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Automation Techniques In Diagnostic Microbiology

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Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology and Immunology

Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology and Immunology Book
Author : K.-O. Habermehl
Publisher : Springer
Release : 1985-07
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Rapid progress in molecular biology, genetic engineering, and basic research in immunology has opened up new possibilities for application to diagnostic procedures and to clinical research. In a short period a new era of diagnosis dawned, covering nearly all fields of microbiology, immunology, and food technology. In consequence of this rapid development, scientists of many disciplines are involved studying infections of humans, animals, and plants or working in technical microbiology. The application of the newest findings of basic research to diagnostic work and to clinical research covers nearly all fields of microbiology and immunology. Moreover, it underlines the close relationship between diagnosis, therapy, and epidemiology. An outstanding example of these connections is given by the recent development of hepatitis B vaccine. The discovery and identification of a non cultivable agent by physicochemical and immunological methods were the heralds of a new era in the prevention of infectious diseases. This book provides an up-to-date, comprehensive review of developments and future aspects in various fields. I am convinced that the authors have succeeded in furnishing a large variety of new ideas and possibilities. K.-O. HABERMEHL Contents Time Realities in the Evaluation of Vaccines for Safety and Efficacy The Evaluation of Vaccines M. R. HILLEMAN . . . . .

Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology

Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology Book
Author : Yi-Wei Tang,Charles W. Stratton
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-11-09
ISBN : 3319339001
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent years, advanced molecular techniques in diagnostic microbiology have been revolutionizing the practice of clinical microbiology in the hospital setting. Molecular diagnostic testing in general and nucleic acid-based amplification methods in particular have been heralded as diagnostic tools for the new millennium. This third edition covers not only the most recent updates and advances, but details newly invented omic techniques, such as next generation sequencing. It is divided into two distinct volumes, with Volume 1 describing the techniques, and Volume 2 addressing their applications in the field. In addition, both volumes focus more so on the clinical relevance of the test results generated by these techniques than previous editions.

Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology and Immunology

Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology and Immunology Book
Author : Antti Vaheri,Richard C. Tilton,Albert Balows
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 364276603X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The current diagnostic methods for the great variety of microbial agents affecting health are clearly unsatisfactory. New important pathogens have emerged including the agent responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Moreover, there is an increasing need for more accurate microbial control of our environment, and of the food and water we consume. What is needed are rapid, sensitive and reliable procedures which, on the one hand, should be suitable for automation and, onthe other hand, presented in a cost-effective version suitable for field use. Including new biochemical approaches, such as polymerase chain reaction, recombinant gene products and synthetic peptides, these needs are discussed in these protocols of the RAMI-90 congress.

Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology

Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology Book
Author : Yi-Wei Tang,Charles W. Stratton
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-01-16
ISBN : 0387328920
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Clinical microbiologists are engaged in the field of diagnostic microbiology to determine whether pathogenic microorganisms are present in clinical specimens collected from patients with suspected infections. If microorganisms are found, these are identified and susceptibility profiles, when indicated, are determined. During the past two decades, technical advances in the field of diagnostic microbiology have made constant and enormous progress in various areas, including bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, parasitology, and virology. The diagnostic capabilities of modern clinical microbiology laboratories have improved rapidly and have expanded greatly due to a technological revolution in molecular aspects of microbiology and immunology. In particular, rapid techniques for nucleic acid amplification and characterization combined with automation and user-friendly software have significantly broadened the diagnostic arsenal for the clinical microbiologist. The conventional diagnostic model for clinical microbiology has been labor-intensive and frequently required days to weeks before test results were available. Moreover, due to the complexity and length of such testing, this service was usually directed at the hospitalized patient population. The physical structure of laboratories, staffing patterns, workflow, and turnaround time all have been influenced profoundly by these technical advances. Such changes will undoubtedly continue and lead the field of diagnostic microbiology inevitably to a truly modern discipline. Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology provides a comprehensive and up-to-date description of advanced methods that have evolved for the diagnosis of infectious diseases in the routine clinical microbiology laboratory. The book is divided into two sections. The first techniques section covers the principles and characteristics of techniques ranging from rapid antigen testing, to advanced antibody detection, to in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques, and to nucleic acid microarray and mass spectrometry. Sufficient space is assigned to cover different nucleic acid amplification formats that are currently being used widely in the diagnostic microbiology field. Within each technique, examples are given regarding its application in the diagnostic field. Commercial product information, if available, is introduced with commentary in each chapter. If several test formats are available for a technique, objective comparisons are given to illustrate the contrasts of their advantages and disadvantages. The second applications section provides practical examples of application of these advanced techniques in several "hot" spots in the diagnostic field. A diverse team of authors presents authoritative and comprehensive information on sequence-based bacterial identification, blood and blood product screening, molecular diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, advances in mycobacterial diagnosis, novel and rapid emerging microorganism detection and genotyping, and future directions in the diagnostic microbiology field. We hope our readers like this technique-based approach and your feedback is highly appreciated. We want to thank the authors who devoted their time and efforts to produce their chapters. We also thank the staff at Springer Press, especially Melissa Ramondetta, who initiated the whole project. Finally, we greatly appreciate the constant encouragement of our family members through this long effort. Without their unwavering faith and full support, we would never have had the courage to commence this project.

Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases

Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases Book
Author : Paul G. Engelkirk,Janet L. Duben-Engelkirk
Publisher : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Release : 2008
ISBN : 9780781797016
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Designed for associate-degree MLT/CLT programs and baccalaureate MT/CLS programs, this textbook presents the essentials of clinical microbiology. It provides balanced coverage of specific groups of microorganisms and the work-up of clinical specimens by organ system, and also discusses the role of the microbiology laboratory in regard to emerging infections, healthcare epidemiology, and bioterrorism. Clinical case studies and self-assessment questions show how to incorporate the information into everyday practice. More than 400 illustrations and visual information displays enhance the text. Essentials boxes, chapter outlines, key terms, summaries, and other study aids help students retain information. A bound-in CD-ROM includes additional review questions, case studies, and Web links.

Automation and Basic Techniques in Medical Microbiology

Automation and Basic Techniques in Medical Microbiology Book
Author : Santi M. Mandal,Debarati Paul
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2022
ISBN : 1071623729
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book discusses principles, methodology, and applications of microbiological laboratory techniques . It lays special emphasis on the use of various automated machines that are essential for medical microbiology and diagnostic labs. The book contains eleven major chapters. The first chapter describes the good lab practices which should be followed by the students in all biological, chemistry or microbiology laboratories. The next chapter describes manual and automated characterization of antibiotic resistant microbes, followed by a chapter on genomics based tools and techniques that are integral to research. Further chapters deal with other important techniques like immunology based techniques, spectrophotometry and its various types, MALDI-TOFF and microarrays, each with illustrations and detailed description of the protocols and applications. The book also gives certain important guidelines to the students about the planning the experiment and interpreting results. The book is highly informative and provides latest techniques. It is a handy compendium for graduate and post graduate students, as well as more advanced researchers.

Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology and Immunology

Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology and Immunology Book
Author : Antti Vaheri,Richard Tilton,Albert Balows
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2011-12-23
ISBN : 9783642766053
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The International Congress on Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology and Immunology, held in 1990 (RAMI-90) in Helsinki Espoo, Finland, attracted considerable interest from the international scientific community. This reflects both the rapid progress and numerous new challenges in the field covered by RAMI-90. New biotechnical approaches, such as the polymerase chain reaction, recombinant gene products and synthetic peptides are gaining wide acceptance. New important pathogens have emerged, such as hepatitis C, Helicobacter pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi, herpes virus 6 and Chlamydia pneumoniae. "Super streptococci" are recognized again as well as the agent responsible for bovine spongiform enceph alopathy. The current diagnostic methods are clearly unsatisfactory for many of these and other microbes. Moreover, there is an increas ing need for more accurate microbial control of our environment, and of the food and water we consume. What is needed are rapid, sensitive and reliable procedures which, on the one hand, should be suitable for automation and, on the other hand, presented in a cost-effective version suitable for field use. We view these needs as a clear and loud challenge for future RAMI congresses. This volume provides an up-to-date presentation of the highlights of RAMI-90 and prospects for the future. For the preparation of this volume we wish to thank Dr. Maija Leinonen for her invaluable con sultation and Ms. Virpi Tiilikainen for secretarial assistance. ANTTI V AHERI RICHARD C. TILTON ALBERT BALOWS Contents Nucleic Acid Detection Controlled Synthetic Oligonucleotide Networks for the Detection of Pathogenic Organisms M. S. Urdea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology E Book

Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology   E Book Book
Author : Connie R. Mahon,Donald C. Lehman
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2022-11-02
ISBN : 0323832717
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Gain the knowledge and skills you need to succeed in the clinical lab! Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, 7th Edition uses a reader-friendly "building-block" approach to help you learn the essentials of diagnostic microbiology. Featuring full-color drawings and photos, this text helps you learn to develop the critical thinking and problem-solving skills necessary to the accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases and the identification of infectious agents. Written by noted educators Connie R. Mahon and Donald C. Lehman, this edition adds new content on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, along with the latest information on prevention, treatment modalities, and CDC guidelines. Building-block approach encourages you to use previously learned information in mastering new material. Full-color photographs and photomicrographs make it easier to understand and apply diagnostic microbiology concepts. Case studies describe clinical and laboratory findings, offering opportunities to correlate observations with possible etiologic agents and to build critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Hands-on procedures in the appendices describe techniques used in the lab setting. Issues to Consider boxes list important points to think about while reading the chapter. Case Checks in each chapter highlight specific points in the text and show how they connect to case studies. Bolded key terms with abbreviations are listed at the beginning of each chapter, showing the most important and relevant terms in each chapter. Learning Objectives at the beginning of each chapter supply you with a measurable learning outcome to achieve by completing the material. Points to Remember sections at the end of each chapter provide a bulleted list of key concepts. Learning Assessment Questions at the conclusion of each chapter help you to think critically and to evaluate how well you have mastered the material. Agents of Bioterror and Forensic Microbiology chapter provides the most current information about these important topics. Lab manual on the Evolve website reinforces concepts with real-life scenarios and review questions. Glossary at the end of the book supplies you with a quick reference for looking up definitions of key terms. NEW! Information about SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 is added to this edition. NEW! Updated content is included throughout the book, and several chapters are reorganized and refocused. NEW! Enterobacteriaceae chapter is updated.

Automation and Emerging Technology in Clinical Microbiology An Issue of Clinics in Laboratory Medicine

Automation and Emerging Technology in Clinical Microbiology  An Issue of Clinics in Laboratory Medicine  Book
Author : Carey-Ann D. Burnham
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2013-08-14
ISBN : 0323188613
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The field of Clinical Microbiology is evolving at a rapid pace, perhaps more so than any other arm of laboratory medicine. This can be attributed to new technology, including high throughput gene sequencing, multiplex molecular assays, rapid evolution of antimicrobial resistance, and discovery of new pathogens. In addition, modern medical procedures, such as solid organ and stem cell transplantation, have resulted in an explosion of infections with agents that historically have been considered to be of low virulence. This issue of Clinics in Laboratory Medicine will highlight some of the advances in diagnostic microbiology, including MALDI-TOF MS, pathogen discovery, and personalized antimicrobial chemotherapy. In addition, one of the papers will focus on implementation of new technologies and how to maximize patient impact of these new methods.

Automation In Clinical Microbiology

Automation In Clinical Microbiology Book
Author : James Wallace Jorgenson
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-01-18
ISBN : 1351078445
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The chapters of this book describe numerous successful examples of automation in microbiology, e.g., radiometric detection of bacteremia, instruments for detection of bacteriuria, machines for organism identification and susceptibility testing, and automated antigen and antibody measurement systems. In addition, there are discussions of exciting but not yet proven methodologies such as chromatography, flow cytometry, and other applications of radiometry. There are also important discussions regarding improved means of data communication and ways to improve the clinician‘s use of test results. Lastly, there are candid assessments of the best and worst aspects of the current spectrum of automated instruments for microbiology. It is hoped that the reader of this volume will be left with a feeling of excitement at the possibilities that lie ahead for application of instrument techniques in the diagnosis of infectious diseases.

Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology and Immunology

Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology and Immunology Book
Author : K.-O. Habermehl
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 364269943X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Rapid progress in molecular biology, genetic engineering, and basic research in immunology has opened up new possibilities for application to diagnostic procedures and to clinical research. In a short period a new era of diagnosis dawned, covering nearly all fields of microbiology, immunology, and food technology. In consequence of this rapid development, scientists of many disciplines are involved studying infections of humans, animals, and plants or working in technical microbiology. The application of the newest findings of basic research to diagnostic work and to clinical research covers nearly all fields of microbiology and immunology. Moreover, it underlines the close relationship between diagnosis, therapy, and epidemiology. An outstanding example of these connections is given by the recent development of hepatitis B vaccine. The discovery and identification of a non cultivable agent by physicochemical and immunological methods were the heralds of a new era in the prevention of infectious diseases. This book provides an up-to-date, comprehensive review of developments and future aspects in various fields. I am convinced that the authors have succeeded in furnishing a large variety of new ideas and possibilities. K.-O. HABERMEHL Contents Time Realities in the Evaluation of Vaccines for Safety and Efficacy The Evaluation of Vaccines M. R. HILLEMAN . . . . .

Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology

Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology Book
Author : Yi-Wei Tang,Charles W. Stratton
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-09-14
ISBN : 1461439701
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the United States, hospitals annually report over 5 million cases of infectious-disease-related illnesses: clinical microbiology laboratories in these hospitals are engaged in detecting and identifying the pathogenic microorganisms in clinical specimens collected from these patients with suspected infections. Clearly, the timely and accurate detection/identification of these microbial pathogens is critical for patient treatment decisions and outcomes for millions of patients each year. Despite an appreciation that the outcome of an infectious-disease-related illness is directly related to the time required to detect and identify a microbial pathogen, clinical microbiology laboratories in the United States as well as worldwide have long been hampered by traditional culture-based assays, which may require prolonged incubation time for slowly growing microorganisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, traditional culture-based assays often require multiple steps with additional time needed for discernment of species and/or detection of antimicrobial resistance. Finally, these traditional, slow multistep culture-based assays are labor-intensive and required skilled clinical microbiologists at the bench. Over the past several decades, advanced molecular techniques in diagnostic microbiology quietly have been revolutionizing the practice of clinical microbiology in the hospital setting. Indeed, molecular diagnostic testing in general and nucleic-acid-based amplification methods in particular have been heralded as diagnostic tools for the new millennium. There is no question that the development of rapid molecular techniques for nucleic acid amplification/characterization combined with automation and user-friendly software has greatly broadened the diagnostic capabilities of the clinical microbiology laboratory. These technical advances in molecular microbiology over the first decade of the 21st Century have profoundly influenced the physical structure of clinical microbiology laboratories as well as their staffing patterns, workflow, and turnaround time. These molecular microbiology advances have also resulted in the need for a revised and updated second edition of Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology. This second edition again provides an updated and comprehensive description of the ongoing evolution of molecular methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. In addition, many new chapters have been added, including a chapter on the clinical interpretation and relevance of advanced technique results. The second edition, like the first edition, includes both a “techniques” section describing the latest molecular techniques and an “applications” section describing how these advanced molecular techniques are being used in the clinical setting. Finally, the second edition, like the first edition, utilizes a diverse team of authors who have compiled chapters that provide the reader with comprehensive and useable information on advanced molecular microbiology techniques.

Automation In Clinical Microbiology

Automation In Clinical Microbiology Book
Author : James Wallace Jorgenson
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-01-18
ISBN : 1351086898
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The chapters of this book describe numerous successful examples of automation in microbiology, e.g., radiometric detection of bacteremia, instruments for detection of bacteriuria, machines for organism identification and susceptibility testing, and automated antigen and antibody measurement systems. In addition, there are discussions of exciting but not yet proven methodologies such as chromatography, flow cytometry, and other applications of radiometry. There are also important discussions regarding improved means of data communication and ways to improve the clinician‘s use of test results. Lastly, there are candid assessments of the best and worst aspects of the current spectrum of automated instruments for microbiology. It is hoped that the reader of this volume will be left with a feeling of excitement at the possibilities that lie ahead for application of instrument techniques in the diagnosis of infectious diseases.

Cumulated Index Medicus

Cumulated Index Medicus Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1976
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Cumulated Index Medicus book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Diagnostic Bacteriology Protocols

Diagnostic Bacteriology Protocols Book
Author : Louise O’Connor
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-02-05
ISBN : 1597451436
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The field of bacterial diagnostics has seen unprecedented advances in recent years. The increased need for accurate detection and identification of bacteria in human, animal, food, and environmental samples has fueled the development of new techniques. The field has seen extensive research aided by the information from bacterial genome sequencing projects. Although traditional methods of bacterial detection and identification remain in use in laboratories around the world, there is now a growing trend toward the use of nucleic ac- based diagnostics and alternative biochemically and immunologically based formats. The ultimate goal of all diagnostic tests is the accurate detection, identification, or typing of microorganisms in samples of interest. Although the resulting information is of obvious use in the areas of patient management, animal health, and quality control, it is also of use in monitoring routes of infection and outlining strategies for infection control. There is, therefore, a need to ensure that the information being provided is of the highest standard and that any new technique is capable of delivering this.

