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Aspects of Explosives Detection

Aspects of Explosives Detection Book
Author : Maurice Marshall,Jimmie C. Oxley
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-07-28
ISBN : 9780080923147
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Detection and quantification of trace chemicals is a major thrust of analytical chemistry. In recent years much effort has been spent developing detection systems for priority pollutants. Less mature are the detections of substances of interest to law enforcement and security personnel:in particular explosives. This volume will discuss the detection of these, not only setting out the theoretical fundamentals, but also emphasizing the remarkable developments in the last decade. Terrorist events—airplanes blown out of the sky (PanAm 103 over Lockerbie) and attacks on U.S. and European cities (Trade Center in New York and the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, railways in London and Madrid)--emphasize the danger of concealed explosives. However, since most explosives release little vapor, it was not possible to detect them by technology used on most organic substances. After PanAm 103 was downed over Scotland, the U.S. Congress requested automatic explosive detection equipment be placed in airports. This volume outlines the history of explosive detection research, the developments along the way, present day technologies, and what we think the future holds. - Written by experts in the field who set out both the scientific issues and the practical context with authority - Discusses and describes the threat - Describes the theoretical background and practical applications of both trace and bulk explosives detection

Vapour and Trace Detection of Explosives for Anti Terrorism Purposes

Vapour and Trace Detection of Explosives for Anti Terrorism Purposes Book
Author : M. Krausa
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-11-06
ISBN : 1402027168
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The fast detection of explosives from the vapor phase would be one way to enhance the protection of society against terrorist attacks. Up to now the problem of detection of explosives, especially the location of explosives whether at large areas e. g. station halls, theaters or hidden in cars, aircraft cargo, baggage or explosives hidden in crowds e. g. suicide bombers or bombs in bags has not been solved. Smelling of explosives like dogs do seems to be a valuable tool for a security chain. In general different strategies can be adopt to the basic problem of explosive detection: • bulk detection • vapor detection Normally meetings cover both aspects and applications of the detection. Even though both methods might fulfill special aspects of a general security chain the underlying scientific questions differ strongly. Because of that the discussions of the scientists and practitioners from the different main directions are sometimes only less specific. Therefore the NATO Advisory Panel in Security-Related Civil Science and Technology proposed a small series of NATO ARW's which focuses on the different scientific aspects of explosives detection methods. This book is based on material presented at the first NATO ARW of this series in Moscow which covered the topic: Vapor and trace detection of explosives. The second ARW was held in St. Petersburg and treated the topic Bulk detection methods. The third workshop was held in Warwick and focused on electronic noses which cover a somewhat different aspect of vapor detection.

Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques

Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Committee on the Review of Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2004-05-14
ISBN : 0309166039
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques examines the scientific techniques currently used as the basis for explosives detection and determines whether other techniques might provide promising research avenues with possible pathways to new detection protocols. This report describe the characteristics of explosives, bombs, and their components that are or might be used to provide a signature for exploitation in detection technology; considers scientific techniques for exploiting these characteristics to detect explosives and explosive devices; discusses the potential for integrating such techniques into detection systems that would have sufficient sensitivity without an unacceptable false-positive rate; and proposes areas for research that might be expected to yield significant advances in practical explosives and bomb detection technology in the near, mid, and long term.

Vapour and Trace Detection of Explosives for Anti Terrorism Purposes

Vapour and Trace Detection of Explosives for Anti Terrorism Purposes Book
Author : M Krausa
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004-10-18
ISBN : 9789401570657
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Up to now so called sniffer dogs are the most successful and widespread systems for the explosives detection at airports and in public areas. Dogs are able to detect explosives under various conditions. On the other hand dogs are living beings and their behavior and skills are influenced by numerous parameters (e.g. age, sex, trainer, daily condition, etc.). To overcome these problems concerning the detection of explosives and illicit substances by dogs chemical sensors seemed to be a valuable alternative for this application and therefore a valuable tool in counter terrorism. The presented papers are an outcome of an NATO ARW which was hold in Moscow and cover different aspects of vapour and trace detection of explosive. Starting from different scenarios (airport security, inspection of large areas, freight screening, boarding passes, etc.) and taking into account the capability of dogs the chances of and demands on chemical sensors are discussed in view of their possible application. Several papers highlight the capability and possibilities of different methods and devices for the vapour detection of explosives (drift MS, high speed gas analyzers, ion mobility increment spectrometer, etc.). Information about the post explosion identification of explosives by LC/MS and the development of explosive standards for dog training and sensor testing are presented also.

