income and whose poverty is due simply to having a large share of the workforce in low-productivity agriculture. Raising productivity in agriculture is critically important for development, as is smoothly moving workers out of agriculture into more productive employment in other sectors. Raising agricultural productivity helps both to raise incomes and to reduce poverty-both by raising the incomes of poor people working in agriculture and by lowering the prices of foods that make up a disproportionately large share of the expenditures of poor people. In small and open economies, the in-crease in profitability of agriculture following improvements in productivity might tend to retain or even attract workers into agriculture. By contrast, at a global level, or at national level when policy focusses on self-sufficiency, improvements in agricultural productivity will free up labor for employment in other sectors. Incomes are generally much higher in non-agricultural work in developing countries-more than double those in agriculture after careful adjustment for key differences. This raises the possibility of a double dividend from structural transformation as workers move into higher-productivity activities. A key question for development policy is whether it is enough to simply evaluate the gains from higher productivity within agriculture, or whether potential benefits from structural change be included as well. This paper examines the arguments on this question. It concludes that these dividends may be substantial-but whether they are or not depends on the source of the initial differences in productivity and on the direction of movement when agricultural productivity rises. If it results from policy barriers such as restrictions on the transfer of farmland or requirements for residence permits in urban areas, there are likely to be substantial welfare gains when labor moves out of agriculture. They may also be substantial if urban wages are artificially high and attract substantial numbers of job-waiters into unemployment. However, these gains may be illusory if the income gaps arise primarily from differences in skills or from reluctance to move created by asset fixity.

The role of agriculture in economic development Focusing on linkages beyond agriculture

The role of agriculture in economic development  Focusing on linkages beyond agriculture Book
Author : Veena Soni
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release : 2020-06-19
ISBN : 3346186105
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Academic Paper from the year 2020 in the subject Economics - Economic Cycle and Growth, , language: English, abstract: Those of us who preach the gospel of agriculture with evangelical zeal find the text compelling and convincing. We are regularly possessed by the spirit only to look around and see out colleagues, in other sectors, in country management, or even our senior management doubting, yawning or subtly edging towards the door. We face the implicit query, “If agriculture can do such great things, why have they not yet happened?” The past decade has been one of agro-pessimism. The promises that agricultural development seem to hold did not materialise. This pessimism seemed to coincide with pessimism about Sub-Saharan Africa. Especially for Sub-Saharan Africa the hope was that economic development would be brought about by agricultural development. After the success of the green revolution in Asia, the hope was that a similar agricultural miracle would transform African economies. But this hope never materialised, agricultural productivity did not increase much in SSA, and worse, the negative effects of the green revolution in Asia became more apparent, such as pesticide overuse and subsequent pollution. Also in Asia the yield increases tapered off. The sceptics put forward several arguments why agriculture is no longer an engine of growth. For instance, the liberalisation of the 1990s and greater openness to trade has lead to a reduction in the economic potential of the rural sector: cheap imported Chinese plastic buckets out compete the locally produced pottery. On the other hand, it does mean cheaper (imported) supplies. With rapid global technical change and increasingly integrated markets, prices fall faster than yields rise. So, rural incomes fall despite increased productivity if they are net producers. The integration of rural with urban areas means that healthy young people move out of agriculture, head to town, leaving behind the old, the sick and the dependent. It is often also the men who move to urban areas, leaving women in charge of the farm. This has resulted in the increased sophistication of agricultural markets (and value chains) which excludes traditional smallholders, who are poorly equipped to meet the demanding product specifications and timeliness of delivery required by expanding supermarkets. The natural resource base on which agriculture depends is poor and deteriorating.

Impacts of Agricultural Policies on Productivity and Sustainability Performance in Agriculture A Literature Review

Impacts of Agricultural Policies on Productivity and Sustainability Performance in Agriculture  A Literature Review Book
Author : Gwendolen DeBoe
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Impacts of Agricultural Policies on Productivity and Sustainability Performance in Agriculture A Literature Review book written by Gwendolen DeBoe, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Agricultural development New perspectives in a changing world

Agricultural development  New perspectives in a changing world Book
Author : Otsuka, Keijiro, ed.,Fan, Shenggen, ed.
Publisher : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Release : 2021-01-14
ISBN : 0896293831
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Agricultural Development: New Perspectives in a Changing World is the first comprehensive exploration of key emerging issues facing developing-country agriculture today, from rapid urbanization to rural transformation to climate change. In this four-part volume, top experts offer the latest research in the field of agricultural development. Using new lenses to examine today’s biggest challenges, contributors address topics such as nutrition and health, gender and household decision-making, agrifood value chains, natural resource management, and political economy. The book also covers most developing regions, providing a critical global perspective at a time when many pressing challenges extend beyond national borders. Tying all this together, Agricultural Development explores policy options and strategies for developing sustainable agriculture and reducing food insecurity and malnutrition. The changing global landscape combined with new and better data, technologies, and understanding means that agriculture can and must contribute to a wider range of development outcomes than ever before, including reducing poverty, ensuring adequate nutrition, creating strong food value chains, improving environmental sustainability, and promoting gender equity and equality. Agricultural Development: New Perspectives in a Changing World, with its unprecedented breadth and scope, will be an indispensable resource for the next generation of policymakers, researchers, and students dedicated to improving agriculture for global wellbeing.