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Astrocytes And Epilepsy

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Astrocytes and Epilepsy

Astrocytes and Epilepsy Book
Author : Jacqueline A. Hubbard,Devin K. Binder
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-07-05
ISBN : 0128026243
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epilepsy is a devastating group of neurological disorders characterized by periodic and unpredictable seizure activity in the brain. There is a critical need for new drugs and approaches given than at least one-third of all epilepsy patients are not made free of seizures by existing medications and become "medically refractory". Much of epilepsy research has focused on neuronal therapeutic targets, but current antiepileptic drugs often cause severe cognitive, developmental, and behavioral side effects. Recent findings indicate a critical contribution of astrocytes, star-shaped glial cells in the brain, to neuronal and network excitability and seizure activity. Furthermore, many important cellular and molecular changes occur in astrocytes in epileptic tissue in both humans and animal models of epilepsy. The goal of Astrocytes and Epilepsy is to comprehensively review exciting findings linking changes in astrocytes to functional changes responsible for epilepsy for the first time in book format. These insights into astrocyte contribution to seizure susceptibility indicate that astrocytes may represent an important new therapeutic target in the control of epilepsy. Astrocytes and Epilepsy includes background explanatory text on astrocyte morphology and physiology, epilepsy models and syndromes, and evidence from both human tissue studies and animal models linking functional changes in astrocytes to epilepsy. Beautifully labelled diagrams are presented and relevant figures from the literature are reproduced to elucidate key findings and concepts in this rapidly emerging field. Astrocytes and Epilepsy is written for neuroscientists, epilepsy researchers, astrocyte investigators as well as neurologists and other specialists caring for patients with epilepsy. Presents the first comprehensive book to synthesize historical and recent research on astrocytes and epilepsy into one coherent volume Provides a great resource on the field of astrocyte biology and astrocyte-neuron interactions Details potential therapeutic targets, including chapters on gap junctions, water and potassium channels, glutamate and adenosine metabolism, and inflammation

Crucial Role for Astrocytes in Epilepsy

Crucial Role for Astrocytes in Epilepsy Book
Author : Peter Bedner,Christian Steinhäuser
Publisher : Biota Publishing
Release : 2015-08-01
ISBN : 1615047158
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book summarizes current evidence of astrocyte dysfunction in epilepsy and discusses presumed underlying mechanisms. Epilepsy is characterized by the periodic occurrence of seizures. Currently available anticonvulsant drugs and therapies are insufficient to controlling seizures in about one third of patients. Thus, there is an urgent need for new therapies that prevent generation of the disorder and improve seizure control in individuals already afflicted. The vast majority of epileptic cases are of idiopathic origin with their underlying mechanisms being unclear. Neurosurgical specimens from patients presenting with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) demonstrate marked reactive gliosis. Since recent studies have implicated astrocytes in important physiological roles in the CNS, such as synchronization of neuronal firing, it is plausible that they may also have a role in seizure generation and/or seizure spread. In support of this view, various membrane channels, receptors, and transporters in astrocytic membranes are altered in the epileptic brain. Excitingly, recent evidence suggests that in the course of the pathogenesis of MTLE, these glial changes alter homeostatic network functions and temporally precede the alterations in neurons. These findings might eventually classify MTLE as a glial rather than a neuronal disorder, and identify astrocytes as promising new targets for the development of more specific antiepileptogenic therapeutic strategies. Although research on astrocytes in epilepsy is still in its infancy, this book clearly demonstrates a critical role of astrocytes in the disturbance of K+ and transmitter homeostasis and its impact on seizure generation.

Jasper s Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies

Jasper s Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies Book
Author : Jeffrey Noebels,Massimo Avoli,Michael Rogawski,Richard Olsen,Antonio Delgado-Escueta
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2012-06-01
ISBN : 0199842590
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