Detection of Bulk Explosives Advanced Techniques against Terrorism

Detection of Bulk Explosives Advanced Techniques against Terrorism Book
Author : Hiltmar Schubert,Andrey Kuznetsov
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9400709625
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Detection of Bulk Explosives: Advanced Techniques against Terrorism contains reviews of: existing and emerging bulk explosives detection techniques; scientific and technical policy of the Federal Border Service of the Russian Federation; challenges in application and evaluation of EDS systems for aviation security; multi-sensor approach to explosives detection. There are also reports devoted to the following individual explosive detection techniques: X-ray systems in airports; neutron in, gamma out techniques; neutron and gamma backscattering; nuclear quadruple resonance, including remote NQR; sub-surface radars; microwave scanners; laser-induced burst spectroscopy (LIBS); acoustic sensors; nonlinear location (NUD); systems for localization and destruction of explosive objects.

Explosives Detection

Explosives Detection Book
Author : Lorenzo Capineri,Eyüp Kuntay Turmuş
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-01-29
ISBN : 940241729X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume presents selected contributions from the “Advanced Research Workshop on Explosives Detection” hosted by the Department of Information Engineering of the University of Florence, Italy in 2018. The main goal of the workshop was to find out how Science for Peace and Security projects in the field of Explosives Detection contribute to the development and/or refinement of scientific and technical knowledge and competencies. The findings of the workshop, presented in the last section of the book, determine future actions and direction of the SPS Programme in the field of explosives detection and management.The NATO Science for Peace and Security (SPS) Programme, promotes dialogue and practical cooperation between NATO member states and partner nations based on scientific research, technological innovation and knowledge exchange. Several initiatives were launched in the field of explosive detection and clearance, as part of NATO’s enhanced role in the international fight against terrorism. Experts and scientists from NATO members and partner countries have been brought together in multi-year projects, within the framework of the SPS Programme, to cooperate in the scientific research in explosive detection field, developing new technologies and methods to be implemented in order to detect explosive substances in different contexts.

Detection of Explosives and Landmines

Detection of Explosives and Landmines Book
Author : Hiltmar Schubert,Andrey Kuznetsov
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9401003971
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This ARW is the third NATO-sponsored workshop on Explosives Detection and Humanitarian Demining. The previous events were • Detection and Destruction of Anti-Personnel Landmines Moscow, 1997 • Explosives Detection and Decontamination of the Environment Prague, 1997. Over the last decade applied research in Humanitarian Demining has made progress to some extend, but according to the tremendous tasks of Demining and the lack of scientific methods for practical detection of explosive devices, research activities are still of the same importance than ever before. Concerning countermeasures against terrorism the detection of explosives is one of the keyfactors, but the practical applications are not sufficient solved. An international exchange of research results are therefore urgent, to find out the most promising measures for application. The coincidence of this ARW and the terrible disaster of New York and Washington may demonstrate the importance of this task. In consequence the explosive device detection technologies can make a major contribution to collective, family and individual security. In developed countries, these technologies provide a strong deterrent and preventative measure against terrorist threats. In less developed regions, they can improve individual, institutional and state security, lessening the insecurity that motivates many terrorists acts. The elimination of landmine threats is just one of many ways of achieving this. However our attempts to meet the extremely difficult technical challenges posed by landmine and UXO contamination are inevitably leading us to new technological approaches.

Field Detection Technologies for Explosives

Field Detection Technologies for Explosives Book
Author : Yin Sun
Publisher : ILM Publications
Release : 2009-12
ISBN : 1906799024
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Field Detection Technologies for Explosives book written by Yin Sun, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Detection and Disposal of Improvised Explosives

Detection and Disposal of Improvised Explosives Book
Author : Hiltmar Schubert,Andrey Kuznetsov
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2006-01-02
ISBN : 1402048874
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book collects lectures of an international NATO-Russian Advanced Research Workshop on Detection and Disposal of Improvised Explosives (IE) used by terrorists. The disposal of IE is especially dangerous, because they are often much more unstable and mechanically more sensitive than commercial or military explosives. This text covers detection of explosives by different analytical methods and the different shape and compositions of the explosive charge, and offers up-to-date advice on handling and disposal.

