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Aspects Of Explosives Detection

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Aspects of Explosives Detection

Aspects of Explosives Detection Book
Author : Maurice Marshall,Jimmie C. Oxley
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-07-28
ISBN : 9780080923147
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Detection and quantification of trace chemicals is a major thrust of analytical chemistry. In recent years much effort has been spent developing detection systems for priority pollutants. Less mature are the detections of substances of interest to law enforcement and security personnel:in particular explosives. This volume will discuss the detection of these, not only setting out the theoretical fundamentals, but also emphasizing the remarkable developments in the last decade. Terrorist events—airplanes blown out of the sky (PanAm 103 over Lockerbie) and attacks on U.S. and European cities (Trade Center in New York and the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, railways in London and Madrid)--emphasize the danger of concealed explosives. However, since most explosives release little vapor, it was not possible to detect them by technology used on most organic substances. After PanAm 103 was downed over Scotland, the U.S. Congress requested automatic explosive detection equipment be placed in airports. This volume outlines the history of explosive detection research, the developments along the way, present day technologies, and what we think the future holds. - Written by experts in the field who set out both the scientific issues and the practical context with authority - Discusses and describes the threat - Describes the theoretical background and practical applications of both trace and bulk explosives detection

Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques

Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Committee on the Review of Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2004-05-14
ISBN : 0309166039
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques examines the scientific techniques currently used as the basis for explosives detection and determines whether other techniques might provide promising research avenues with possible pathways to new detection protocols. This report describe the characteristics of explosives, bombs, and their components that are or might be used to provide a signature for exploitation in detection technology; considers scientific techniques for exploiting these characteristics to detect explosives and explosive devices; discusses the potential for integrating such techniques into detection systems that would have sufficient sensitivity without an unacceptable false-positive rate; and proposes areas for research that might be expected to yield significant advances in practical explosives and bomb detection technology in the near, mid, and long term.

Counterterrorist Detection Techniques of Explosives

Counterterrorist Detection Techniques of Explosives Book
Author : Avi Cagan,Jimmie C. Oxley
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-12-08
ISBN : 044464105X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Counterterrorist Detection Techniques of Explosives, Second Edition covers the most current techniques available for explosive detection. This completely revised volume describes the most updated research findings that will be used in the next generation of explosives detection technologies. New editors Drs. Avi Cagan and Jimmie Oxley have assembled in one volume a series of detection technologies written by an expert group of scientists. The book helps researchers to compare the advantages and disadvantages of all available methods in detecting explosives and, in effect, allows them to choose the correct instrumental screening technology according to the nature of the sample. Covers bulk/remote trace/contact or contact-less detection Describes techniques applicable to indoor (public transportation, human and freight) and outdoor (vehicle) detection Reviews both current techniques and those in advanced stages of development Provides detailed descriptions of every technique, including its principles of operation, as well as its applications in the detection of explosives

Configuration Management and Performance Verification of Explosives Detection Systems

Configuration Management and Performance Verification of Explosives Detection Systems Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Materials Advisory Board,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Panel on Technical Regulation of Explosives Detection Systems
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1998-10-23
ISBN : 0309061962
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report assesses the configuration-management and performance-verification options for the development and regulation of commercially available Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) and other systems designed for detection of explosives. In particular, the panel authoring this report (1) assessed the advantages and disadvantages of methods used for configuration management and performance verification relative to the FAA's needs for explosives-detection equipment regulation, (2) outlined a "quality management program" that the FAA can follow that includes configuration management and performance verification and that will encourage commercial development and improvement of explosives-detection equipment while ensuring that such systems are manufactured to meet FAA certification requirements, and (3) outlined a performance-verification strategy that the FAA can follow to ensure that EDSs continue to perform at certification specifications in the airport environment.

Detection and Disposal of Improvised Explosives

Detection and Disposal of Improvised Explosives Book
Author : Hiltmar Schubert,Andrey Kuznetsov
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2006-01-02
ISBN : 1402048874
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book collects lectures of an international NATO-Russian Advanced Research Workshop on Detection and Disposal of Improvised Explosives (IE) used by terrorists. The disposal of IE is especially dangerous, because they are often much more unstable and mechanically more sensitive than commercial or military explosives. This text covers detection of explosives by different analytical methods and the different shape and compositions of the explosive charge, and offers up-to-date advice on handling and disposal.

