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Atom Probe Tomography

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Atom Probe Tomography

Atom Probe Tomography Book
Author : Michael K. Miller
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461542812
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The microanalytical technique of atom probe tomography (APT) permits the spatial coordinates and elemental identities of the individual atoms within a small volume to be determined with near atomic resolution. Therefore, atom probe tomography provides a technique for acquiring atomic resolution three dimensional images of the solute distribution within the microstructures of materials. This monograph is designed to provide researchers and students the necessary information to plan and experimentally conduct an atom probe tomography experiment. The techniques required to visualize and to analyze the resulting three-dimensional data are also described. The monograph is organized into chapters each covering a specific aspect of the technique. The development of this powerful microanalytical technique from the origins offield ion microscopy in 1951, through the first three-dimensional atom probe prototype built in 1986 to today's commercial state-of-the-art three dimensional atom probe is documented in chapter 1. A general introduction to atom probe tomography is also presented in chapter 1. The various methods to fabricate suitable needle-shaped specimens are presented in chapter 2. The procedure to form field ion images of the needle-shaped specimen is described in chapter 3. In addition, the appearance of microstructural features and the information that may be estimated from field ion microscopy are summarized. A brief account of the theoretical basis for processes of field ionization and field evaporation is also included.

Atom Probe Tomography

Atom Probe Tomography Book
Author : Michael K. Miller,Richard G. Forbes
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-07-31
ISBN : 148997430X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanocharacterization by Atom Probe Tomography is a practical guide for researchers interested atomic level characterization of materials with atom probe tomography. Readers will find descriptions of the atom probe instrument and atom probe tomography technique, field ionization, field evaporation and field ion microscopy. The fundamental underlying physics principles are examined, in addition to data reconstruction and visualization, statistical data analysis methods and specimen preparation by electropolishing and FIB-based techniques. A full description of the local electrode atom probe – a new state-of-the-art instrument – is also provided, along with detailed descriptions and limitations of laser pulsing as a method to field evaporate atoms. Valuable coverage of the new ionization theory is also included, which underpins the overall technique.

Atom Probe Tomography

Atom Probe Tomography Book
Author : Williams Lefebvre,Francois Vurpillot,Xavier Sauvage
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-05-30
ISBN : 0128047453
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Atom Probe Tomography is aimed at beginners and researchers interested in expanding their expertise in this area. It provides the theoretical background and practical information necessary to investigate how materials work using atom probe microscopy techniques, and includes detailed explanations of the fundamentals, the instrumentation, contemporary specimen preparation techniques, and experimental details, as well as an overview of the results that can be obtained. The book emphasizes processes for assessing data quality and the proper implementation of advanced data mining algorithms. For those more experienced in the technique, this book will serve as a single comprehensive source of indispensable reference information, tables, and techniques. Both beginner and expert will value the way the book is set out in the context of materials science and engineering. In addition, its references to key research outcomes based upon the training program held at the University of Rouen-one of the leading scientific research centers exploring the various aspects of the instrument-will further enhance understanding and the learning process. Provides an introduction to the capabilities and limitations of atom probe tomography when analyzing materials Written for both experienced researchers and new users Includes exercises, along with corrections, for users to practice the techniques discussed Contains coverage of more advanced and less widespread techniques, such as correlative APT and STEM microscopy

Atom Probe Microscopy

Atom Probe Microscopy Book
Author : Baptiste Gault,Michael P. Moody,Julie M. Cairney,Simon P. Ringer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-08-27
ISBN : 146143436X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Atom probe microscopy enables the characterization of materials structure and chemistry in three dimensions with near-atomic resolution. This uniquely powerful technique has been subject to major instrumental advances over the last decade with the development of wide-field-of-view detectors and pulsed-laser-assisted evaporation that have significantly enhanced the instrument’s capabilities. The field is flourishing, and atom probe microscopy is being embraced as a mainstream characterization technique. This book covers all facets of atom probe microscopy—including field ion microscopy, field desorption microscopy and a strong emphasis on atom probe tomography. Atom Probe Microscopy is aimed at researchers of all experience levels. It will provide the beginner with the theoretical background and practical information necessary to investigate how materials work using atom probe microscopy techniques. This includes detailed explanations of the fundamentals and the instrumentation, contemporary specimen preparation techniques, experimental details, and an overview of the results that can be obtained. The book emphasizes processes for assessing data quality, and the proper implementation of advanced data mining algorithms. Those more experienced in the technique will benefit from the book as a single comprehensive source of indispensable reference information, tables and techniques. Both beginner and expert will value the way that Atom Probe Microscopy is set out in the context of materials science and engineering, and includes references to key recent research outcomes.