Feature Extraction and Selection From the Perspective of Explosive Detection

Feature Extraction and Selection From the Perspective of Explosive Detection Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Features are extractable measurements from a sample image summarizing the information content in an image and in the process providing an essential tool in image understanding. In particular, they are useful for image classification into pre-defined classes or grouping a set of image samples (also called clustering) into clusters with similar within-cluster characteristics as defined by such features. At the lowest level, features may be the intensity levels of a pixel in an image. The intensity levels of the pixels in an image may be derived from a variety of sources. For example, it can be the temperature measurement (using an infra-red camera) of the area representing the pixel or the X-ray attenuation in a given volume element of a 3-d image or it may even represent the dielectric differential in a given volume element obtained from an MIR image. At a higher level, geometric descriptors of objects of interest in a scene may also be considered as features in the image. Examples of such features are: area, perimeter, aspect ratio and other shape features, or topological features like the number of connected components, the Euler number (the number of connected components less the number of 'holes'), etc. Occupying an intermediate level in the feature hierarchy are texture features which are typically derived from a group of pixels often in a suitably defined neighborhood of a pixel. These texture features are useful not only in classification but also in the segmentation of an image into different objects/regions of interest. At the present state of our investigation, we are engaged in the task of finding a set of features associated with an object under inspection (typically a piece of luggage or a brief case) that will enable us to detect and characterize an explosive inside, when present. Our tool of inspection is an X-Ray device with provisions for computed tomography (CT) that generate one or more (depending on the number of energy levels used) digitized 3-dimensional attenuation images with a voxel resolution of the order of one quarter of a milimeter. In the task of feature extraction and subsequent selection of an appropriate subset thereof, several important factors need to be considered. Foremost among them are: (1) Definition of the sampling unit from which the features will be extracted for the purpose of detection/ identification of the explosives. (2) The choice of features (given the sampling unit) to be extracted that can be used to signal the existence / identity of the explosive. (3) Robustness of the computed features under different inspection conditions. To attain robustness, invariance under the transformations of translation, scaling, rotation and change of orientation is highly desirable. (4) The computational costs in the process of feature extraction, selection and their use in explosive detection/ identification In the search for extractable features, we have done a thorough literature survey with the above factors in mind and come out with a list of features that could possibly help us in meeting our objective. We are assuming that features will be based on sampling units that are single CT slices of the target. This may however change when appropriate modifications should be made to the feature extraction process. We indicate below some of the major types of features in 2- or 3-dimensional images that have been used in the literature on application of pattern recognition (PR) techniques in image understanding and are possibly pertinent to our study. In the following paragraph, we briefly indicate the motivation that guided us in the choice of these features, and identify the nature of the constraints. The principal feature types derivable from an image will be discussed in section 2. Once the features are extracted, one must select a subset of this feature set that will retain the most useful information and remove any redundant and irrelevant information that may have a detrimental effect on the classifier performance. This is discussed in section 3. Section 4 provides a brief summary.

Explosives Detection using Magnetic and Nuclear Resonance Techniques

Explosives Detection using Magnetic and Nuclear Resonance Techniques Book
Author : Jacques Fraissard,Olga Lapina
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-07-06
ISBN : 904813062X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) a highly promising new technique for bulk explosives detection: relatively inexpensive, more compact than NMR, but with considerable selectivity. Since the NQR frequency is insensitive to long-range variations in composition, mixing explosives with other materials, such as the plasticizers in plastic explosives, makes no difference. The NQR signal strength varies linearly with the amount of explosive, and is independent of its distribution within the volume monitored. NQR spots explosive types in configurations missed by the X-ray imaging method. But if NQR is so good, why it is not used everywhere? Its main limitation is the low signal-to-noise ratio, particularly with the radio-frequency interference that exists in a field environment, NQR polarization being much weaker than that from an external magnetic field. The distinctive signatures are there, but are difficult to extract from the noise. In addition, the high selectivity is partly a disadvantage, as it is hard to build a multichannel system necessary to cover a wide range of target substances. Moreover, substances fully screened by metallic enclosures, etc. are difficult to detect. A workshop was held at St Petersburg in July 2008 in an attempt to solve these problems and make NQR the universal technique for the detection of bombs regardless of type. This book presents the essentials of the papers given there.