Explosives Detection

Explosives Detection Book
Author : Lorenzo Capineri,Eyüp Kuntay Turmuş
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-01-29
ISBN : 940241729X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume presents selected contributions from the “Advanced Research Workshop on Explosives Detection” hosted by the Department of Information Engineering of the University of Florence, Italy in 2018. The main goal of the workshop was to find out how Science for Peace and Security projects in the field of Explosives Detection contribute to the development and/or refinement of scientific and technical knowledge and competencies. The findings of the workshop, presented in the last section of the book, determine future actions and direction of the SPS Programme in the field of explosives detection and management.The NATO Science for Peace and Security (SPS) Programme, promotes dialogue and practical cooperation between NATO member states and partner nations based on scientific research, technological innovation and knowledge exchange. Several initiatives were launched in the field of explosive detection and clearance, as part of NATO’s enhanced role in the international fight against terrorism. Experts and scientists from NATO members and partner countries have been brought together in multi-year projects, within the framework of the SPS Programme, to cooperate in the scientific research in explosive detection field, developing new technologies and methods to be implemented in order to detect explosive substances in different contexts.

Assessment of Technologies Deployed to Improve Aviation Security

Assessment of Technologies Deployed to Improve Aviation Security Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Materials Advisory Board,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Panel on Assessment of Technologies Deployed to Improve Aviation Security
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1999-11-23
ISBN : 0309172438
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report assesses the operational performance of explosives-detection equipment and hardened unit-loading devices (HULDs) in airports and compares their operational performance to their laboratory performance, with a focus on improving aviation security.

Vapour and Trace Detection of Explosives for Anti Terrorism Purposes

Vapour and Trace Detection of Explosives for Anti Terrorism Purposes Book
Author : M. Krausa
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2004-10-18
ISBN : 9781402027154
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The fast detection of explosives from the vapor phase would be one way to enhance the protection of society against terrorist attacks. Up to now the problem of detection of explosives, especially the location of explosives whether at large areas e. g. station halls, theaters or hidden in cars, aircraft cargo, baggage or explosives hidden in crowds e. g. suicide bombers or bombs in bags has not been solved. Smelling of explosives like dogs do seems to be a valuable tool for a security chain. In general different strategies can be adopt to the basic problem of explosive detection: • bulk detection • vapor detection Normally meetings cover both aspects and applications of the detection. Even though both methods might fulfill special aspects of a general security chain the underlying scientific questions differ strongly. Because of that the discussions of the scientists and practitioners from the different main directions are sometimes only less specific. Therefore the NATO Advisory Panel in Security-Related Civil Science and Technology proposed a small series of NATO ARW's which focuses on the different scientific aspects of explosives detection methods. This book is based on material presented at the first NATO ARW of this series in Moscow which covered the topic: Vapor and trace detection of explosives. The second ARW was held in St. Petersburg and treated the topic Bulk detection methods. The third workshop was held in Warwick and focused on electronic noses which cover a somewhat different aspect of vapor detection.

The Practicality of Pulsed Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy for Aviation Security

The Practicality of Pulsed Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy for Aviation Security Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Materials Advisory Board,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Panel on Assessment of the Practicality of Pulsed Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy for Aviation Security
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1999-05-07
ISBN : 030906449X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A major goal of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and now the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), is the development of technologies for detecting explosives and illegal drugs in freight cargo and passenger luggage. One such technology is pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNA). This technology is based on detection of signature radiation (gamma rays) induced in material scanned by a beam of neutrons. While PFNA may have the potential to meet TSA goals, it has many limitations. Because of these issues, the government asked the National Research Council to evaluate the potential of PFNA for airport use and compare it with current and future x-ray technology. The results of this survey are presented in "Assessment of the Practicality of Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis for Aviation Security." A broad range of detection methods and test results are covered in this report. Tests conducted as of October 2000 showed that the PFNA system was unable to meet the stringent federal aviation requirements for explosive detection in air cargo containers. PFNA systems did, however, demonstrate some superior characteristics compared to existing x-ray systems in detecting explosives in cargo containers, though neither system performed entirely satisfactorily. Substantial improvements are needed in the PFNA detection algorithms to allow it to meet aviation detection standards for explosives in cargo and passenger baggage. The PFNA system currently requires a long scan time (an average of 90 minutes per container in the prototype testing in October 2000), needs considerable radiation shielding, is significantly larger than current x-ray systems, and has high implementation costs. These factors are likely to limit installation at airports, even if the detection capability is improved. Nevertheless, because PFNA has the best potential of any known technology for detecting explosives in cargo and luggage, this book discusses how continued research to improve detection capabilities and system design can best be applied for the airport environment.

Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques

Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Committee on the Review of Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2004-06-14
ISBN : 0309091306
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques examines the scientific techniques currently used as the basis for explosives detection and determines whether other techniques might provide promising research avenues with possible pathways to new detection protocols. This report describe the characteristics of explosives, bombs, and their components that are or might be used to provide a signature for exploitation in detection technology; considers scientific techniques for exploiting these characteristics to detect explosives and explosive devices; discusses the potential for integrating such techniques into detection systems that would have sufficient sensitivity without an unacceptable false-positive rate; and proposes areas for research that might be expected to yield significant advances in practical explosives and bomb detection technology in the near, mid, and long term.