Local Electrode Atom Probe Tomography

Local Electrode Atom Probe Tomography Book
Author : David J. Larson,Ty J. Prosa,Robert M. Ulfig,Brian P. Geiser,Thomas F. Kelly
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-12-12
ISBN : 1461487218
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is the first, single-source guide to successful experiments using the local electrode atom probe (LEAP®) microscope. Coverage is both comprehensive and user friendly, including the fundamentals of preparing specimens for the microscope from a variety of materials, the details of the instrumentation used in data collection, the parameters under which optimal data are collected, the current methods of data reconstruction, and selected methods of data analysis. Tricks of the trade are described that are often learned only through trial and error, allowing users to succeed much more quickly in the challenging areas of specimen preparation and data collection. A closing chapter on applications presents selected, state-of-the-art results using the LEAP microscope.

Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Electronics And Devices

Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Electronics And Devices Book
Author : Singisetti Uttam,Razzak Towhidur,Zhang Yuewei
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2019-12-10
ISBN : 9811216495
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With the dawn of Gallium Oxide (Ga2O₃) and Aluminum Gallium Nitride (AlGaN) electronics and the commercialization of Gallium Nitride (GaN) and Silicon Carbide (SiC) based devices, the field of wide bandgap materials and electronics has never been more vibrant and exciting than it is now. Wide bandgap semiconductors have had a strong presence in the research and development arena for many years. Recently, the increasing demand for high efficiency power electronics and high speed communication electronics, together with the maturity of the synthesis and fabrication of wide bandgap semicon-ductors, has catapulted wide bandgap electronics and optoelectronics into the mainstream.Wide bandgap semiconductors exhibit excellent material properties, which can potentially enable power device operation at higher efficiency, higher temperatures, voltages, and higher switching speeds than current Si technology. This edited volume will serve as a useful reference for researchers in this field — newcomers and experienced alike.This book discusses a broad range of topics including fundamental transport studies, growth of high-quality films, advanced materials characterization, device modeling, high frequency, high voltage electronic devices and optical devices written by the experts in their respective fields. They also span the whole spectrum of wide bandgap materials including AlGaN, Ga2O₃and diamond.

Microstructural Geochronology

Microstructural Geochronology Book
Author : Desmond E. Moser,Fernando Corfu,James R. Darling,Steven M. Reddy,Kimberly Tait
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-11-23
ISBN : 1119227356
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microstructural Geochronology Geochronology techniques enable the study of geological evolution and environmental change over time. This volume integrates two aspects of geochronology: one based on classical methods of orientation and spatial patterns, and the other on ratios of radioactive isotopes and their decay products. The chapters illustrate how material science techniques are taking this field to the atomic scale, enabling us to image the chemical and structural record of mineral lattice growth and deformation, and sometimes the patterns of radioactive parent and daughter atoms themselves, to generate a microstructural geochronology from some of the most resilient materials in the solar system. First compilation of research focusing on the crystal structure, material properties, and chemical zoning of the geochronology mineral archive down to nanoscale Novel comparisons of mineral time archives from different rocky planets and asteroids and their shock metamorphic histories Fundamentals on how to reconstruct and date radiogenic isotope distributions using atom probe tomography Microstructural Geochronology will be a valuable resource for graduate students, academics, and researchers in the fields of petrology, geochronology, mineralogy, geochemistry, planetary geology, astrobiology, chemistry, and material science. It will also appeal to philosophers and historians of science from other disciplines.