Technology Assessment

Technology Assessment Book
Author : Nabajyoti Barkakati
Publisher : DIANE Publishing
Release : 2010-11
ISBN : 1437937055
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Passenger rail systems are vital to the nation's transportation infrastructure, providing approximately 14 million passenger trips each weekday. Recent terrorist attacks on these systems around the world highlight the vulnerability of these systems. The Transportation Security Admin. is the primary federal entity responsible for securing passenger rail systems. This technology assessment reviewed: (1) the availability of explosives detection technologies and their ability to help secure the passenger rail environment; and (2) key operational and policy factors that impact the role of explosives detection technologies in the passenger rail environment. It analyzed test reports on various explosives detection technologies. Charts and tables.

Laser Based Optical Detection of Explosives

Laser Based Optical Detection of Explosives Book
Author : Paul M. Pellegrino,Ellen L. Holthoff,Mikella E. Farrell
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-09-03
ISBN : 1351831178
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Laser-Based Optical Detection of Explosives offers a comprehensive review of past, present, and emerging laser-based methods for the detection of a variety of explosives. This book: Considers laser propagation safety and explains standard test material preparation for standoff optical-based detection system evaluation Explores explosives detection using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, reflectometry, and hyperspectral imaging Examines photodissociation followed by laser-induced fluorescence, photothermal methods, cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry, and short-pulse laser-based techniques Describes the detection and recognition of explosives using terahertz-frequency spectroscopic techniques Each chapter is authored by a leading expert on the respective technology, and is structured to supply historical perspective, address current advantages and challenges, and discuss novel research and applications. Readers are left with an in-depth understanding and appreciation of each technology’s capabilities and potential for standoff hazard detection.

Explosives Detection

Explosives Detection Book
Author : Source Wikipedia
Publisher : University-Press.org
Release : 2013-09
ISBN : 9781230513898
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 40. Chapters: ADE 651, Alpha 6, Backscatter X-ray, Bundesanstalt fur Materialforschung und -prufung, CTX (explosive-detection device), Detection dog, DMDNB, Ethylene glycol dinitrate, Explosive detection, Fido Explosives Detector, FirstDefender, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GT200, Humanistic Robotics, Ion-mobility spectrometry, Mononitrotoluene, Quadro Tracker, Sniffex, Taggant, Target Acquisition Minefield Detection System, Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, X-ray generator. Excerpt: The GT200 is a fraudulent "remote substance detector" that is claimed by its manufacturer, UK-based Global Technical Ltd, to be able to detect from a distance various substances including explosives and drugs. The GT200 and its many iterations (Sniffex, ADE651, HEDD1) have been sold to a number of countries for a cost of up to 22,000 ($36,000) per unit, but the devices have been criticised as little more than a "divining rod" which lack any scientific explanation for why it should work. The device has come under scrutiny following revelations about the virtually identical ADE 651, another "substance detector" that has become the focus of a fraud investigation in the United Kingdom. The UK Government has banned the export of such devices to Iraq and Afghanistan in an order brought into force in January 2010 under the Export Control Act 2002 and has warned foreign governments that the GT200 and ADE 651 are "wholly ineffective" at detecting bombs and explosives. The Thai press has condemned the GT200 for having "given wrong readings on several occasions and even failed to detect explosive materials, resulting in the loss of life." Although Thai Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva originally defended the devices, he later recanted when tests showed that they were completely ineffective at detecting explosives. They would still be used in...

Forensic and Environmental Detection of Explosives

Forensic and Environmental Detection of Explosives Book
Author : Jehuda Yinon
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 1999-09-09
ISBN : 9780471983712
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Forensic and Environmental Detection of Explosives is the first comprehensive book on the detection of explosives. It combines the two main fields of application: * Forensic detection of explosives - the detection of hidden explosives in airfreight, luggage, vehicles, and on suspects. * Environmental detection of explosives - detecting on-site explosives in soil and water of contaminated areas and the detection of landmines. Dr Jehuda Yinon is a world renowned expert on the analysis of explosives and has served as consulting expert during the Oklahoma bombing trial, where his previous book Modern Methods and Applications in Analysis of Explosives was quoted by both the prosecution and defense experts. This new book complements the author's previous book on the analysis of explosives. It includes the following features: * Classifications of explosives * Explanations of the basic terms related to the detection of explosives * Vapor detection methods * Probing radiation methods * Tagging of explosives * Systems integration and performance testing * Detection of explosives in contaminated areas * Detection of landmines. This book is an ideal reference book for those working in forensic and law enforcement agencies concerned with the detection of hidden explosives, as well as for environmental scientists dealing with explosives decontamination. The book is also recommended as a text book for graduate students in analytical, environmental and forensic science.