Detection of Bulk Explosives Advanced Techniques against Terrorism

Detection of Bulk Explosives Advanced Techniques against Terrorism Book
Author : Hiltmar Schubert,Andrey Kuznetsov
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2004-02-29
ISBN : 9781402019340
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Detection of Bulk Explosives: Advanced Techniques against Terrorism contains reviews of: existing and emerging bulk explosives detection techniques; scientific and technical policy of the Federal Border Service of the Russian Federation; challenges in application and evaluation of EDS systems for aviation security; multi-sensor approach to explosives detection. There are also reports devoted to the following individual explosive detection techniques: X-ray systems in airports; neutron in, gamma out techniques; neutron and gamma backscattering; nuclear quadruple resonance, including remote NQR; sub-surface radars; microwave scanners; laser-induced burst spectroscopy (LIBS); acoustic sensors; nonlinear location (NUD); systems for localization and destruction of explosive objects.

Laser Based Optical Detection of Explosives

Laser Based Optical Detection of Explosives Book
Author : Paul M. Pellegrino,Ellen L. Holthoff,Mikella E. Farrell
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-09-03
ISBN : 1351831178
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Laser-Based Optical Detection of Explosives offers a comprehensive review of past, present, and emerging laser-based methods for the detection of a variety of explosives. This book: Considers laser propagation safety and explains standard test material preparation for standoff optical-based detection system evaluation Explores explosives detection using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, reflectometry, and hyperspectral imaging Examines photodissociation followed by laser-induced fluorescence, photothermal methods, cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry, and short-pulse laser-based techniques Describes the detection and recognition of explosives using terahertz-frequency spectroscopic techniques Each chapter is authored by a leading expert on the respective technology, and is structured to supply historical perspective, address current advantages and challenges, and discuss novel research and applications. Readers are left with an in-depth understanding and appreciation of each technology’s capabilities and potential for standoff hazard detection.

Electronic Noses Sensors for the Detection of Explosives

Electronic Noses   Sensors for the Detection of Explosives Book
Author : J. Gardner,Jehuda Yinon
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2004-08-17
ISBN : 9781402023170
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book examines both the potential application of electronic nose technology, and the current state of development of chemical sensors for the detection of vapours from explosives, such as those used in landmines. The two fields have developed, somewhat in parallel, over the past decade and so one of the purposes of this workshop, on which the book is based, was to bring together scientists from the two fields in order to challenge the two communities and, mutually, stimulate both fields. It begins with a review of the basic principles of an electronic nose and explores possible ways in which the detection limit of conventional electronic nose technology can be reduced to the level required for the trace levels observed for many explosive materials. Next are reviews of the use of several different types of solid-state chemical sensors: polymer-based sensors, i.e. chemiluminescent, fluorescent and optical, to detect explosive materials; metal oxide semiconducting resistive sensors; and then electrochemical sensors. Next, different pattern recognition techniques are presented to enhance the performance of chemical sensors. Then biological systems are considered as a possible blue-print for chemical sensing. The biology can be employed either to understand the way insects locate odorant sources, or to understand the signal processing neural pathways. Next is a discussion of some of the new types of electronic noses; namely, a fast GC column with a SAW detector and a micromechanical sensor. Finally, the important issues of sampling technologies and the design of the microfluidic systems are considered. In particular, the use of pre-concentrators and solid phase micro extractors to boost the vapour concentration before it is introduced to the chemical sensor or electronic nose.

Unexploded Ordnance Detection and Mitigation

Unexploded Ordnance Detection and Mitigation Book
Author : James Byrnes
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-12-19
ISBN : 1402092539
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The chapters in this volume were presented at the July–August 2008 NATO Advanced Study Institute on Unexploded Ordnance Detection and Mitigation. The conference was held at the beautiful Il Ciocco resort near Lucca, in the glorious Tuscany region of northern Italy. For the ninth time we gathered at this idyllic spot to explore and extend the reciprocity between mathematics and engineering. The dynamic interaction between world-renowned scientists from the usually disparate communities of pure mathematicians and applied scientists which occurred at our eight previous ASI’s continued at this meeting. The detection and neutralization of unexploded ordnance (UXO) has been of major concern for very many decades; at least since the First World war. UXO continues to be the subject of intensive research in many ?elds of science, incl- ing mathematics, signal processing (mainly radar and sonar) and chemistry. While today’s headlines emphasize the mayhem resulting from the placement of imp- vised explosive devices (IEDs), humanitarian landmine clearing continues to draw signi?cant global attention as well. In many countries of the world, landmines threaten the population and hinder reconstruction and fast, ef?cient utilization of large areas of the mined land in the aftermath of military con?icts.

