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Atomic Clusters With Unusual Structure Bonding And Reactivity

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Structure and Properties of Clusters from a few Atoms to Nanoparticles

Structure and Properties of Clusters  from a few Atoms to Nanoparticles Book
Author : George Maroulis
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2006-10-27
ISBN : 9047418603
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume on Clusters brings together contributions from a large number of specialists. A central element for all contributions is the use of advanced computational methodologies and their application to various aspects of structure, reactivity and properties of clusters. The size of clusters varies from a few atoms to nanoparticles. Special emphasis is given to bringing forth new insights on the structure and properties of these systems with an eye towards potential applications in Materials Science. Overal, the volume presents to the readers an amazing wealth of new results. Particular subjects include water clusters, Silicon, Iron, Nickel and Gold clusters, carbon-titanium microclusters and nanoparticles, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, chiral carbon nanotubes, boron nanoclusters and more.

Physics and Chemistry of Small Clusters

Physics and Chemistry of Small Clusters Book
Author : P. Jena
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
ISBN : 1475703570
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recent advances in experimental techniques now enable researchers to produce in a laboratory clusters of atoms of desired composition from any of the elements of the periodic table. This has created a new area of research into novel materials since clusters cannot be regarded either as a "large" molecule or as a fragment of the bulk. Both experimental and theoretical studies are revealing unusual properties that are not ob served in solid state environments. The structures of micro-clusters are found to be significantly distorted from the most symmetric arrangement, some even exhibiting pentagonal symmetry commonly found in icosahedric structures. The unusual stability of certain clusters, now described as "magic number species", shows striking similarities with the nuclear shell structure. The relative stabilities of clusters depend not only on the composition of the clusters but also on their charged states. The studies on spontaneous fragmentation of mUltiply charged clusters, commonly referred to as Coulomb explosion, illustrate the role of electronic bonding mechanisms on stability of clusters. The effect of foreign atoms on geometry and stability of clusters and the interaction of gas atoms with clusters are showing promise for an indepth understanding of chemisorption and catalysis. The magnetic and optical properties are dependent not only on cluster size but also on its geometry. These findings have the potential for aiding industry in the area of micro-electronics and catalysis.

Aromaticity and Metal Clusters

Aromaticity and Metal Clusters Book
Author : Pratim Kumar Chattaraj
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2010-10-15
ISBN : 9781439813355
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Metal clusters, an intermediate state between molecules and the extended solid, show peculiar bonding and reactivity patterns. Their significance is critical to many areas, including air pollution, interstellar matter, clay minerals, photography, catalysis, quantum dots, and virus crystals. In Aromaticity and Metal Clusters, dozens of international experts explore not only the basic aspects of aromaticity, but also the structures, properties, reactivity, stability, and other consequences of the aromaticity of a variety of metal clusters. Although the concept of aromaticity has been known for nearly two centuries, there is no way to measure it experimentally and no theoretical formula to calculate it. In order to gain insight into its exact nature, the authors of this volume examine various indirect characteristics such as geometrical, electronic, magnetic, thermodynamic, and reactivity considerations. The book begins by discussing the evolution of aromaticity from benzene to atomic clusters. Next, more specialized chapters focus on areas of significant interest. Topics discussed include: Computational studies on molecules with unusual aromaticity Electronic shells and magnetism in small metal clusters A density functional investigation on the structures, energetics, and properties of sodium clusters through electrostatic guidelines and molecular tailoring The correlation between electron delocalization and ring currents in all metallic aromatic compounds Phenomenological shell model and aromaticity in metal clusters Rationalizing the aromaticity indexes used to describe the aromatic behavior of metal clusters 5f orbital successive aromatic and antiaromatic zones in triangular uranium cluster chemistry This collection of diverse contributions, composed of the work of scientists worldwide, is destined to not only answer puzzling questions about the nature of aromaticity, but also to provoke further inquiry in the minds of researchers.

Unusual Structures and Physical Properties in Organometallic Chemistry

Unusual Structures and Physical Properties in Organometallic Chemistry Book
Author : Marcel Gielen,Rudolph Willem,Bernd Wrackmeyer
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2003-08-01
ISBN : 0470855614
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The principal idea of this volume is to offer a Capita Selecta of unconventional and thought-provoking topics in organometallic chemistry, presented by experts in each field. As intended, this approach leads either to reviews covering a specific uncommon class of organometallic compounds or to overviews which relate uncommon physical properties with various classes of organometallic compounds. The contributions are streamlined thus onto two main axes - unusual properties reflecting structures and bonding situations, on the one hand, and uncommon structural features or structure-reactivity relationships, on the other. Extensive cross-referencing of useful information is provided, making this volume accessible for people working in rather different areas of organometallic chemistry. The synthesis of molecules with 'extreme' properties is a challenge for all those working in organometallic chemistry, irrelevant of theoretical/computational, synthetic or application interests. This book presents case studies at the interface of these overlapping interests. Unusual Structures and Physical Properties in Organometallic Chemistry: * Provides test cases for computational and theoretical models * Presents a challenge for synthetic chemists * Provides ideal show cases for analytical techniques This volume will be an invaluable reference for researchers in organometallic chemistry, computational and theoretical chemistry, NMR and other spectroscopic methods.

