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Axons And Brain Architecture

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Axons and Brain Architecture

Axons and Brain Architecture Book
Author : Kathleen Rockland
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-12-11
ISBN : 9780128013939
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Several excellent monographs exist which deal with axons. These, however, focus either on the cellular and molecular biology of axons proper or on network organization of connections, the latter with only an incidental or abstract reference to axons per se. Still relatively neglected, however, is the middle ground of terminations and trajectories of single axons in the mammalian central nervous system. This middle level of connectivity, between networks on the one hand and local, in vitro investigations on the other, is to some extent represented by retrograde tracer studies and labeled neurons, but there have so far been many fewer of the complementary anterograde studies, with total visualization of the axonal arborization. The present volume brings together in one source an interrelated treatment of single axons from the perspective of microcircuitry and as substrates of larger scale organization (tractography). Especially for the former area - axons in microcircuitry - an abundance of published data exists, but these are typically in specialty journals that are not often accessed by the broader community. By highlighting and unifying the span from microcircuitry to tractography, the proposed volume serves as a convenient reference source and in addition inspires further interactions between what currently tend to be separate communities. The volume also redresses the imbalance between in vitro/local connectivity and long-distance connections. Focusing on mammalian systems, Part 1 of this book is devoted to anatomical investigations of connections at the single axon level, drawing on modern techniques and classical methods from the 1990s. A particular emphasis is on broad coverage of cortical and subcortical connections from different species, so that common patterns of divergence, convergence, and collateralization can be easily appreciated. Part 2 addresses mechanisms of axon guidance, as these seem particularly relevant to pathways and branching patterns. Part 3 covers axon dynamics and functional aspects; and Part 4 focuses on tractography, notably including comparisons between histological substrates and imaging. A novel innovative reference on the axon as a connectional unit, encompassing microcircuitry, axon guidance, and function Featuring chapters from leading researchers in the field Full-colour text that includes both an overview of axon function and the multiple underlying molecular mechanisms The only volume to bring together the configuration of individual axons at a circuit level and to relate the histological geometry of axons and axon bundles to in vivo tractography imaging studies

Axons and Brain Architecture

Axons and Brain Architecture Book
Author : Kathleen Rockland
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-11-21
ISBN : 0128016825
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Several excellent monographs exist which deal with axons. These, however, focus either on the cellular and molecular biology of axons proper or on network organization of connections, the latter with only an incidental or abstract reference to axons per se. Still relatively neglected, however, is the middle ground of terminations and trajectories of single axons in the mammalian central nervous system. This middle level of connectivity, between networks on the one hand and local, in vitro investigations on the other, is to some extent represented by retrograde tracer studies and labeled neurons, but there have so far been many fewer of the complementary anterograde studies, with total visualization of the axonal arborization. The present volume brings together in one source an interrelated treatment of single axons from the perspective of microcircuitry and as substrates of larger scale organization (tractography). Especially for the former area - axons in microcircuitry - an abundance of published data exists, but these are typically in specialty journals that are not often accessed by the broader community. By highlighting and unifying the span from microcircuitry to tractography, the proposed volume serves as a convenient reference source and in addition inspires further interactions between what currently tend to be separate communities. The volume also redresses the imbalance between in vitro/local connectivity and long-distance connections. Focusing on mammalian systems, Part 1 of this book is devoted to anatomical investigations of connections at the single axon level, drawing on modern techniques and classical methods from the 1990s. A particular emphasis is on broad coverage of cortical and subcortical connections from different species, so that common patterns of divergence, convergence, and collateralization can be easily appreciated. Part 2 addresses mechanisms of axon guidance, as these seem particularly relevant to pathways and branching patterns. Part 3 covers axon dynamics and functional aspects; and Part 4 focuses on tractography, notably including comparisons between histological substrates and imaging. A novel innovative reference on the axon as a connectional unit, encompassing microcircuitry, axon guidance, and function Featuring chapters from leading researchers in the field Full-colour text that includes both an overview of axon function and the multiple underlying molecular mechanisms The only volume to bring together the configuration of individual axons at a circuit level and to relate the histological geometry of axons and axon bundles to in vivo tractography imaging studies