Opportunities to Improve Airport Passenger Screening with Mass Spectrometry

Opportunities to Improve Airport Passenger Screening with Mass Spectrometry Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Materials Advisory Board,Committee on Assessment of Security Technologies for Transportation
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2004-05-12
ISBN : 0309166055
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Protection of the traveling public from terrorist threats involving explosives is a major goal of the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). For 20 years, the TSA (and the Federal Aviation Administration before it) have been investing in technologies to meet that goal. To support that activity, the TSA has asked the NRC to assess a variety of technological opportunities for offering such protection. The NRC is approaching this assignment by issuing a series of reports on chosen technology applications. This is the first of that series and presents an assessment of mass spectrometry for enhanced trace detection (ETD) of chemicals contained in explosives. The report describes limitations of trace detection in general and the current technologies in particular. It then presents a discussion of the potential for mass spectrometry to improve EDT including challenges faced by such a system, recommendations for starting a program to take advantage of mass spectrometry, and recommendations for a phased implementation plan.

Containing the Threat from Illegal Bombings

Containing the Threat from Illegal Bombings Book
Author : Committee on Marking, Rendering Inert, and Licensing of Explosive Materials,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Research Council
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1998-06-10
ISBN : 0309522277
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In response to the rising concern of the American public over illegal bombings, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms asked the National Research Council to examine possible mechanisms for reducing this threat. The committee examined four approaches to reducing the bombing threat: addition of detection markers to explosives for pre-blast detection, addition of identification taggants to explosives for post-blast identification of bombers, possible means to render common explosive materials inert, and placing controls on explosives and their precursors. The book makes several recommendations to reduce the number of criminal bombings in this country.

Detection of Bulk Explosives Advanced Techniques against Terrorism

Detection of Bulk Explosives Advanced Techniques against Terrorism Book
Author : Hiltmar Schubert,Andrey Kuznetsov
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9400709625
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Detection of Bulk Explosives: Advanced Techniques against Terrorism contains reviews of: existing and emerging bulk explosives detection techniques; scientific and technical policy of the Federal Border Service of the Russian Federation; challenges in application and evaluation of EDS systems for aviation security; multi-sensor approach to explosives detection. There are also reports devoted to the following individual explosive detection techniques: X-ray systems in airports; neutron in, gamma out techniques; neutron and gamma backscattering; nuclear quadruple resonance, including remote NQR; sub-surface radars; microwave scanners; laser-induced burst spectroscopy (LIBS); acoustic sensors; nonlinear location (NUD); systems for localization and destruction of explosive objects.

Forensic Investigation of Explosions Second Edition

Forensic Investigation of Explosions  Second Edition Book
Author : Alexander Beveridge
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2011-11-02
ISBN : 1420087258
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Now in its second edition, Forensic Investigation of Explosions draws on the editor’s 30 years of explosives casework experience, including his work on task forces set up to investigate major explosives incidents. Dr. Alexander Beveridge provides a broad, multidisciplinary approach, assembling the contributions of internationally recognized experts who present the definitive reference work on the subject. Topics discussed include: The physics and chemistry of explosives and explosions The detection of hidden explosives The effect of explosions on structures and persons Aircraft sabotage investigations Explosion scene investigations Casework management The role of forensic scientists Analysis of explosives and their residues Forensic pathology as it relates to explosives Presentation of expert testimony With nearly 40 percent more material, this new edition contains revised chapters and several new topics, including: A profile of casework management in the UK Forensic Explosives Laboratory, one of the world’s top labs, with a discussion of their management system, training procedures, and practical approaches to problem solving Properties and analysis of improvised explosives An examination of the Bali bombings and the use of mobile analytical techniques and mobile laboratories The collection, analysis, and presentation of evidence in vehicle-borne improvised explosive device cases, as evidenced in attacks on US overseas targets This volume offers valuable information to all members of prevention and post-blast teams. Each chapter was written by an expert or experts in a specific field and provides well-referenced information underlying best practices that can be used in the field, laboratory, conference room, classroom, or courtroom.

Technology in Forensic Science

Technology in Forensic Science Book
Author : Deepak Rawtani,Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-11-02
ISBN : 3527347623
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book "Technology in Forensic Science" provides an integrated approach by reviewing the usage of modern forensic tools as well as the methods for interpretation of the results. Starting with best practices on sample taking, the book then reviews analytical methods such as high-resolution microscopy and chromatography, biometric approaches, and advanced sensor technology as well as emerging technologies such as nanotechnology and taggant technology. It concludes with an outlook to emerging methods such as AI-based approaches to forensic investigations.