Detection of Liquid Explosives and Flammable Agents in Connection with Terrorism

Detection of Liquid Explosives and Flammable Agents in Connection with Terrorism Book
Author : Hiltmar Schubert,Andrey Kuznetsov
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-05-21
ISBN : 1402084668
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The organization of an Advanced Research Workshop with the title “Detection and Disposal of Liquid Explosives and Flammable Agents in Connection with Terrorism” was motivated by international findings about activities in this field of application. This ARW followed a meeting about the “Detection of Disposal Improvised Explosives” (St. Petersburg, 2005). Both items show the logistic problems as one of the lessons, terrorists have to overcome. These problems are connected with the illegal supply and transport of explosives and fuels and as counter-measure the detection of these materials. The invention of liquid explosives goes back to the middle of the 19th century and was used for special purposes in the commercial field of application. Because of the high sensitivity of liquid explosives against mechanical shock, caused by adiabatic compression of air-bobbles producing “hot spots” as origin of initiation the commercial application was not very successful. Because of this high risk, liquid explosives are not used in military or commercial application with some exceptions. In the commercial field explosives as slurries or emulsions consisting of suitable salts (Ammoniumnitrate etc.) and water are used to a large extend because of their high insensitivity. In many cases these slurries or emulsions were unfit for terrorist actions, because of their low sensitivity, large critical diameter and using in confinement. In the military field liquid explosives are used in World War I and II as bomb-fillings.

Configuration Management and Performance Verification of Explosives Detection Systems

Configuration Management and Performance Verification of Explosives Detection Systems Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Materials Advisory Board,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Panel on Technical Regulation of Explosives Detection Systems
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1998-10-23
ISBN : 0309061962
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report assesses the configuration-management and performance-verification options for the development and regulation of commercially available Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) and other systems designed for detection of explosives. In particular, the panel authoring this report (1) assessed the advantages and disadvantages of methods used for configuration management and performance verification relative to the FAA's needs for explosives-detection equipment regulation, (2) outlined a "quality management program" that the FAA can follow that includes configuration management and performance verification and that will encourage commercial development and improvement of explosives-detection equipment while ensuring that such systems are manufactured to meet FAA certification requirements, and (3) outlined a performance-verification strategy that the FAA can follow to ensure that EDSs continue to perform at certification specifications in the airport environment.

Counterterrorist Detection Techniques of Explosives

Counterterrorist Detection Techniques of Explosives Book
Author : Avi Cagan,Jimmie C. Oxley
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-12-08
ISBN : 044464105X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Counterterrorist Detection Techniques of Explosives, Second Edition covers the most current techniques available for explosive detection. This completely revised volume describes the most updated research findings that will be used in the next generation of explosives detection technologies. New editors Drs. Avi Cagan and Jimmie Oxley have assembled in one volume a series of detection technologies written by an expert group of scientists. The book helps researchers to compare the advantages and disadvantages of all available methods in detecting explosives and, in effect, allows them to choose the correct instrumental screening technology according to the nature of the sample. Covers bulk/remote trace/contact or contact-less detection Describes techniques applicable to indoor (public transportation, human and freight) and outdoor (vehicle) detection Reviews both current techniques and those in advanced stages of development Provides detailed descriptions of every technique, including its principles of operation, as well as its applications in the detection of explosives

Detection of Explosives for Commercial Aviation Security

Detection of Explosives for Commercial Aviation Security Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Materials Advisory Board,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Committee on Commercial Aviation Security
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1993-02-01
ISBN : 0309049458
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book advises the Federal Aeronautics Administration (FAA) on the detection of small, concealed explosives that a terrorist could plant surreptitiously on a commercial airplane. The book identifies key issues for the FAA regarding explosive detection technology that can be implemented in airport terminals. Recommendations are made in the areas of systems engineering, testing, and technology development.