Brain Architecture Understanding the Basic Plan

Brain Architecture   Understanding the Basic Plan Book
Author : and Director NIBS Neuroscience Program University of Southern California Larry W. Swanson Milo Don and Lucille Appleman Professor of Biological Sciences
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2002-10-23
ISBN : 0198026463
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Depending on your point of view the brain is an organ, a machine, a biological computer, or simply the most important component of the nervous system. How does it work as a whole? What are its major parts and how are they interconnected to generate thinking, feelings, and behavior? This book surveys 2,500 years of scientific thinking about these profoundly important questions from the perspective of fundamental architectural principles, and then proposes a new model for the basic plan of neural systems organization based on an explosion of structural data emerging from the neuroanatomy revolution of the 1970's. The importance of a balance between theoretical and experimental morphology is stressed throughout the book. Great advances in understanding the brain's basic plan have come especially from two traditional lines of biological thought-- evolution and embryology, because each begins with the simple and progresses to the more complex. Understanding the organization of brain circuits, which contain thousands of links or pathways, is much more difficult. It is argued here that a four-system network model can explain the structure-function organization of the brain. Possible relationships between neural networks and gene networks revealed by the human genome project are explored in the final chapter. The book is written in clear and sparkling prose, and it is profusely illustrated. It is designed to be read by anyone with an interest in the basic organization of the brain, from neuroscience to philosophy to computer science to molecular biology. It is suitable for use in neuroscience core courses because it presents basic principles of the structure of the nervous system in a systematic way.

The Beautiful Brain

The Beautiful Brain Book
Author : Larry W. Swanson,Eric Newman,Alfonso Araque,Janet M. Dubinsky
Publisher : Abrams
Release : 2017-01-17
ISBN : 1613129947
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

At the crossroads of art and science, Beautiful Brain presents Nobel Laureate Santiago Ramón y Cajal’s contributions to neuroscience through his groundbreaking artistic brain imagery. Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852–1934) was the father of modern neuroscience and an exceptional artist. He devoted his life to the anatomy of the brain, the body’s most complex and mysterious organ. His superhuman feats of visualization, based on fanatically precise techniques and countless hours at the microscope, resulted in some of the most remarkable illustrations in the history of science. Beautiful Brain presents a selection of his exquisite drawings of brain cells, brain regions, and neural circuits with accessible descriptive commentary. These drawings are explored from multiple perspectives: Larry W. Swanson describes Cajal’s contributions to neuroscience; Lyndel King and Eric Himmel explore his artistic roots and achievement; Eric A. Newman provides commentary on the drawings; and Janet M. Dubinsky describes contemporary neuroscience imaging techniques. This book is the companion to a traveling exhibition opening at the Weisman Art Museum in Minneapolis in February 2017, marking the first time that many of these works, which are housed at the Instituto Cajal in Madrid, have been seen outside of Spain. Beautiful Brain showcases Cajal’s contributions to neuroscience, explores his artistic roots and achievement, and looks at his work in relation to contemporary neuroscience imaging, appealing to general readers and professionals alike.

Brain Architecture

Brain Architecture Book
Author : Larry W. Swanson
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2012
ISBN : 019537858X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Now in its second edition, Brain Architecture is the continued exploration of how the brain works. It summarizes traditional views about brain structure-function organization clearly and comprehensively and elaborates a new four system network model of nervous system organization. Thoroughly updated and refreshingly clear, this is a must-read for anyone interested in the science of how the brain works. Oxford Clinical Neuroscience is a comprehensive, cross-searchable collection of resources offering quick and easy access to eleven of Oxford University Press's prestigious neuroscience texts. Joining Oxford Medicine Online these resources offer students, specialists and clinical researchers the best quality content in an easy-to-access format.

Chemoarchitecture of the Brain

Chemoarchitecture of the Brain Book
Author : R. Nieuwenhuys
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 3642704263
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Chemoarchitecture of the Brain book written by R. Nieuwenhuys, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Language in the Brain

Language in the Brain Book
Author : Helmut Schnelle
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2010-05-20
ISBN : 0521515491
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A neurocognitive analysis of the form, use and meaning of language, bridging the gap between linguistic and neuroscientific studies.

