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Arctic Ocean Sediments

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Arctic Ocean Sediments Processes Proxies and Paleoenvironment

Arctic Ocean Sediments  Processes  Proxies  and Paleoenvironment Book
Author : R. Stein
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-07-22
ISBN : 9780080558851
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Although it is generally accepted that the Arctic Ocean is a very sensitive and important region for changes in the global climate, this region is the last major physiographic province of the earth whose short-and long-term geological history is much less known in comparison to other ocean regions. This lack of knowledge is mainly caused by the major technological/logistic problems in reaching this harsh, ice-covered region with normal research vessels and in retrieving long and undisturbed sediment cores. During the the last about 20 years, however, several international and multidisciplinary ship expeditions, including the first scientific drilling on Lomonosov Ridge in 2004, a break-through in Arctic research, were carried out into the central Artic and its surrounding shelf seas. Results from these expeditions have greatly advanced our knowledge on Arctic Ocean paleoenvironments. Published syntheses about the knowledge on Arctic Ocean geology, on the other hand, are based on data available prior to 1990. A comprehensive compilation of data on Arctic Ocean paleoenvironment and its short-and long-term variability based on the huge amount of new data including the ACEX drilling data, has not been available yet. With this book, presenting (1) detailed information on glacio-marine sedimentary processes and geological proxies used for paleoenvironmental reconstructions, and (2) detailed geological data on modern environments, Quaternary variability on different time scales as well as the long-term climate history during Mesozoic-Tertiary times, this gap in knowledge will be filled. *Aimed at specialists and graduates *Presents background research, recent developments, and future trends *Written by a leading scholar and industry expert

Sedimentation History in the Arctic Ocean and Subarctic Seas for the Last 130 kyr

Sedimentation History in the Arctic Ocean and Subarctic Seas for the Last 130 kyr Book
Author : M. A. Levitan,Yu A. Lavrushin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-07-14
ISBN : 3642002889
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book reflects the results of the study of sedimentation history, paleoclimatology, and paleoceanography of the Arctic and Subarctic during the last 130 ka. The main objects under consideration are marine basins of the West Subarctic (Iceland, Norwegian, and Greenland Seas), the Arctic Ocean (Barents, Pechora, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi Seas and deep-sea Arctic Ocean proper), East Subarctic (Bering and Okhotsk Seas). The modern environment and geological history of water- (ice-) sheds and marine basins have been studied for each region, using different sedimentological and geochemical proxies. Mainly results of the authors' own studies are represented, with special emphasis on glacial/interglacial variability and land-ocean interaction. The book is aimed at sedimentologists, quaternary and marine geologists, paleoclimatologists and paleoceanographers, as well as being of great interest to students in the related fields.

Pliocene and Pleistocene Foraminifera Populations in Arctic Ocean Sediment Cores

Pliocene and Pleistocene Foraminifera Populations in Arctic Ocean Sediment Cores Book
Author : John A. Larson
Publisher :
Release : 1973
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Foraminifera populations and distributions of five deep sea sediment cores recovered from the Arctic Ocean yielded data on 126 species of Foraminifera. Abundance data and species appearance and mortality data across geomagnetic reversal intervals in the cores show no positive correlation. Arctic Ocean Foraminifera apparently do not respond in any significant way to magnetic reversals of the earth's magnetic field. (Modified author abstract).

Sea ice Distribution in the Modern Arctic Ocean Biomarker Records from Trans Arctic Ocean Surface Sediments