Transition Metal Carbonyl Cluster Chemistry

Transition Metal Carbonyl Cluster Chemistry Book
Author : Paul J. Dyson,J. Scott McIndoe
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2000-11-17
ISBN : 9789056992897
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Transition metal carbonyl clusters (TMCCs) continue to inspire great interest in chemical research, as much for their fascinating structures as for potential industrial applications conferred by their unique properties. This highly accessible book introduces the bonding, structure, spectroscopic properties, and characterization of clusters, and then explores their synthesis, reactivity, reaction mechanisms and use in organic synthesis and catalysis. Transition Metal Carbonyl Cluster Chemistry describes models and rules that correlate cluster structure with electron count, which are then applied in worked examples. Subsequent chapters explain how bonding relates to molecular structure, demonstrate the use of spectroscopic techniques such as NMR, IR and MS in cluster chemistry, and outline the factors contributing to the stability, dynamics and reactivity of clusters. The second part of this book discusses the synthesis and applications of TMCCs. It emphasizes the differences between the reactivities of clusters vs. mononuclear metal complexes, contingent to the availability of multiple-bonding sites and heterosite reactivity. The final chapters discuss reactions in which clusters act as homogeneous catalysts; including discussion on the use of solid and biphasic liquid-liquid supported clusters in heterogeneous catalysts. A useful reference for those commencing further research or post-graduate study on metal carbonyl clusters and advanced organometallic chemistry, this book is also a cornerstone addition to academic and libraries as well as private collections.

Clusters

Clusters Book
Author : Minh Tho Nguyen,Boggavarapu Kiran
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-01-31
ISBN : 3319489186
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The field of atomic clusters continues to attract great interest amongst physicists and chemists alike. This is in part due to their intrinsic properties and potential industrial applications. The first part of Binary Clusters is devoted to recent developments in experimental techniques, the second part covers a variety of theoretical approaches. Different theoretical methods based on group/graph theories and quantum chemical computational methods as well as various spectroscopy techniques (such as mass, laser, infrared, photoelectron etc.) are applied to the determination of the existence of geometrical and electronic structures, chemical bonding phenomena, and the thermodynamic stabilities of several classes of binary clusters. All chapters within this review volume have been contributed by experts in chemistry, physics, and material sciences based at the University of Leuven, Belgium. This book is aimed at professionals and students working in cluster science.

Physics and Chemistry of Finite Systems From Clusters to Crystals

Physics and Chemistry of Finite Systems  From Clusters to Crystals Book
Author : Peru Jena,S.N. Khanna,B.K.N. Rao
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-11
ISBN : 9401726450
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recent innovations in experimental techniques such as molecular and cluster beam epitaxy, supersonic jet expansion, matrix isolation and chemical synthesis are increasingly enabling researchers to produce materials by design and with atomic dimension. These materials constrained by sire, shape, and symmetry range from clusters containing as few as two atoms to nanoscale materials consisting of thousands of atoms. They possess unique structuraI, electronic, magnetic and optical properties that depend strongly on their size and geometry. The availability of these materials raises many fundamental questions as weIl as technological possibilities. From the academic viewpoint, the most pertinent question concerns the evolution of the atomic and electronic structure of the system as it grows from micro clusters to crystals. At what stage, for example, does the cluster look as if it is a fragment of the corresponding crystal. How do electrons forming bonds in micro-clusters transform to bands in solids? How do the size dependent properties change from discrete quantum conditions, as in clusters, to boundary constrained bulk conditions, as in nanoscale materials, to bulk conditions insensitive to boundaries? How do the criteria of classification have to be changed as one goes from one size domain to another? Potential for high technological applications also seem to be endless. Clusters of otherwise non-magnetic materials exhibit magnetic behavior when constrained by size, shape, and dimension. NanoscaIe metal particles exhibit non-linear opticaI properties and increased mechanical strength. SimiIarly, materials made from nanoscale ceramic particIes possess plastic behavior.

Cluster Assembled Materials

Cluster Assembled Materials Book
Author : Klaus Sattler
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1996
ISBN : 9780878497478
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It is now some 15 years since atomic clusters were first produced and investigated in laboratories. Since then, knowledge concerning clusters has enjoyed rapid and sustained growth, and cluster research has become a new branch of science.