Brain Behavior and Evolution

Brain  Behavior and Evolution Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Brain Behavior and Evolution book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

An Internet in Your Head

An Internet in Your Head Book
Author : Daniel Graham
Publisher : Columbia University Press
Release : 2021-05-04
ISBN : 0231551614
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Whether we realize it or not, we think of our brains as computers. In neuroscience, the metaphor of the brain as a computer has defined the field for much of the modern era. But as neuroscientists increasingly reevaluate their assumptions about how brains work, we need a new metaphor to help us ask better questions. The computational neuroscientist Daniel Graham offers an innovative paradigm for understanding the brain. He argues that the brain is not like a single computer—it is a communication system, like the internet. Both are networks whose power comes from their flexibility and reliability. The brain and the internet both must route signals throughout their systems, requiring protocols to direct messages from just about any point to any other. But we do not yet understand how the brain manages the dynamic flow of information across its entire network. The internet metaphor can help neuroscience unravel the brain’s routing mechanisms by focusing attention on shared design principles and communication strategies that emerge from parallel challenges. Highlighting similarities between brain connectivity and the architecture of the internet can open new avenues of research and help unlock the brain’s deepest secrets. An Internet in Your Head presents a clear-eyed and engaging tour of brain science as it stands today and where the new paradigm might take it next. It offers anyone with an interest in brains a transformative new way to conceptualize what goes on inside our heads.

The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks

The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks Book
Author : Michael A. Arbib,Fletcher Jones Professor of Computer Science and Professor of Biological Sciences Biomedical Engineering Neuroscience and Psychology Michael A Arbib,Prudence H. Arbib
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0262011972
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This second edition presents the enormous progress made in recent years in the many subfields related to the two great questions: how does the brain work? and, How can we build intelligent machines? This second edition greatly increases the coverage of models of fundamental neurobiology, cognitive neuroscience, and neural network approaches to language. (Midwest).

Brain Evolution by Design

Brain Evolution by Design Book
Author : Shuichi Shigeno,Yasunori Murakami,Tadashi Nomura
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-02-07
ISBN : 4431564691
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents a new, detailed examination that explains how elegant brains have been shaped in evolution. It consists of 19 chapters written by academic professionals in neuroscience, opening with the origin of single-celled creatures and then introducing primordial types in invertebrates with the great abundance of the brains of vertebrates. Important topics are provided in a timely manner, because novel techniques emerged rapidly—as seen, for examples, in the next-generation sequencers and omics approaches. With the explosion of big data, neural-related genes and molecules is now on the radar. In fact, Europe’s big science and technology projects, a €1 billion plan called the Human Brain Project and the Blue Brain Project to understand mammalian brain networks, have been launched in recent years. Furthermore, with the rise of recently advanced artificial intelligence, there is great enthusiasm for understanding the evolution of neural networks. The views from brain evolution in nature provide an essential opportunity to generate ideas for novel neuron- and brain-inspired computation. The ambition behind this book is that it will stimulate young scientists who seek a deeper understanding in order to find the basic principles shaping brains that provided higher cognitive functions in the course of evolution.

Mapping the connectome Multi level analysis of brain connectivity

Mapping the connectome  Multi level analysis of brain connectivity Book
Author : Trygve B. Leergaard
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release : 2021-06-17
ISBN : 9782889191079
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Mapping the connectome Multi level analysis of brain connectivity book written by Trygve B. Leergaard, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Trees of the Brain Roots of the Mind

Trees of the Brain  Roots of the Mind Book
Author : Giorgio A. Ascoli
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2015-04-10
ISBN : 0262028980
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An examination of the stunning beauty of the brain's cellular form, with many color illustrations, and a provocative claim about the mind-brain relationship. The human brain is often described as the most complex object in the universe. Tens of billions of nerve cells-tiny tree-like structures—make up a massive network with enormous computational power. In this book, Giorgio Ascoli reveals another aspect of the human brain: the stunning beauty of its cellular form. Doing so, he makes a provocative claim about the mind-brain relationship. If each nerve cell enlarged a thousandfold looks like a tree, then a small region of the nervous system at the same magnified scale resembles a gigantic, fantastic forest. This structural majesty—illustrated throughout the book with extraordinary color images—hides the secrets behind the genesis of our mental states. Ascoli proposes that some of the most intriguing mysteries of the mind can be solved using the basic architectural principles of the brain. After an overview of the scientific and philosophical foundations of his argument, Ascoli links mental states with patterns of electrical activity in nerve cells, presents an emerging minority opinion of how the brain learns from experience, and unveils a radically new hypothesis of the mechanism determining what is learned, what isn't, and why. Finally, considering these notions in the context of the cosmic diversity within and among brains, Ascoli offers a new perspective on the roots of individuality and humanity.