Microbial Food Contamination

Microbial Food Contamination Book
Author : Charles L. Wilson Ph.D.
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2007-10-08
ISBN : 1420008471
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Divided into five parts, Microbial Food Contamination, Second Edition looks at emerging foodborne human pathogens andcomprehensively evaluates the microbiology, biochemistry, detection, risk, and threat of foodborne illness in today's global market. The first section introduces new insights into the pathogenic effect of E. coli, viral

Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology

Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology Book
Author : Yi-Wei Tang,Charles W. Stratton
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-11-01
ISBN : 9783319951102
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent years, advanced molecular techniques in diagnostic microbiology have been revolutionizing the practice of clinical microbiology in the hospital setting. Molecular diagnostic testing in general and nucleic acid-based amplification methods in particular have been heralded as diagnostic tools for the new millennium. This third edition covers not only the most recent updates and advances, but details newly invented omic techniques, such as next generation sequencing. It is divided into two distinct volumes, with Volume 1 describing the techniques, and Volume 2 addressing their applications in the field. In addition, both volumes focus more so on the clinical relevance of the test results generated by these techniques than previous editions.

In Vitro Diagnostic Industry in China

In Vitro Diagnostic Industry in China Book
Author : Haibo Song,Jian'er Yao
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-07-28
ISBN : 9811623163
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book systematically describes the achievements and current situation of in vitro diagnostic (IVD) industry in China. It consists of eight parts, including the overview on the IVD industry in China in 2019, hot technologies and products of IVD industry, academic, technological and product development in the field of IVD, such as biochemical diagnosis, immune-diagnosis, molecular diagnosis, blood and body fluid diagnosis, microbial detection, point-of-care testing, laboratory assembly line, etc. This book is compiled by an editorial committee composed of well-known entrepreneurs, experts and professors in IVD industry in China. It is a reference book for practitioners of IVD industry, medical laboratory and medical staffs all over the world.

Bailey Scott s Diagnostic Microbiology E Book

Bailey   Scott s Diagnostic Microbiology   E Book Book
Author : Patricia Tille
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2013-08-13
ISBN : 032327742X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Known as the #1 bench reference for practicing microbiologists and an excellent text for students in clinical laboratory science programs, Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology, 13th Edition helps you develop and refine the skills you need for effective laboratory testing. In-depth information is useful and easily accessible, with step-by-step instructions for all the procedures. This edition features more than 20 NEW chapters plus updated material on the newest advances and the latest trends in clinical microbiology. Written by expert Dr. Patricia Tille, this classic reference addresses the topics and issues most relevant to you and your success on the job. Hands-on procedures include step-by-step instructions, full-color photos, and expected results, helping you achieve more accurate results. Case studies give you the opportunity to apply your skills in a variety of diagnostic scenarios and help improve your decision-making and critical thinking skills. Genera and Species to be Considered boxes highlight all of the organisms to be discussed in each chapter, including the current name of the species as well as any previous names. Student resources on Evolve enhance your learning with review questions and procedures. Convenient, easy-to-read tables summarize key information. Detailed, full-color illustrations aid comprehension and help you visualize concepts. A glossary of terms is found at the back of the book for quick reference. NEW! Learning objectives begin each chapter, giving you a measurable outcome to achieve by the completing the material. NEW! Review questions on the Evolve companion website are tied to learning objectives, and enhance your understanding and retention of chapter content. NEW! Reader-friendly chapters cover groups of related organisms rather than addressing all at once, including the parasitology, mycology, and virology chapters.

Encyclopedia of Microbiology

Encyclopedia of Microbiology Book
Author : Thomas M. Schmidt
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-09-11
ISBN : 0128117370
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Encyclopedia of Microbiology, Fourth Edition gathers both basic and applied dimensions in this dynamic field that includes virtually all environments on Earth. This range attracts a growing number of cross-disciplinary studies, which the encyclopedia makes available to readers from diverse educational backgrounds. The new edition builds on the solid foundation established in earlier versions, adding new material that reflects recent advances in the field. New focus areas include `Animal and Plant Microbiomes’ and ‘Global Impact of Microbes`. The thematic organization of the work allows users to focus on specific areas, e.g., for didactical purposes, while also browsing for topics in different areas. Offers an up-to-date and authoritative resource that covers the entire field of microbiology, from basic principles, to applied technologies Provides an organic overview that is useful to academic teachers and scientists from different backgrounds Includes chapters that are enriched with figures and graphs, and that can be easily consulted in isolation to find fundamental definitions and concepts