Nanoinformatics

Nanoinformatics Book
Author : Isao Tanaka
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-01-15
ISBN : 9811076170
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This open access book brings out the state of the art on how informatics-based tools are used and expected to be used in nanomaterials research. There has been great progress in the area in which “big-data” generated by experiments or computations are fully utilized to accelerate discovery of new materials, key factors, and design rules. Data-intensive approaches play indispensable roles in advanced materials characterization. "Materials informatics" is the central paradigm in the new trend. "Nanoinformatics" is its essential subset, which focuses on nanostructures of materials such as surfaces, interfaces, dopants, and point defects, playing a critical role in determining materials properties. There have been significant advances in experimental and computational techniques to characterize individual atoms in nanostructures and to gain quantitative information. The collaboration of researchers in materials science and information science is growing actively and is creating a new trend in materials science and engineering.

Atom Probe Field Ion Microscopy

Atom Probe Field Ion Microscopy Book
Author : Tien T. Tsong
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2005-09-15
ISBN : 9780521019934
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Atom-probe field ion microscopy is currently the only technique capable of imaging solid surfaces with atomic resolution, and at the same time of chemically analyzing surface atoms selected by the observer from the field ion image. Field ion microscopy has been successfully used to study most metals and many alloys, and recently good field ion images of some semiconductors and even ceramic materials such as high temperature superconductors have been obtained. Although other microscopies are capable of achieving the same resolution, there are some experiments unique to field ion microscopy--for example the study of the behavior of single atoms and clusters on a solid surface. The very elegant development of the field ion microscope with the atom-probe has provided a powerful and useful technique for highly sensitive chemical analysis. This book presents the basic principles of atom-probe field ion microscopy and illustrates the various capabilities of the technique in the study of solid surfaces and interfaces at atomic resolution.

Atom Probe Tomography of Hard Nitride and Boride Thin Films

Atom Probe Tomography of Hard Nitride and Boride Thin Films Book
Author : David L. J. Engberg
Publisher : Linköping University Electronic Press
Release : 2019-08-02
ISBN : 9176850439
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hard ceramic thin films, including TiSiN, ZrAlN, ZrB2, and ZrTaB2, with applications for wear-resistant coatings, have been studied using atom probe tomography and correlated with several other analytical techniques, including X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and elastic recoil detection analysis. Outstanding obstacles for quantitative atom probe tomography of ceramic thin films have been surmounted. Mass spectral overlaps in TiSiN, which make 28Si indistinguishable from 14N, was resolved by isotopic substitution with 15N, and the nanostructural distribution of elements was thus revealed in 3-D, which enabled the identification of additional structural elements within the nanostructured Ti0.81Si0.1915N film. Improvements to the growth model of TiSiN by cathodic arc deposition was suggested. A self-organized nanolabyrinthine structure of ZrAlN, consisting of standing lamellae of fcc-ZrN and hexagonal AlN, was investigated with focus on the onset and limits of the self-organization. The local crystallographic orientational relationships were (001)ZrN || (0001)AlN and <110>ZrN || <2-1-10>AlN. Close to the MgO substrates, a smooth transition region was formed, going from segregated and disordered to the self-organized nanolabyrinthine structure. With increased growth temperature, coarse (111)-oriented ZrN grains occasionally precipitated and locally replaced the nanolabyrinthine structure. Significant local magnification effects rendered the Zr and N signals unusable, thereby inhibiting quantitative compositional analysis of the constituent phases, but the nanostructure was resolved using the Al signal. Ceramic materials are often affected by correlated evaporation, which can result in losses due to the detector dead-time/space. A compositional correction procedure was suggested, tested against an established procedure, and applied to ZrB2. The correction was found to be less dependent on the isotope abundances and background correction compared to the established procedure. While losses due to dead-time/space occur in atom probe tomography of all materials, the correlative field evaporation behavior of ceramics significantly increases the compositional error. The evaporation behavior of ZrB2 was therefore thoroughly investigated and evidence of preferential retention, correlated evaporation, and inhomogeneous field distributions at a low-index pole was presented. The high mass resolution, relatively low multiple events percentage, and quality of the co-evaporation correlation data was partly attributed to the crystal structure and film orientation, which promoted a layer-by-layer field evaporation. The evaporation behavior of the related ZrTaB2 films was found to be similar to that of ZrB2. The distribution of Ta in relation to Zr was investigated, showing that the column boundaries were both metal- and Ta-rich, and that there was a significant amount of Ta in solid solution within the columns. In addition, an instrumental artefact previously not described in atom probe tomography was found in several of the materials investigated in this thesis. The artefact consists of high-density lines along the analysis direction, which cannot be related to pole artefacts. The detection system of the atom probe was identified as the cause, because the artefact patterns on detector histograms coincided with the structure of the microchannel plate. Inconsistencies in the internal boundaries of the microchannel plate multifibers from the manufacturing process can influence the signal to the detector and locally increase the detection efficiency in a pattern characteristic to the microchannel plate in question. Altogether, this thesis shows that atom probe tomography of nitride and boride thin films is burdened by several artefacts and distortions, but that relevant material outcomes can nevertheless be achieved by informed choices of film isotopic constituents and analytical parameters, exclusion of heavily distorted regions (such as pole artefacts), and the use of compositional correction procedures when applicable.

Modern Glass Characterization

Modern Glass Characterization Book
Author : Mario Affatigato
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-09-10
ISBN : 1119051878
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book consists of a series of edited chapters, each written by an expert in the field and focusing on a particular characterization technique as applied to glass. The book covers a variety of techniques ranging from the very common (like Raman and FTIR) to the most recent (and less well known) ones, like SEM for structural analysis and photoelastic measurements. The level of the chapters make it suitable for researchers and for graduate students about to start their research work. It will also: discuss the technique itself, background, nuances when it comes to looking at glassy materials, interpretation of results, case studies, and recent and near-future innovations Fill a widening gap in modern techniques for glass characterization Provide much needed updates on the multiple essential characterization techniques

Handbook of Instrumentation and Techniques for Semiconductor Nanostructure Characterization

Handbook of Instrumentation and Techniques for Semiconductor Nanostructure Characterization Book
Author : Richard Haight,Frances M. Ross,James B. Hannon
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2012
ISBN : 9814322849
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As we delve more deeply into the physics and chemistry of functional materials and processes, we are inexorably driven to the nanoscale. And nowhere is the development of instrumentation and associated techniques more important to scientific progress than in the area of nanoscience. The dramatic expansion of efforts to peer into nanoscale materials and processes has made it critical to capture and summarize the cutting-edge instrumentation and techniques that have become indispensable for scientific investigation in this arena. This Handbook is a key resource developed for scientists, engineers and advanced graduate students in which eminent scientists present the forefront of instrumentation and techniques for the study of structural, optical and electronic properties of semiconductor nanostructures.

Springer Handbook of Microscopy

Springer Handbook of Microscopy Book
Author : Peter W. Hawkes,John C.H. Spence
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-11-02
ISBN : 3030000699
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book features reviews by leading experts on the methods and applications of modern forms of microscopy. The recent awards of Nobel Prizes awarded for super-resolution optical microscopy and cryo-electron microscopy have demonstrated the rich scientific opportunities for research in novel microscopies. Earlier Nobel Prizes for electron microscopy (the instrument itself and applications to biology), scanning probe microscopy and holography are a reminder of the central role of microscopy in modern science, from the study of nanostructures in materials science, physics and chemistry to structural biology. Separate chapters are devoted to confocal, fluorescent and related novel optical microscopies, coherent diffractive imaging, scanning probe microscopy, transmission electron microscopy in all its modes from aberration corrected and analytical to in-situ and time-resolved, low energy electron microscopy, photoelectron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy in biology, and also ion microscopy. In addition to serving as an essential reference for researchers and teachers in the fields such as materials science, condensed matter physics, solid-state chemistry, structural biology and the molecular sciences generally, the Springer Handbook of Microscopy is a unified, coherent and pedagogically attractive text for advanced students who need an authoritative yet accessible guide to the science and practice of microscopy.

Handbook of Nanoscopy 2 Volume Set

Handbook of Nanoscopy  2 Volume Set Book
Author : Gustaaf van Tendeloo,Dirk van Dyck,Stephen J. Pennycook
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-12-21
ISBN : 3527641874
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This completely revised successor to the Handbook of Microscopy supplies in-depth coverage of all imaging technologies from the optical to the electron and scanning techniques. Adopting a twofold approach, the book firstly presents the various technologies as such, before going on to cover the materials class by class, analyzing how the different imaging methods can be successfully applied. It covers the latest developments in techniques, such as in-situ TEM, 3D imaging in TEM and SEM, as well as a broad range of material types, including metals, alloys, ceramics, polymers, semiconductors, minerals, quasicrystals, amorphous solids, among others. The volumes are divided between methods and applications, making this both a reliable reference and handbook for chemists, physicists, biologists, materials scientists and engineers, as well as graduate students and their lecturers.

Ti Sb Te Phase Change Materials Component Optimisation Mechanism and Applications

Ti Sb Te Phase Change Materials  Component Optimisation  Mechanism and Applications Book
Author : Min Zhu
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-05-05
ISBN : 9811043825
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book introduces a novel Ti-Sb-Te alloy for high-speed and low-power phase-change memory applications, which demonstrates a phase-change mechanism that differs significantly from that of conventional Ge2Sb2Te5 and yields favorable overall performance. Systematic methods, combined with better material characteristics, are used to optimize the material components and device performance. Subsequently, a phase-change memory chip based on the optimized component is successfully fabricated using 40-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology, which offers a number of advantages in many embedded applications.

Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Methods

Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Methods Book
Author : Franz Roters,Philip Eisenlohr,Thomas R. Bieler,Dierk Raabe
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-08-04
ISBN : 3527642099
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Written by the leading experts in computational materials science, this handy reference concisely reviews the most important aspects of plasticity modeling: constitutive laws, phase transformations, texture methods, continuum approaches and damage mechanisms. As a result, it provides the knowledge needed to avoid failures in critical systems udner mechanical load. With its various application examples to micro- and macrostructure mechanics, this is an invaluable resource for mechanical engineers as well as for researchers wanting to improve on this method and extend its outreach.

Atom Probe Tomography

Atom Probe Tomography Book
Author : Simon P. Ringer
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Atom Probe Tomography book written by Simon P. Ringer, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Laser Additive Manufacturing

Laser Additive Manufacturing Book
Author : Milan Brandt
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2016-09-01
ISBN : 0081004346
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Laser Additive Manufacturing: Materials, Design, Technologies, and Applications provides the latest information on this highly efficient method of layer-based manufacturing using metals, plastics, or composite materials. The technology is particularly suitable for the production of complex components with high precision for a range of industries, including aerospace, automotive, and medical engineering. This book provides a comprehensive review of the technology and its range of applications. Part One looks at materials suitable for laser AM processes, with Part Two discussing design strategies for AM. Parts Three and Four review the most widely-used AM technique, powder bed fusion (PBF) and discuss other AM techniques, such as directed energy deposition, sheet lamination, jetting techniques, extrusion techniques, and vat photopolymerization. The final section explores the range of applications of laser AM. Provides a comprehensive one-volume overview of advances in laser additive manufacturing Presents detailed coverage of the latest techniques used for laser additive manufacturing Reviews both established and emerging areas of application

Computational Materials Design

Computational Materials Design Book
Author : Tetsuya Saito
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-04-17
ISBN : 3662039230
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book consists of ten chapters which outline a wide range of technologies from first-principle calculations to continuum mechanics, with applications to materials design and development. Written with a clear exposition, this book will be invaluable for engineers who want to learn about the modern technologies and techniques utilized in materials design.

Atom Probe Tomography

Atom Probe Tomography Book
Author : Michael K Miller
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2000-07-31
ISBN : 9781461542827
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Atom Probe Tomography book written by Michael K Miller, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.