Structure Bonding and Reactivity of Heterocyclic Compounds

Structure  Bonding and Reactivity of Heterocyclic Compounds Book
Author : Frank De Proft,Paul Geerlings
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-11-03
ISBN : 3642451497
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The series Topics in Heterocyclic Chemistry presents critical reviews on present and future trends in the research of heterocyclic compounds. Overall the scope is to cover topics dealing with all areas within heterocyclic chemistry, both experimental and theoretical, of interest to the general heterocyclic chemistry community. The series consists of topic related volumes edited by renowned editors with contributions of experts in the field.

Latest Advances in Atomic Cluster Collisions

Latest Advances in Atomic Cluster Collisions Book
Author : Jean-Patrick Connerade,Andrey Solov'yov
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2008-09-10
ISBN : 1908978783
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents a “snapshot” of the most recent and significant advances in the field of cluster physics. It is a comprehensive review based on contributions by the participants of the 2nd International Symposium on Atomic Cluster Collisions (ISACC 2007) held in July 19–23, 2007 at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. The purpose of the Symposium is to promote the growth and exhange of scientific information on the structure and properties of nuclear, atomic, molecular, biological and complex cluster systems studied by means of photonic, electronic, heavy particle and atomic collisions. Particular attention is devoted to dynamic phenomena, many-body effects taking place in cluster systems of a different nature — these include problems of fusion and fission, fragmentation, collective electron excitations, phase transitions, etc. Both the experimental and theoretical aspects of cluster physics, uniquely placed between nuclear physics on the one hand and atomic, molecular and solid state physics on the other, are discussed. Contents:Clustering Phenomena at Nuclear and Subnuclear ScalesStructure and Properties of Atomic ClustersElectron, Photon and Ion Cluster CollisionsClusters on a SurfacePhase Transitions, Fusion, Fission and Fragmentation in Finite SystemsClusters in Laser FieldsClustering Phenomenon in System of Various Degrees of ComplexityStructure and Dynamics of BiomoleculesFrom Biomolecules to Cells and System Biology Readership: Researchers in physics, chemistry, biophysics, and materials science, both academic and professional. Keywords:Atomic Clusters;Biomolecules;Nanophysics;Nanoparticles;Collisions;Cluster Deposition;Fission and Fusion Processes;Phase TransitionsKey Features:Provides an overview of the traditional tools of the atomic, nuclear, molecular and biological physics applied to atomic clustersEmphasizes collisions with electrons, photons, heavy particles and atoms, as well as fusion and fissionUtilizes an interdisciplinary approach that joins many very different branches of physics, chemistry and mathematics

Advances in Metal and Semiconductor Clusters

Advances in Metal and Semiconductor Clusters Book
Author : M.A. Duncan
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1998-07-27
ISBN : 9780080552705
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cluster Materials is the fourth volume of the highly successful series Advances in Metal and Semiconductor Clusters. In this volume the focus is on the properties of clusters which determine their potential applications as new materials. Metal and semiconductor clusters have been proposed as precursors for materials or as actual materials since the earliest days of cluster research. In the last few years, a variety of techniques have made it possible to produce clusters in sizes varying from a few atoms up to several thousand atoms. While some measurements are performed in the gas phase on non-isolated clusters, many cluster materials can now be isolated in macroscopic quantities and more convenient studies of their properties become possible. In this volume the authors focus on measurement of optical, electronic, magnetic, chemical and mechanical properties of clusters or of cluster assemblies. All of these properties must fall into acceptable ranges of behaviour before useful materials composed of clusters can be put into practical applications. As evidenced by the various work described here, the realisation of practical products based on cluster materials seems to be approaching rapidly.

Atomic and Molecular Clusters

Atomic and Molecular Clusters Book
Author : Roy L. Johnston
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2002-04-25
ISBN : 9781420055771
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cluster physics is the foundation of the increasingly important field of nanotechnology. Clusters, ranging in size from a few to many millions of atoms, constitute a fascinating field of research in physics, chemistry and materials science. They are formed by most of the elements of the Periodic Table, and the types of bonding and the resultant clusters are equally as varied. This book introduces atomic clusters, ranging from weakly-bonded clusters of argon to strongly-bonded carbon clusters and metal nano-particles. It includes worked examples to enable lecturers and students to gauge their understanding and progress. Atomic and Molecular Clusters describes the experimental generation, detection and interrogation of clusters and theoretical approaches developed to aid understanding of their physical properties. It classifies clusters according to their bonding types and gives examples of present and possible future applications of clusters in electronic, optical and magnetic devices.

Density Functional Theory of Molecules Clusters and Solids

Density Functional Theory of Molecules  Clusters  and Solids Book
Author : D.E. Ellis
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1995
ISBN : 9780792330837
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Rapid advances are taking place in the application of density functional theory (DFT) to describe complex electronic structures, to accurately treat large systems and to predict physical and chemical properties. Both theoretical content and computational methodology are developing at a pace which offers researchers new opportunities in areas such as quantum chemistry, cluster science, and solid state physics. This volume contains ten contributions by leading scientists in the field and provides an authoritative overview of the most important developments. The book focuses on the following themes: determining adequate approximations for the many-body problem of electronic correlations; how to transform these approximations into computational algorithms; applications to discover and predict properties of electronic systems; and developing the theory. For researchers in surface chemistry, catalysis, ceramics and inorganic chemistry.

Advances in Chemical Physics

Advances in Chemical Physics Book
Author : Stuart A. Rice,Aaron R. Dinner
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-11-20
ISBN : 1118949722
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in Chemical Physics is the only series of volumes available that explores the cutting edge of research in chemical physics. This is the only series of volumes available that presents the cutting edge of research in chemical physics. Includes contributions from experts in this field of research. Contains a representative cross-section of research that questions established thinking on chemical solutions. Structured with an editorial framework that makes the book an excellent supplement to an advanced graduate class in physical chemistry or chemical physics.

Polyhedron

Polyhedron Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 1994
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Molecular Clusters of the Main Group Elements

Molecular Clusters of the Main Group Elements Book
Author : Matthias Driess,Heinrich Nöth
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2008-11-21
ISBN : 3527614370
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With more than 20 contributions from leading research groups, this book provides essential information for chemists and materials scientists working with molecular clusters. It treats both homonuclear and heteronuclear clusters, including: the theory and concepts in main-group cluster chemistry, * novel boranes and heteroboranes, * silicon/germanium/tin clusters, * alkali metal suboxides, * clusters in alloys with mercury, * chalkogen clusters * and numerous other compound classes. The whole is illustrated by examples of the great potential for technical applications such as electron storage, cancer therapy and in optoelectronic devices. Its systematic coverage of all relevant main group elements makes this the prime reference source in the field.

Cluster and Nanostructure Interfaces

Cluster and Nanostructure Interfaces Book
Author : P Jena,S N Khanna,B K Rao
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2000-08-21
ISBN : 9814493600
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book deals with the evolution of the properties of clusters, nanostructures and cluster-based materials, with emphasis on the role of the interface. These materials are characterized by reduced size, dimension and symmetry, and possess many novel properties that are not commonly seen in their bulk phases. The topics include synthesis, nucleation, growth, characterization, atomic and electronic structure, dynamics, ultra-fast spectroscopy, stability; electrical, magnetic, optical, thermodynamic and catalytic properties of clusters (free and supported); cluster materials (self-assembled, ligated and embedded); nanostructures (quantum dots, wells and corrals; nanotubes and wires; colloidal and biological materials) and nano-technology (electronic, magnetic and optical devices). In addition to presenting the current status of the field, the book discusses outstanding problems and future directions. Contents:Ultrafast DynamicsSynthesis and CharacterizationTransportMagnetismOptical PropertiesElectronic StructureSelf AssembliesNanotubes, Fullerenes, Metcars, and Other Carbon-Based NanostructuresReactions and CatalysisSupported ClustersQuantum DotsPhase Changes and Molecular DynamicsNanotechnology Readership: Researchers in condensed matter physics, atomic & molecular physics, surface & interface science, and physical chemistry. Keywords:Clusters;Nanostructures;Surface Science;Interface Science;Condensed Matter Physics;Physical Chemistry;Atomic and Molecular Physics

Reactivity of Metal metal Bonds

Reactivity of Metal metal Bonds Book
Author : Malcolm H. Chisholm,American Chemical Society. Division of Inorganic Chemistry
Publisher : Amer Chemical Society
Release : 1981
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Organometallic Chemistry

Organometallic Chemistry Book
Author : F. G. A. Stone,M. I. Bruce
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-09-03
ISBN : 1483284689
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Organometallic Chemistry presents the synthesis and reactions of metal, particularly nickel, complexes of these novel ring systems. This book .reviews the characteristic species present in organolithium compounds under several conditions. Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the mode of biosynthesis of the coenzyme that can be partially simulated in the laboratory. This text then presents a brief survey of the biochemical reactions controlled by the coenzyme. Other chapters consider the special molecular geometry of metallocenes, which offers several stereochemical problems. This book discusses as well the formation of free radicals from organotin compounds by radical breakdown of various bonds around the tin atom. The final chapter deals with the reactions of metal carbonyl clusters that are classified in photolysis, reduction, nucleophilic attack, and oxidation and reactions with electrophilic reagents. This book is a valuable resource for chemists, biochemists, stereochemists, scientists, students, and research workers.