Sea ice Distribution in the Modern Arctic Ocean  Biomarker Records from Trans Arctic Ocean Surface Sediments Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2015
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract: Records of the spatial and temporal variability of Arctic Ocean sea ice are of significance for understanding the causes of the dramatic decrease in Arctic sea-ice cover of recent years. In this context, the newly developed sea-ice proxy IP25, a mono-unsaturated highly branched isoprenoid alkene with 25 carbon atoms biosynthesized specifically by sea-ice associated diatoms and only found in Arctic and sub-Arctic marine sediments, has been used to reconstruct the recent spatial sea-ice distribution. The phytoplankton biomarkers 24S-brassicasterol and dinosterol were determined alongside IP25 to distinguish ice-free or permanent ice conditions, and to estimate the sea-ice conditions semi-quantitatively by means of the phytoplankton-IP25 index (PIP25 ). Within our study, for the first time a comprehensive data set of these biomarkers was produced using fresh and deep-frozen surface sediment samples from the Central Arctic Ocean proper (>80°N latitude) characterised by a permanent ice cover today and recently obtained surface sediment samples from the Chukchi Plateau/Basin partly covered by perennial sea ice. In addition, published and new data from other Arctic and sub-Arctic regions were added to generate overview distribution maps of IP25 and phytoplankton biomarkers across major parts of the modern Arctic Ocean. These comprehensive biomarker data indicate perennial sea-ice cover in the Central Arctic, ice-free conditions in the Barents Sea and variable sea-ice situations in other marginal seas. The low but more than zero values of biomarkers in the Central Arctic supported the low in-situ productivity there. The PIP25 index values reflect modern sea-ice conditions better than IP25 alone and show a positive correlation with spring/summer sea ice. When calculating and interpreting PIP25 index as a (semi-quantitative) proxy for reconstructions of present and past Arctic sea-ice conditions from different Arctic/sub-Arctic areas, information of the source of phytoplankton biomarkers and the possible presence of allochthonous biomarkers is needed, and the records of the individual biomarkers always should be considered as well.

Sea Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean

Sea Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean Book
Author : Alexander P. Lisitzin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 3642559050
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This reference book for researchers working on glacial sediments provides a complete overview of the various glacial deposits in the ocean. It presents a collection of worldwide data on glacio-marine phenomena.

Faunal Sedimentary and Magnetic Investigations of Arctic Ocean Bottom Cores

Faunal  Sedimentary  and Magnetic Investigations of Arctic Ocean Bottom Cores Book
Author : Bradley Allen Steuerwald
Publisher :
Release : 1969
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cores taken from ice-island T-3 in the Arctic Ocean do not reflect marked climatic changes. Correlation was attempted among four cores taken from a small region of the Alpha Cordillera. Correlation attempts are based on two horizons--the tops of the cores and the level of the Brunhes-Matuyama magnetic boundary, found by using a spinner magnetometer. Correlation on the basis of plankton abundance and amounts of ice-rafted debris is unfeasible. The plankton abundance and amounts of ice-rafted material show no relationship, as they should if the Arctic fluctuated between warm open conditions and closed rigid conditions. The most significant data for correlation are obtained from the single planktonic foraminifer, Globigerina pachyderma. (Author).

The Organic Carbon Cycle in the Arctic Ocean

The Organic Carbon Cycle in the Arctic Ocean Book
Author : Rüdiger Stein,Robie W. Macdonald
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-06-27
ISBN : 3642189121
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

To understand the global oceanic carbon budget and related climate change, exact measurements of organic carbon flux in all oceans environments, especially the continental margins, are crucial. In fact, data have been available for some time on organic carbon sources, pathways, and burial for most of the world’s oceans, with the notable exception of the Arctic. With this book, the editors remedy this gap in knowledge, presenting an overview of organic-carbon sources, pathways, and burial of the circum-Arctic continental margin and deep-sea areas. Data from each Arctic shelf and basin are collated, presented in common and parallel formats, and related to the global carbon cycle. The book is suitable for lecturers, graduate students as well as scientists interested in the organic-carbon-cycle and Arctic Ocean (paleo-)environment.