Brain Embryology and the Cause of Congenital Malformations An Issue of Neuroimaging Clinics of North America ebook

Brain Embryology and the Cause of Congenital Malformations  An Issue of Neuroimaging Clinics of North America  ebook Book
Author : Thierry A. G. M. Huisman,Avner Meoded
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2019-07-03
ISBN : 0323682936
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This issue of Neuroimaging Clinics of North America focuses on Brain Embryology and the Cause of Congenital Malformations and is edited by Drs. Thierry A.G.M. Huisman and Avner Meoded. Articles will include: Neuroimaging of normal brain development; Ultrasound and MRI of the normal fetal brain; Spinal dysraphia, Chiari 2 malformation, unified theory and advances in fetoscopic repair; Posterior fossa malformations; Synopsis of brain embryology; Cerebral dysplasia and overgrowth syndromes; Disorders of ventral induction/spectrum of holoprosencephaly; Classification and neurogenetics of intracranial vascular anomalies; DTI of brain malformations: Exploring the internal architecture; Connectomics in brain malformations: How is the malformed brain wired?; Commissural anomalies; and more!

Biosemiotics

Biosemiotics Book
Author : Jesper Hoffmeyer
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recent debates surrounding the teaching of biology divide participants into three camps based on how they explain the appearance of the human race: evolution, creationism, or intelligent design. Biosemiotics discovers an intriguing higher ground respecting those opposing theories by arguing that questions of meaning and experiential life can be integrated into the scientific study of nature. This groundbreaking book shows how the linguistic powers of humans imply that consciousness emerges in the evolutionary process and that life is based on sign action, not just molecular interaction. Biosemiotics will be essential reading for anyone interested in the nexus of linguistic possibility and biological reality.

Information Routing Correspondence Finding and Object Recognition in the Brain

Information Routing  Correspondence Finding  and Object Recognition in the Brain Book
Author : Philipp Wolfrum
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2010-09-07
ISBN : 3642152546
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

At?rstsight,thisbookisaboutfacerecognitioninthebrain.Itsmorelasting value, however,lies in the paradigmatic way in which this particular problem is treated. From the basic ideas that are worked out here in concrete detail, it is a naturaland simple next step to at leastimagine, if not realizein model form, much more generalstructures and processes,thus helping to bridge the still tremendous chasm between mind and brain. It is the purpose of this foreword to point out these generic traits. For centuries, thinking about the brain has been dominated by the most complexmechanisticdevicesofthetime,clockwork,communicatinghydraulic tubesor,today,thecomputer.Thecomputer,takenasincarnationoftheU- versal Turing Machine, can implement any conceivable process, so that also a functional brain can surely be simulated on it, an idea that, beginning in the ?fties of the last century, has been seducing scientists to create “art- cial intelligence” in the computer. As a result we now have an information technology that displays many functional capabilities formerly regarded as the exclusive domain of the mind. As fascinating as this is, doting on “int- ligent machines” is systematically diverting our attention awayfrom the true problems of understanding the working of the brain.

Memory and the Computational Brain

Memory and the Computational Brain Book
Author : C. R. Gallistel,Adam Philip King
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-09-09
ISBN : 1444359762
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Memory and the Computational Brain offers a provocative argument that goes to the heart of neuroscience, proposing that the field can and should benefit from the recent advances of cognitive science and the development of information theory over the course of the last several decades. A provocative argument that impacts across the fields of linguistics, cognitive science, and neuroscience, suggesting new perspectives on learning mechanisms in the brain Proposes that the field of neuroscience can and should benefit from the recent advances of cognitive science and the development of information theory Suggests that the architecture of the brain is structured precisely for learning and for memory, and integrates the concept of an addressable read/write memory mechanism into the foundations of neuroscience Based on lectures in the prestigious Blackwell-Maryland Lectures in Language and Cognition, and now significantly reworked and expanded to make it ideal for students and faculty

Recent Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology

Recent Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1992
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Recent Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Brain Plasticity

Brain Plasticity Book
Author : Hans-Joachim Freund,Bernhard A. Sabel,Otto W. Witte
Publisher : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Release : 1997
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume reviews the latest experimental and clinical research on brain plasticity. Featuring contributions from more than eighty international experts, the book examines the brain's capacity for functional recovery after various types of injury, including traumatic or ischemic brain injury and demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis.