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Aquatic Functional Biodiversity

Aquatic Functional Biodiversity Book
Author : Andrea Belgrano,Guy Woodward,Ute Jacob
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-07-25
ISBN : 012417020X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aquatic Functional Biodiversity: An Ecological and Evolutionary Perspective provides a general conceptual framework by some of the most prominent investigators in the field for how to link eco-evolutionary approaches with functional diversity to understand and conserve the provisioning of ecosystem services in aquatic systems. Rather than producing another methodological book, the editors and authors primarily concentrate on defining common grounds, connecting conceptual frameworks and providing examples by a more detailed discussion of a few empirical studies and projects, which illustrate key ideas and an outline of potential future directions and challenges that are expected in this interdisciplinary research field. Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in using network approaches to disentangle the relationship between biodiversity, community structure and functioning. Novel methods for model construction are being developed constantly, and modern methods allow for the inclusion of almost any type of explanatory variable that can be correlated either with biodiversity or ecosystem functioning. As a result these models have been widely used in ecology, conservation and eco-evolutionary biology. Nevertheless, there remains a considerable gap on how well these approaches are feasible to understand the mechanisms on how biodiversity constrains the provisioning of ecosystem services. Defines common theoretical grounds in terms of terminology and conceptual issues Connects theory and practice in ecology and eco-evolutionary sciences Provides examples for successful biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service management

Biodiversity in Aquatic Systems and Environments

Biodiversity in Aquatic Systems and Environments Book
Author : Noboru Okuda,Katsutoshi Watanabe,Kayoko Fukumori,Shin-ichi Nakano,Takefumi Nakazawa
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 9784431541493
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents the latest topics in ecological and evolutionary research on aquatic biodiversity from bacteria to fishes, with special reference to Lake Biwa, an ancient lake in western Japan. With a geological history of 4 million years, Lake Biwa is the third oldest lake in the world. It is considered a biodiversity hotspot, where 1,769 aquatic species including 61 endemics are recorded, providing a rare opportunity to study the evolutionary diversification of aquatic biota and its ecological consequences. The first chapter introduces the evolutionary history of biodiversity, especially of fish in this lake. In the second chapter, some examples of trophic polymorphism in fish are described. Fish are keystone predators in lake ecosystems, and they can be a major driver for altering biological communities through their top-down trophic cascading effects. An excellent laboratory experiment is presented, demonstrating that functional diversity of fish feeding morphology alters food web properties of plankton prey communities. The third chapter focuses on aquatic microbes, whose abundance and diversity may also be influenced by the diversity of fish through top-down trophic cascades. Aquatic microbes can have a strong impact on ecosystem functioning in lakes, and in this chapter, the latest molecular techniques used to examine genetic and functional diversity of microbial communities are introduced. The final chapter presents theoretical frameworks for predicting how biodiversity has the potential to control the incidence and intensity of human-induced regime shifts. While respecting the precious nature of biodiversity in lakes, it is essential to be aware that modern human activities have brought a crisis of biodiversity loss in lakes worldwide. Throughout this book, readers will learn why biodiversity must be conserved at all levels, from genes to ecosystems.

Biodiversity in Aquatic Systems and Environments

Biodiversity in Aquatic Systems and Environments Book
Author : Noboru Okuda,Katsutoshi Watanabe,Kayoko Fukumori,Shin-ichi Nakano,Takefumi Nakazawa
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-10-09
ISBN : 4431541500
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents the latest topics in ecological and evolutionary research on aquatic biodiversity from bacteria to fishes, with special reference to Lake Biwa, an ancient lake in western Japan. With a geological history of 4 million years, Lake Biwa is the third oldest lake in the world. It is considered a biodiversity hotspot, where 1,769 aquatic species including 61 endemics are recorded, providing a rare opportunity to study the evolutionary diversification of aquatic biota and its ecological consequences. The first chapter introduces the evolutionary history of biodiversity, especially of fish in this lake. In the second chapter, some examples of trophic polymorphism in fish are described. Fish are keystone predators in lake ecosystems, and they can be a major driver for altering biological communities through their top-down trophic cascading effects. An excellent laboratory experiment is presented, demonstrating that functional diversity of fish feeding morphology alters food web properties of plankton prey communities. The third chapter focuses on aquatic microbes, whose abundance and diversity may also be influenced by the diversity of fish through top-down trophic cascades. Aquatic microbes can have a strong impact on ecosystem functioning in lakes, and in this chapter, the latest molecular techniques used to examine genetic and functional diversity of microbial communities are introduced. The final chapter presents theoretical frameworks for predicting how biodiversity has the potential to control the incidence and intensity of human-induced regime shifts. While respecting the precious nature of biodiversity in lakes, it is essential to be aware that modern human activities have brought a crisis of biodiversity loss in lakes worldwide. Throughout this book, readers will learn why biodiversity must be conserved at all levels, from genes to ecosystems.

Biological Communities Respond to Multiple Human Induced Aquatic Environment Change

Biological Communities Respond to Multiple Human Induced Aquatic Environment Change Book
Author : Marina Manca,Roberta Piscia
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-05-28
ISBN : 3039285440
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Perturbations linked to the direct and indirect impacts of human activities during the Anthropocene affect the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems to varying degrees. Some perturbations involve stress to aquatic life, including soil and water acidification, soil erosion, loss of base cations, release of trace metals/organic compounds, and application of essential nutrients capable of stimulating primary productivity. Superimposed onto these changes, climate warming impacts aquatic environments via altering species’ metabolic processes and by modifying food web interactions. The interaction stressors is difficult to predict because of the differential response of species and taxonomic groups, interacting additively, synergistically, or antagonistically. Whenever different trophic levels respond differently to climate warming, food webs are restructured; yet, the consequences of warming-induced changes for the food web structure and long-term population dynamics of different trophic levels remain poorly understood. Such changes are crucial in lakes, where food web production is mainly due to ectotherms, which are highly sensitive to changes in their surrounding environment. Due to its remarkable physical inertia, including thermal stability, global warming also has a profound effect on groundwater ecosystems. Combining contemporary and palaeo data is essential to understand the degree to which mechanisms of stressors impact on lake biological communities and lake ecosystem functioning. The degree to which alterations can affect aquatic ecosystem structure and functioning also requires functional diversity to be addressed at the molecular level, to reconstruct the role different species play in the transfer of material and energy through the food web. In this issue, we present examples of the impact of different stressors and their interaction on aquatic ecosystems, providing long-term, metabolic, molecular, and paleolimnological analyses.

Trait Based Ecology From Structure to Function

Trait Based Ecology   From Structure to Function Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-06-03
ISBN : 0128026359
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The theme of this volume is Trait-Based Ecology - From Structure to Function. Advances in Ecological Research is one of the most successful series in the highly competitive field of ecology Each volume publishes topical and important reviews, interpreting ecology as widely as in the past, to include all material that contributes to our understanding of the field Topics in this invaluable series include the physiology, populations, and communities of plants and animals, as well as landscape and ecosystem ecology

Water Science Policy and Management

Water Science  Policy and Management Book
Author : Simon James Dadson,Dustin E. Garrick,Edmund C. Penning-Rowsell,Jim W. Hall,Rob Hope,Jocelyne Hughes
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2019-12-23
ISBN : 1119520606
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provides an in-depth look at science, policy and management in the water sector across the globe Sustainable water management is an increasingly complex challenge and policy priority facing global society. This book examines how governments, municipalities, corporations, and individuals find sustainable water management pathways across competing priorities of water for ecosystems, food, energy, economic growth and human consumption. It looks at the current politics and economics behind the management of our freshwater ecosystems and infrastructure and offers insightful essays that help stimulate more intense and informed debate about the subject and its need for local and international cooperation. This book celebrates the 15-year anniversary of Oxford University’s MSc course in Water Science, Policy and Management. Edited and written by some of the leading minds in the field, writing alongside alumni from the course, Water Science, Policy and Management: A Global Challenge offers in-depth chapters in three parts: Science; Policy; and Management. Topics cover: hydroclimatic extremes and climate change; the past, present, and future of groundwater resources; water quality modelling, monitoring, and management; and challenges for freshwater ecosystems. The book presents critical views on the monitoring and modelling of hydrological processes; the rural water policy in Africa and Asia; the political economy of wastewater in Europe; drought policy management and water allocation. It also examines the financing of water infrastructure; the value of wastewater; water resource planning; sustainable urban water supply and the human right to water. Features perspectives from some of the world’s leading experts on water policy and management Identifies and addresses current and future water sector challenges Charts water policy trends across a rapidly evolving set of challenges in a variety of global areas Covers the reallocation of water; policy process of risk management; the future of the world’s water under global environmental change; and more Water Science, Policy and Management: A Global Challenge is an essential book for policy makers and government agencies involved in water management, and for undergraduate and postgraduate students studying water science, governance, and policy.

Diversity and Eco Physiological Responses of Aquatic Plants

Diversity and Eco Physiological Responses of Aquatic Plants Book
Author : Chunhua Liu,Sidinei Magela Thomaz,ZhongQiang Li,Te CAO,Katya E. Kovalenko
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-06-16
ISBN : 2889637972
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aquatic plants refer to a diverse group of aquatic photosynthetic organisms large enough to be seem with the naked eye, and the vegetative parts of which actively grow either permanently or periodically (for at least several weeks each year) submerged below, floating on, or growing up through the water surface. These include aquatic vascular plants, aquatic mosses and some larger algae. Aquatic plants are grouped into life forms, each of which relates differently to limiting factors and has distinct ecological functions in aquatic ecosystems. Life form groups include emergent macrophytes (plants that are rooted in sediment or soils that are periodically inundated, with all other structures extending into the air), floating-leaved macrophytes (rooted plants with leaves that float on the water surface), submersed macrophytes (rooted plants growing completely submerged), free submerged macrophytes (which are not rooted but attached to other macrophytes or submerged structures) and free-floating macrophytes (plants that float on the water surface). Aquatic plants play an important role in the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter and refuge and serving as a food source. In addition, aquatic plants produce large standing crops which can also stabilize sediments, accumulate large amounts of nutrients thus improving water healthy. Thus, because of their ecological role, aquatic plants are an important component of aquatic ecosystems. Aquatic plants are very vulnerable to human activities and global changes, and many species of the plants had become endangered in the past several decades due to habitat loss, flooding, damming, over foraging, biological invasion and eutrophication, which might not be halted but enforced in the future when more extreme weathers coincide with enhanced human activities.

Biodiversity

Biodiversity Book
Author : National Academy of Sciences/Smithsonian Institution,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,E.O. Wilson
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1988-01-01
ISBN : 0309037395
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This important book for scientists and nonscientists alike calls attention to a most urgent global problem: the rapidly accelerating loss of plant and animal species to increasing human population pressure and the demands of economic development. Based on a major conference sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution, Biodiversity creates a systematic framework for analyzing the problem and searching for possible solutions.

Biodiversity of Pantepui

Biodiversity of Pantepui Book
Author : Valentí Rull,Teresa Vegas-Vilarrúbia,Otto Huber,Celsa Señaris
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-06-12
ISBN : 0128155922
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biodiversity of Pantepui: The Pristine "Lost World" of the Neotropical Guiana Highlands provides the most updated and comprehensive knowledge on the biota, origin, and evolution of the Pantepui biogeographical province. It synthesizes historical information and recent discoveries, covering the main biogeographic patterns, evolutionary trends, and conservational efforts. Written by international experts on the biodiversity of this pristine land, this book explores what makes Pantepui a unique natural laboratory to study the origin and evolution of Neotropical biodiversity under the influence of only natural drivers. It discusses the organisms living in Pentepui, including algae, plants, several groups of invertebrates, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. The latter portion of the book delves into the effects of human activity and global warming on Pantepui, and current conservational efforts to combat these threats. Biodiversity of Pantepui is an important resource for researchers in ecology, biogeography, evolution, and conservation, who want to understand the biodiversity and natural history of this region, and how to help conserve and protect the Guiana Highlands from environmental and human damages. Offers a climactic and ecological history of the region since the Late Glacial epoch Discusses the evolutionary origin of the Pantepui biota and its biogeographical patterns Led by a team of editors whose expertise includes Pantepui, the Guiana Shield, and the Neotropics in general

Standing between Life and Extinction

Standing between Life and Extinction Book
Author : David Propst,Jack Williams,Kevin Bestgen,Christopher Hoagstrom
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2021-02-15
ISBN : 022669450X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

North American deserts—lands of little water—have long been home to a surprising diversity of aquatic life, from fish to insects and mollusks. With European settlement, however, water extraction, resource exploitation, and invasive species set many of these native aquatic species on downward spirals. In this book, conservationists dedicated to these creatures document the history of their work, the techniques and philosophies that inform it, and the challenges and opportunities of the future. A precursor to this book, Battle Against Extinction, laid out the scope of the problem and related conservation activities through the late 1980s. Since then, many nascent conservation programs have matured, and researchers have developed new technologies, improved and refined methods, and greatly expanded our knowledge of the myriad influences on the ecology and dynamics of these species. Standing between Life and Extinction brings the story up to date. While the future for some species is more secure than thirty years ago, others are less fortunate. Calling attention not only to iconic species like the razorback sucker, Gila trout, and Devils Hole pupfish, but also to other fishes and obscure and fascinating invertebrates inhabiting intermittent aquatic habitats, this book explores the scientific, social, and political challenges of preserving these aquatic species and their habitats amid an increasingly charged political discourse and in desert regions characterized by a growing human population and rapidly changing climate.

Ecosystem Services From Biodiversity to Society

Ecosystem Services  From Biodiversity to Society Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-12-01
ISBN : 0128039337
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in Ecological Research is one of the most successful series in the highly competitive field of ecology. Each volume publishes topical and important reviews, interpreting ecology as widely as in the past, to include all material that contributes to our understanding of the field. Topics in this invaluable series include the physiology, populations, and communities of plants and animals, as well as landscape and ecosystem ecology. Presents the most updated information on the field of ecology, publishing topical and important reviews Provides all information that relates to a thorough understanding of the field Includes data on physiology, populations, and communities of plants and animals New ideas on ES Integrative approach working across a variety of levels of biological organization and spatial and temporal scales Diversity of relevant subjects covered

Biodiversity and ecosystem services in Nordic coastal ecosystems

Biodiversity and ecosystem services in Nordic coastal ecosystems Book
Author : A. Belgrano,P. Clausen,G. Ejdung,L. Gamfeldt,H. Gundersen,M. Hammer,K. Hancke,J.L.S. Hansen,A-S. Heiskanen,M. Häggblom,A. Højgård Petersen,H. Ilvessalo-Lax,S. Jernberg,M. Kvarnström,H-G. Lax,M. Køie Poulsen,C. Lindblad,K. Magnussen,T. Mustonen,M. Mäen-pää,P. Norling,E. Roth,J. Roto,G. Sogn Andersen,H. Svedäng,C. Söderberg,J. Sørensen,H. Tunón,P. Vihervaara,S. Vävare,M. Kallio
Publisher : Nordic Council of Ministers
Release : 2018-06-18
ISBN : 9289356650
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report describes the status and trends of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Nordic region, the drivers and pressures affecting them, interactions and effects on people and society, and options for governance. The main report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 The general overview (this report) and Volume 2 The geographical case studies. This study has been inspired by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystems Services (IPBES). It departs from case studies (Volume 2, the geographical case studies) from ten geographical areas in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden) and the autonomous areas of Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Åland. The aim was to describe status and trends of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Nordic region, including the drivers and pressures affecting these ecosystems, the effects on people and society and options for governance. The Nordic study is structured as closely as possible to the framework for the regional assessments currently being finalized within IPBES. The report highlights environmental differences and similarities in the Nordic coastal areas, like the inhabitants´ relation to nature and the environment as well as similarities in social and policy instruments between the Nordic countries. This study provides background material for decision-making and it is shown that Nordic cooperation is of great importance for sustainable coastal management and should be strengthened in future work.

Aquatic Biodiversity II

Aquatic Biodiversity II Book
Author : H. Segers,K. Martens
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2006-01-20
ISBN : 140204111X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Freshwater Biodiversity is a much underestimated component of global biodiversity, both in its diversity and in its potential to act as models for fundamental research in evolutionary biology and ecosystem studies. Freshwater organisms also reflect quality of water bodies and can thus be used to monitor changes in ecosystem health. The present book comprises a unique collection of primary research papers spanning a wide range of topics in aquatic biodiversity studies, and including a first global assessment of specific diversity of freshwater animals. The book also presents a section on the interaction between scientists and science policy managers. A target opinion paper lists priorities in aquatic biodiversity research for the next decade and several reactions from distinguished scientists discuss the relevance of these items from different points of view: fundamental ecology, taxonomy and systematics, needs of developing countries, present-day biodiversity policy at European and at global scales. It is believed that such a platform for the interaction between science and science policy is an absolute necessity for the efficient use of research budgets in the future.

Aquatic Biodiversity II

Aquatic Biodiversity II Book
Author : H. Segers,K. Martens
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2005-07-26
ISBN : 9781402037450
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Water is Life. Freshwater is one of the most valuable commodities on our planet, and this resource should be managed in a sustainable way. Yet, we are less than careful in the way we use water and many of our non-marine, aquatic habitats are threatened by anthropogenic impacts. Eutrophication, for example, could well turn into one of the major social as well as economic problems of the 21st century. Reduction of water quality also has a profound effect on the biota that depend on these water bodies, such as micro-organisms, plants and animals. Freshwater Biodiversity is a much underestimated component of global biodiversity, both in its diversity and in its potential to act as models for fundamental research in evolutionary biology and ecosystem studies. Freshwater organisms also reflect quality of water bodies and can thus be used to monitor changes in ecosystem health. The present book deals with all of these aspects of Aquatic Biodiversity. It comprises a unique collection of primary research papers spanning a wide range of topics in aquatic biodiversity studies, and including a first global assessment of specific diversity of freshwater animals. The book also presents a section on the interaction between scientists and science policy managers. A target opinion paper lists priorities in aquatic biodiversity research for the next decade and several reactions from distinguished scientists discuss the relevance of these items from different points of view: fundamental ecology, taxonomy and systematics, needs of developing countries, present-day biodiversity policy at European and at global scales. It is believed that such a platform for the interaction between science and science policy is an absolute necessity for the efficient use of research budgets in the future.

Fungal Ecology Diversity and Metabolites

Fungal Ecology  Diversity and Metabolites Book
Author : Zaid Hays & Danny Watson
Publisher : Scientific e-Resources
Release : 2019-11-04
ISBN : 1839471883
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mycology is a frontier area of research in life sciences. Fungi represent one of the three major evolutionary segments along with plants and animals. Fungal multidimensional features with basic and applied value projected their potential beyond routine systematics, diversity and environmental studies. In view of tremendous developments in the field of Mycology, the present treatise emphasizes various aspects of contemporary issues in mycology. It comprises 22 chapters with emphasis on the fungal ecology, diversity and metabolites. The topics treated include aquatic ecology, diversity and phylogeny, mutualism and interactions, potential metabolites, pathology and toxins, fungal infections and prevention, cell permeabilization and advances in monocarboxylate transporters in yeasts with an emphasis on cancer therapy. This volume is of special interest to mycologists as a valuable source of information on the frontier areas of mycology dealing with diversity, ecological amplitudes, methods of assessment, novel metabolites and bioprospecting avenues.

The Dynamical Processes of Biodiversity

The Dynamical Processes of Biodiversity Book
Author : Oscar Grillo,Gianfranco Venora
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2011-12-02
ISBN : 9533077727
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Driven by the increasing necessity to define the biological diversity frame of widespread, endemic and threatened species, as well as by the stimulating chance to describe new species, the study of the evolutive and spatial dynamics is in constant execution. Systematic overviews, biogeographic and phylogenic backgrounds, species composition and distribution in restricted areas are focal topics of the 15 interesting independent chapters collected in this book, chosen to offer to the reader an overall view of the present condition in which our planet is.

Distribution and Functional Traits of Charophytes and Vascular Plants

Distribution and Functional Traits of Charophytes and Vascular Plants Book
Author : Lars Båstrup-Spohr
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Distribution and Functional Traits of Charophytes and Vascular Plants book written by Lars Båstrup-Spohr, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Remote Sensing of Plant Biodiversity

Remote Sensing of Plant Biodiversity Book
Author : Jeannine Cavender-Bares,John A. Gamon,Philip A. Townsend
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-01-01
ISBN : 3030331571
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This Open Access volume aims to methodologically improve our understanding of biodiversity by linking disciplines that incorporate remote sensing, and uniting data and perspectives in the fields of biology, landscape ecology, and geography. The book provides a framework for how biodiversity can be detected and evaluated--focusing particularly on plants--using proximal and remotely sensed hyperspectral data and other tools such as LiDAR. The volume, whose chapters bring together a large cross-section of the biodiversity community engaged in these methods, attempts to establish a common language across disciplines for understanding and implementing remote sensing of biodiversity across scales. The first part of the book offers a potential basis for remote detection of biodiversity. An overview of the nature of biodiversity is described, along with ways for determining traits of plant biodiversity through spectral analyses across spatial scales and linking spectral data to the tree of life. The second part details what can be detected spectrally and remotely. Specific instrumentation and technologies are described, as well as the technical challenges of detection and data synthesis, collection and processing. The third part discusses spatial resolution and integration across scales and ends with a vision for developing a global biodiversity monitoring system. Topics include spectral and functional variation across habitats and biomes, biodiversity variables for global scale assessment, and the prospects and pitfalls in remote sensing of biodiversity at the global scale.

Eco evolutionary Dynamics

Eco evolutionary Dynamics Book
Author : Andrew P. Hendry
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2016-12-06
ISBN : 0691145431
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent years, scientists have realized that evolution can occur on timescales much shorter than the "long lapse of ages" emphasized by Darwin—in fact, evolutionary change is occurring all around us all the time. This book provides an authoritative and accessible introduction to eco-evolutionary dynamics, a cutting-edge new field that seeks to unify evolution and ecology into a common conceptual framework focusing on rapid and dynamic environmental and evolutionary change. Andrew Hendry covers key aspects of evolution, ecology, and their interactions. Topics range from natural selection, adaptive divergence, ecological speciation, and gene flow to population and community dynamics, ecosystem function, plasticity, and genomics. Hendry evaluates conceptual and methodological approaches, and draws on empirical data from natural populations—including those in human-disturbed environments—to tackle a number of classic and emerging research questions. He also discusses exciting new directions for future research at the intersection of ecology and evolution. An invaluable guide for students and researchers alike, Eco-evolutionary Dynamics reveals how evolution and ecology interact strongly on short timescales to shape the world we see around us.