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Applications Of Nanofluid For Heat Transfer Enhancement

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Applications of Nanofluid for Heat Transfer Enhancement

Applications of Nanofluid for Heat Transfer Enhancement Book
Author : Mohsen Sheikholeslami,Davood Domairry Ganji
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2017-02-26
ISBN : 0128123982
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Applications of Nanofluid for Heat Transfer Enhancement explores recent progress in computational fluid dynamic and nonlinear science and its applications to nanofluid flow and heat transfer. The opening chapters explain governing equations and then move on to discussions of free and forced convection heat transfers of nanofluids. Next, the effect of nanofluid in the presence of an electric field, magnetic field, and thermal radiation are investigated, with final sections devoted to nanofluid flow in porous media and application of nanofluid for solidification. The models discussed in the book have applications in various fields, including mathematics, physics, information science, biology, medicine, engineering, nanotechnology, and materials science. Presents the latest information on nanofluid free and force convection heat transfer, of nanofluid in the presence of thermal radiation, and nanofluid in the presence of an electric field Provides an understanding of the fundamentals in new numerical and analytical methods Includes codes for each modeling method discussed, along with advice on how to best apply them

Heat Transfer Enhancement with Nanofluids

Heat Transfer Enhancement with Nanofluids Book
Author : Vincenzo Bianco,Oronzio Manca,Sergio Nardini,Kambiz Vafai
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2015-04-01
ISBN : 1482254026
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanofluids are gaining the attention of scientists and researchers around the world. This new category of heat transfer medium improves the thermal conductivity of fluid by suspending small solid particles within it and offers the possibility of increased heat transfer in a variety of applications. Bringing together expert contributions from across the globe, Heat Transfer Enhancement with Nanofluids presents a complete understanding of the application of nanofluids in a range of fields and explains the main techniques used in the analysis of nanofuids flow and heat transfer. Providing a rigorous framework to help readers develop devices employing nanofluids, the book addresses basic topics that include the analysis and measurements of thermophysical properties, convection, and heat exchanger performance. It explores the issues of convective instabilities, nanofluids in porous media, and entropy generation in nanofluids. The book also contains the latest advancements, innovations, methodologies, and research on the subject. Presented in 16 chapters, the text: Discusses the possible mechanisms of thermal conduction enhancement Reviews the results of a theoretical analysis determining the anomalous enhancement of heat transfer in nanofluid flow Assesses different approaches modeling the thermal conductivity enhancement of nanofluids Focuses on experimental methodologies used to determine the thermophysical properties of nanofluids Analyzes forced convection heat transfer in nanofluids in both laminar and turbulent convection Highlights the application of nanofluids in heat exchangers and microchannels Discusses the utilization of nanofluids in porous media Introduces the boiling of nanofluids Treats pool and flow boiling by analyzing the effect of nanoparticles on these complex phenomena Indicates future research directions to further develop this area of knowledge, and more Intended as a reference for researchers and engineers working in the field, Heat Transfer Enhancement with Nanofluids presents advanced topics that detail the strengths, weaknesses, and potential future developments in nanofluids heat transfer.

Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Nanofluid Flow in Microchannels

Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Nanofluid Flow in Microchannels Book
Author : Davood Domairry Ganji,Amir Malvandi
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2016-06-11
ISBN : 032343178X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Nanofluid Flow in Microchannels: Simulation of Heat and Mass Transfer focuses on the numerical simulation of passive techniques, and also covers the applications of external forces on heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids in microchannels. Economic and environmental incentives have increased efforts to reduce energy consumption. Heat transfer enhancement, augmentation, or intensification are the terms that many scientists employ in their efforts in energy consumption reduction. These can be divided into (a) active techniques which require external forces such as magnetic force, and (b) passive techniques which do not require external forces, including geometry refinement and fluid additives. Gives readers the knowledge they need to be able to simulate nanofluids in a wide range of microchannels and optimise their heat transfer characteristics Contains real-life examples, mathematical procedures, numerical algorithms, and codes to allow readers to easily reproduce the methodologies covered, and to understand how they can be applied in practice Presents novel applications for heat exchange systems, such as entropy generation minimization and figures of merit, allowing readers to optimize the techniques they use Focuses on the numerical simulation of passive techniques, and also covers the applications of external forces on heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids in microchannels

Hybrid Nanofluids for Convection Heat Transfer

Hybrid Nanofluids for Convection Heat Transfer Book
Author : Hafiz Muhammad Ali
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-05-15
ISBN : 012819281X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hybrid Nanofluids for Convection Heat Transfer discusses how to maximize heat transfer rates with the addition of nanoparticles into conventional heat transfer fluids. The book addresses definitions, preparation techniques, thermophysical properties and heat transfer characteristics with mathematical models, performance-affecting factors, and core applications with implementation challenges of hybrid nanofluids. The work adopts mathematical models and schematic diagrams in review of available experimental methods. It enables readers to create new techniques, resolve existing research problems, and ultimately to implement hybrid nanofluids in convection heat transfer applications. Provides key heat transfer performance and thermophysical characteristics of hybrid nanofluids Reviews parameter selection and property measurement techniques for thermal performance calibration Explores the use of predictive mathematical techniques for experimental properties

Advances in Nanofluid Heat Transfer

Advances in Nanofluid Heat Transfer Book
Author : Hafiz Muhammad Ali
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2022-05-28
ISBN : 0323886426
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in Nanofluid Heat Transfer covers the broad definitions, brief history, preparation techniques, thermophysical properties, heat transfer characteristics, and emerging applications of hybrid nanofluids. Starting with the basics, this book advances step-by-step toward advanced topics, with mathematical models, schematic diagrams and discussions of the experimental work of leading researchers. By introducing readers to new techniques, this book helps readers resolve existing problems and implement nanofluids in innovative new applications. This book provides detailed coverage of stability and reliable measurement techniques for nanofluid properties, as well as different kinds of base fluids. Providing a clear understanding of what happens at the nanoscale, the book is written to be used by engineers in industry as well as researchers and graduate students. Covers new applications of nanofluids, along with key challenges encountered in the commercialization of this technology Highlights new nanofluid properties and associated numerical modeling methods Addresses the very latest topics in nanofluids sciences, such as ionic nanofluids

Nanofluids and Their Engineering Applications

Nanofluids and Their Engineering Applications Book
Author : K.R.V. Subramanian,Tubati Nageswara Rao,Avinash Balakrishnan
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-06-18
ISBN : 0429886993
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanofluids are solid-liquid composite material consisting of solid nanoparticles suspended in liquid with enhanced thermal properties. This book introduces basic fluid mechanics, conduction and convection in fluids, along with nanomaterials for nanofluids, property characterization, and outline applications of nanofluids in solar technology, machining and other special applications. Recent experiments on nanofluids have indicated significant increase in thermal conductivity compared with liquids without nanoparticles or larger particles, strong temperature dependence of thermal conductivity, and significant increase in critical heat flux in boiling heat transfer, all of which are covered in the book. Key Features Exclusive title focusing on niche engineering applications of nanofluids Contains high technical content especially in the areas of magnetic nanofluids and dilute oxide based nanofluids Feature examples from research applications such as solar technology and heat pipes Addresses heat transfer and thermodynamic features such as efficiency and work with mathematical rigor Focused in content with precise technical definitions and treatment