H.H. Jasper, A.A. Ward, A. Pope and H.H. Merritt, chair of the Public Health Service Advisory Committee on the Epilepsies, National Institutes of Health, published the first volume on Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies (BME) in 1969. Their ultimate goal was to search for a "better understanding of the epilepsies and seek more rational methods of their prevention and treatment." Since then, basic and clinical researchers in epilepsy have gathered together every decade and a half with these goals in mind -- assessing where epilepsy research has been, what it has accomplished, and where it should go. In 1999, the third volume of BME was named in honor of H.H. Jasper. In line with the enormous expansion in the understanding of basic epilepsy mechanisms over the past four decades, this fourth edition of Jasper's BME is the most ambitious yet. In 90 chapters, the book considers the role of interactions between neurons, synapses, and glia in the initiation, spread and arrest of seizures. It examines mechanisms of excitability, synchronization, seizure susceptibility, and ultimately epileptogenesis. It provides a framework for expanding the epilepsy genome and understanding the complex heredity responsible for common epilepsies as it explores disease mechanisms of ion channelopathies and developmental epilepsy genes. It considers the mechanisms of conditions of epilepsy comorbidities. And, for the first time, this 4th edition describes the current efforts to translate the discoveries in epilepsy disease mechanisms into new therapeutic strategies. This book, considered the 'bible' of basic epilepsy research, is essential for the student, the clinician scientist and all research scientists who conduct laboratory-based experimental epilepsy research using cellular, brain slice and animal models, as well as for those interested in related disciplines of neuronal oscillations, network plasticity, and signaling in brain strucutres that include the cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus. In keeping with the 1969 goals, the book is now of practical importance to the clinical neurologist and epileptologist as the progress of research in molecular genetics and modern efforts to design antiepileptic drugs, cures and repairs in the epilepsies converge and impact clinical care.

Oxford Textbook of Epilepsy and Epileptic Seizures

Oxford Textbook of Epilepsy and Epileptic Seizures Book
Author : Simon Shorvon,Renzo Guerrini,Mark Cook,Samden Lhatoo
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2012-12-20
ISBN : 0199659044
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Part of the Oxford Textbooks in Clinical Neurology (OTCN) series, this volume covers the scientific basis, clinical diagnosis, and treatment of epilepsy and epileptic seizures, and is complemented by an online edition.

The Causes of Epilepsy

The Causes of Epilepsy Book
Author : Simon D. Shorvon,Frederick Andermann,Renzo Guerrini
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2011-04-14
ISBN : 113949578X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Causation is an aspect of epilepsy neglected in the scientific literature and in the conceptualization of epilepsy at a clinical and experimental level. It was to remedy this deficiency that this book was conceived. The book opens with a draft etiological classification that goes some way to filling the nosological void. The book is divided into four etiological categories: idiopathic, symptomatic, cryptogenic, and provoked epilepsies. Each chapter considers topics in a consistent fashion, dealing with the phenomenon of epilepsy in each etiology, including its epidemiology, clinical features and prognosis, and any specific aspects of treatment. The book is a comprehensive reference work, a catalogue of all important causes of epilepsy, and a clinical tool for all clinicians dealing with patients who have epilepsy. It is aimed at epileptologists and neurologists and provides a distillation of knowledge in a form that is helpful in the clinical setting.

Examining the Role of Astrocyte Swelling and Swelling induced Glutamate Release in Two Models of Neuronal Hyperexcitability

Examining the Role of Astrocyte Swelling and Swelling induced Glutamate Release in Two Models of Neuronal Hyperexcitability Book
Author : Thomas Robert Murphy
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 9781369087109
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epilepsy, a spectrum of over 40 different disorders, is estimated to affect 1 in 26 people worldwide. It is generally characterized by the appearance of spontaneous, recurrent and unpredictable seizures. Approximately one-third of epileptic patients cannot control their seizures with current medications, while the remaining two-thirds of patients often experience negative cognitive side effects, highlighting the need to better understand epilepsy mechanisms. A common theme in multiple seizure models is that cellular swelling is necessary for seizure initiation and recurrence. In experiments described in this dissertation, I set out to determine: 1) The extent to which neurons and astrocytes swell in two experimental conditions that lead to neuronal bursting and epileptiform activity; 2) The mechanisms governing neuronal vs. astrocyte swelling; and 3) The contribution of astrocytes, specifically, to increases in neuronal excitability. These experiments were carried out in acute hippocampal slices from wild type and transgenic mice using a combination of electrophysiology and imaging approaches. The main findings from these studies were as follows: 1) Both reduced extracellular osmolarity and elevations of extracellular potassium ions ([K+]o) elevated neuronal excitability within minutes in an NMDA receptor-dependent manner; 2) Contrary to published reports, neurons are not osmoresistant and swell just as readily as astrocytes in hypoosmolar conditions, while astrocytes swell selectively in elevated [K+]o conditions; 3) Neuronal swelling is not an artifact of our experimental approaches, nor is it a result of NMDA receptor-driven excitotoxicity; and 4) Astrocytic volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC) may contribute to increased excitability of neurons through release of glutamate. Taken together, these findings have important implications for seizure disorders and for understanding the scope of neuron-glial interactions in the brain.

Introduction to Epilepsy

Introduction to Epilepsy Book
Author : Gonzalo Alarcón,Antonio Valentín
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2012-04-26
ISBN : 0521691583
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Covers all aspects of epilepsy, from basic mechanisms to diagnosis and management, as well as legal and social considerations.

Astrocytes

Astrocytes Book
Author : Eliana Scemes,David C. Spray
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-04-19
ISBN : 1439825858
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Astrocytes play diverse roles in central nervous system (CNS) function and dysfunction, and the connections that the astrocyte makes with other cells of the brain are essential for a variety of important neural tasks. Bringing together contributions from international experts at the top of their field, Astrocytes: Wiring the Brain emphasizes cellular connections and surveys the most current findings on astrocyte activity. The first section of the book identifies major astrocyte biomarkers and describes how they define the different connectivity domains. Next, the book examines the role of these connections. It explains how their function can be manipulated under physiological conditions and how dysfunction of the connectivity leads to aberrant brain performance. The final section explores the alterations of glia that have been observed in specific diseases of the brain. These include epilepsy, autoimmune encephalitis, Alzheimer’s disease, autism, and major depression. The book identifies key mechanisms responsible for these alterations. An important and emerging field, astrocytes and their functions are critical to neuroscientists and neurologists, both in academia and in industry, particularly in the search for and development of new drugs to combat a variety of diseases affecting the CNS. As research continues to grow in this area, this volume will spur heightened advances and understanding into the effects of these neural cells on a range of pathologies.

The Plastic Mind

The Plastic Mind Book
Author : Sharon Begley
Publisher : Hachette UK
Release : 2012-10-25
ISBN : 1472103564
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

For decades, the conventional wisdom of neuroscience held that the hardware of the brain is fixed - that we are stuck with what we were born with. But recent pioneering experiments in neuroplasticity reveal that the brain is capable not only of altering its structure but also of generating new neurons, even into old age. The brain can adapt, heal, renew itself after trauma and compensate for disability. In this groundbreaking book, highly respected science writer Sharon Begley documents how this fundamental paradigm shift is transforming both our understanding of the human mind and our approach to deep-seated emotional, cognitive and behavioural problems. These breakthroughs show that it is possible to reset our happiness meter, regain the use of limbs disabled by stroke, train the mind to break cycles of depression and OCD and reverse age-related changes in the brain.

Seizures and Epilepsy

Seizures and Epilepsy Book
Author : Jerome Engel
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2013-01-31
ISBN : 019532854X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This second edition of 'Seizures and Epilepsy' is completely revised, due to tremendous advances in the understanding of the fundamental neuronal mechanisms underlying epileptic phenomena, as well as current diagnosis and treatment, which have been heavily influenced over the past several decades by seminal neuroscientific developments, particularly the introduction of molecular neurobiology, genetics, and modern neuroimaging. This resource covers a broad range of both basic and clinical epileptology.

Epilepsy

Epilepsy Book
Author : Associate Professor of Neurology Neuroscience and Molecular & Human Genetics Jeffrey L Noebels
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015-11-01
ISBN : 9781621820949
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Epilepsy affects millions worldwide and represents a variety of disorders characterized by seizures. This book examines the neurobiological bases of these conditions and current research into treatment strategies"--

Glial Dysfunction in Epileptogenesis

Glial Dysfunction in Epileptogenesis Book
Author : Kjell Heuser,Marco De Curtis,Christian Steinhaeuser
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-09-14
ISBN : 2889713164
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Glial Dysfunction in Epileptogenesis book written by Kjell Heuser,Marco De Curtis,Christian Steinhaeuser, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Imaging Biomarkers in Epilepsy

Imaging Biomarkers in Epilepsy Book
Author : Andrea Bernasconi,Neda Bernasconi,Matthias Koepp
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2019-01-10
ISBN : 1107108357
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Assembles world-class expertise on clinical and molecular imaging-derived biomarkers, presenting neuroimaging in epilepsy in a broad neuroscientific context.