Natural Gas Hydrate Arctic Ocean Deepwater Resource Potential

Natural Gas Hydrate   Arctic Ocean Deepwater Resource Potential Book
Author : Michael D. Max,Arthur H. Johnson,William P. Dillon
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-10-11
ISBN : 3319025082
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book is an up-to-date basic reference for natural gas hydrate (NGH) in the Arctic Ocean. Geographical, geological, environmental, energy, new technology, and regulatory matters are discussed. The book should be of interest to general readers and scientists and students as well as industry and government agencies concerned with energy and ocean management. NGH is a solid crystalline material that compresses gas by about a factor of about 164 during crystallization from natural gas (mainly methane) - rich pore waters over time. NGH displaces water and may form large concentrations in sediment pore space. Its formation introduces changes in the geotechnical character of host sediment that allows it to be distinguished by seismic and electric exploration methods. The chemical reaction that forms NGH from gas and water molecules is highly reversible, which allows controlled conversion of the NGH to its constituent gas and water. This can be achieved rapidly by one of a number of processes including heating, depressurization, inhibitor injection, dissolution, and molecular replacement. The produced gas has the potential to make NGH a valuable unconventional natural gas resource, and perhaps the largest on earth. Estimates for NGH distribution, concentration, economic targets, and volumes in the Arctic Ocean have been carried out by restricting the economic target to deepwater turbidite sands, which are also sediment hosts for more deeply buried conventional hydrocarbon deposits. Resource base estimates are based on NGH petroleum system analysis approach using industry-standard parameters along with analogs from three relatively well known examples (Nankai-Japan, Gulf of Mexico-United States, and Arctic permafrost hydrate). Drilling data has substantiated new geotechnical-level seismic analysis techniques for estimating not just the presence of NGH but prospect volumes. In addition to a volumetric estimate for NGH having economic potential, a sedimentary depositional model is proposed to aid exploration in the five different regions around the deep central Arctic Ocean basin. Related topics are also discussed. Transport and logistics for NGH may also be applicable for stranded conventional gas and oil deposits. Arising from a discussion of new technology and methodologies that could be applied to developing NGH, suggestions are made for the lowering of exploration and capital expenses that could make NGH competitive on a produced cost basis. The basis for the extraordinarily low environmental risk for exploration and production of NGH is discussed, especially with respect to the environmentally fragile Arctic region. It is suggested that because of the low environmental risk, special regulations could be written that would provide a framework for very low cost and safe development.

Globigerina Pachyderma and Globigerina Quinqueloba in Late Cenozoic Sediment of the Arctic Ocean

Globigerina Pachyderma and Globigerina Quinqueloba in Late Cenozoic Sediment of the Arctic Ocean Book
Author : Ruth Eva Root
Publisher :
Release : 1972
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A study of Arctic Ocean sediment cores was undertaken to define the occurrence and relationship of two planktonic Foraminifera, Globigerina pachyderma and Globigerina quinqueloba. The two species were compared morphologically and their abundance peaks were correlated with magnetic stratigraphy as well as with abundance peaks of benthonic Foraminifera. Finally their distribution in the modern oceans was examined as an aid in determining possible changes in the Arctic Ocean of the Late Cenozoic.

The Arctic Ocean and Its Coast in the Cenozoic Era

The Arctic Ocean and Its Coast in the Cenozoic Era Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 1982
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Translation of Sverenyi Ledovityi Okean i ego poberezhe v Kainozoe. Collected articles on the origins, evolution and paleo-geography of the Arctic Ocean and coastline in the light of hydrological, biogeographical, climatological and archaeological data. Much emphasis is placed on the evolution of modern arctic flora and fauna, both terrestrial and aquatic.

The Arctic Seas

The Arctic Seas Book
Author : Yvonne Herman
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461306779
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Arctic region has long held a fascination for explorers and scientists of many countries. Despite the numerous voyages of exploration, the na ture of the central Arctic was unknown only 90 years ago; it was believed to be a shallow sea dotted with islands. During Nansen's historic voyage on the polarship Fram, which commenced in 1893, the great depth of the central basin was discovered. In the Soviet Union, investigation of the Arctic Ocean became national policy after 1917. Today research at several scientific institutions there is devoted primarily to the study of the North Polar Ocean and seas. The systematic exploration of the Arctic by the United States com menced in 1951. Research has been conducted year-round from drifting ice islands, which are tabular fragments of glacier ice that break away from ice shelves. Most frequently, ice islands originate off the northern coast of Ellesmere Island. These research platforms are occupied as weather sta tions, as well as for oceanographic and geophysical studies. Several inter national projects, conducted by Canadian, European, and U. S. groups, have been underway during the last three decades. Although much new data have accumulated since the publication of the Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Arctic Seas volume in 1974 (Yvonne Herman, ed. ), in various fields of polar research-including present-day ice cover, hydrogra phy, fauna, flora, and geology-many questions remain to be answered.