Inflammation and Epilepsy New Vistas

Inflammation and Epilepsy  New Vistas Book
Author : Damir Janigro,Astrid Nehlig,Nicola Marchi
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-05-18
ISBN : 3030674037
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides comprehensive information, both for clinicians and scientists, on the basic mechanisms, clinical features, and therapeutic approaches to epilepsy as an inflammatory disease. Inflammation has been for many years considered as an etiologic player (and a therapeutic target) for a specific group of epilepsies. However, it turns out that this concept underestimated the impact of inflammation in seizure disorders. Many accepted therapies for non-inflammatory epilepsies act in part as an inflammatory drug. The CNS actively responds to acute immune challenges by altering body temperature, stimulating the HPA axis, as well as up- and down-regulating specific sympathetic pathways.

The role of astrocytes in typical absence epilepsy

The role of astrocytes in typical absence epilepsy Book
Author : Merve Özgür
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The role of astrocytes in typical absence epilepsy book written by Merve Özgür, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Glutamate GABA Glutamine Cycle

The Glutamate GABA Glutamine Cycle Book
Author : Arne Schousboe,Ursula Sonnewald
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-11-25
ISBN : 3319450964
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fundamental biochemical studies of basic brain metabolism focusing on the neuroactive amino acids glutamate and GABA combined with the seminal observation that one of the key enzymes, glutamine synthetase is localized in astroglial cells but not in neurons resulted in the formulation of the term “The Glutamate-Glutamine Cycle.” In this cycle glutamate released from neurons is taken up by surrounding astrocytes, amidated by the action of glutamine synthetase to glutamine which can be transferred back to the neurons. The conversion of glutamate to glutamine is like a stealth technology, hiding the glutamate molecule which would be highly toxic to neurons due to its excitotoxic action. This series of reactions require the concerted and precise interaction of a number of enzymes and plasma membrane transporters, and this volume provides in-depth descriptions of these processes. Obviously such a series of complicated reactions may well be prone to malfunction and therefore neurological diseases are likely to be associated with such malfunction of the enzymes and transporters involved in the cycle. These aspects are also discussed in several chapters of the book. A number of leading experts in neuroscience including intermediary metabolism, enzymology and transporter physiology have contributed to this book which provides comprehensive discussions of these different aspects of the functional importance of the glutamate-glutamine cycle coupling homeostasis of glutamatergic, excitatory neurotransmission to basic aspects of brain energy metabolism. This book will be of particular importance for students as well as professionals interested in these fundamental processes involved in brain function and dysfunction.

Clinical and Genetic Aspects of Epilepsy

Clinical and Genetic Aspects of Epilepsy Book
Author : Zaid Afawi
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2011-09-15
ISBN : 953307700X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book on Epilepsy was conceived and produced as a source of information on wide range of issues in epilepsy. We hope that it will help health care providers in daily practices and increase their understanding on diagnosis and treatment of epilepsies. The book was designed as an update for neuroscientists who are interested in epilepsy, primary care physicians and students in health care professions.

Glial Amino Acid Transporters

Glial Amino Acid Transporters Book
Author : Arturo Ortega,Arne Schousboe
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-08-21
ISBN : 3319557696
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This ambitious compendium provides an extensive overview on the "supporting cells" of the vertebrate central nervous system, these being glial cells which far outnumber neurons but are much less understood. Covering multiple aspects of this family of transporters-- from structural properties, to their involvement in signaling and gene expression regulation, this volume presents the most recent research on the roles of glial amino acid transporters as key molecules of brain metabolism and signaling.

Understanding Epilepsy

Understanding Epilepsy Book
Author : Vibhangini S. Wasade,Marianna V. Spanaki
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2019-11-21
ISBN : 1108718906
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A comprehensive, accessible synthesis of current information on epilepsy for medical trainees and physicians preparing for board certification.

Glial Cells in Health and Disease of the CNS

Glial Cells in Health and Disease of the CNS Book
Author : Rommy von Bernhardi
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-10-06
ISBN : 3319407643
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A timely overview covering the three major types of glial cells in the central nervous system - astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. New findings on glia biology are overturning a century of conventional thinking about how the brain operates and are expanding our knowledge about information processing in the brain. The book will present recent research findings on the role of glial cells in both healthy function and disease. It will comprehensively cover a broad spectrum of topics while remaining compact in size.