Heat Transfer Enhancement with Nanofluids

Heat Transfer Enhancement with Nanofluids Book
Author : Vincenzo Bianco,Oronzio Manca,Sergio Nardini,Kambiz Vafai
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-07-26
ISBN : 9781138749481
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanofluids are gaining the attention of scientists and researchers around the world. This new category of heat transfer medium improves the thermal conductivity of fluid by suspending small solid particles within it and offers the possibility of increased heat transfer in a variety of applications. Bringing together expert contributions from across the globe, Heat Transfer Enhancement with Nanofluids presents a complete understanding of the application of nanofluids in a range of fields and explains the main techniques used in the analysis of nanofuids flow and heat transfer. Providing a rigorous framework to help readers develop devices employing nanofluids, the book addresses basic topics that include the analysis and measurements of thermophysical properties, convection, and heat exchanger performance. It explores the issues of convective instabilities, nanofluids in porous media, and entropy generation in nanofluids. The book also contains the latest advancements, innovations, methodologies, and research on the subject. Presented in 16 chapters, the text: Discusses the possible mechanisms of thermal conduction enhancement Reviews the results of a theoretical analysis determining the anomalous enhancement of heat transfer in nanofluid flow Assesses different approaches modeling the thermal conductivity enhancement of nanofluids Focuses on experimental methodologies used to determine the thermophysical properties of nanofluids Analyzes forced convection heat transfer in nanofluids in both laminar and turbulent convection Highlights the application of nanofluids in heat exchangers and microchannels Discusses the utilization of nanofluids in porous media Introduces the boiling of nanofluids Treats pool and flow boiling by analyzing the effect of nanoparticles on these complex phenomena Indicates future research directions to further develop this area of knowledge, and more Intended as a reference for researchers and engineers working in the field, Heat Transfer Enhancement with Nanofluids presents advanced topics that detail the strengths, weaknesses, and potential future developments in nanofluids heat transfer.

Micro and Nanofluid Convection with Magnetic Field Effects for Heat and Mass Transfer Applications using MATLAB

Micro and Nanofluid Convection with Magnetic Field Effects for Heat and Mass Transfer Applications using MATLAB   Book
Author : Chakravarthula Raju,Ilyas Khan,Suresh Kumar Raju,Mamatha S Upadhya
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2022-06-14
ISBN : 0128231416
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Micro and Nanofluid Convection with Magnetic Field Effects for Heat and Mass Transfer Applications using MATLAB® examines the performance of micro and nanofluids with various physical effects such as magnetic field, slip effects, radiation and heat sources. Heat and mass transfer enhancement techniques are widely used in many applications in the heating and cooling or freezing process to make possible a reduction in weight and size or enhance performance during heat and mass exchanges. The book covers the two categories of flow techniques, active and passive. It discusses various considerations in the engineering sciences in the melting process, polymer industry and in metallurgy. To be more precise, it may be pointed out that many metal surgical developments involve the cooling of continuous strips or filaments by drawing them through a quiescent fluid, and in that process of drawing, these strips are sometimes stretched. In all these cases, the properties of the final product depend, to a great extent, on the rate of cooling by drawing such strips in an electrically conducting fluid subject to a magnetic field and thermal radiation. Provides information about the governing equations for all three types of flow geometries Explains micro polar fluid flow modeling Offers detailed coverage of boundary value problems using MATLAB®

Nanofluids

Nanofluids Book
Author : Sarit K. Das,Stephen U. Choi,Wenhua Yu,T. Pradeep
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2007-12-04
ISBN : 0470180684
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Introduction to nanofluids--their properties, synthesis, characterization, and applications Nanofluids are attracting a great deal of interest with their enormous potential to provide enhanced performance properties, particularly with respect to heat transfer. In response, this text takes you on a complete journey into the science and technology of nanofluids. The authors cover both the chemical and physical methods for synthesizing nanofluids, explaining the techniques for creating a stable suspension of nanoparticles. You get an overview of the existing models and experimental techniques used in studying nanofluids, alongside discussions of the challenges and problems associated with some of these models. Next, the authors set forth and explain the heat transfer applications of nanofluids, including microelectronics, fuel cells, and hybrid-powered engines. You also get an introduction to possible future applications in large-scale cooling and biomedicine. This book is the work of leading pioneers in the field, one of whom holds the first U.S. patent for nanofluids. They have combined their own first-hand knowledge with a thorough review of theliterature. Among the key topics are: * Synthesis of nanofluids, including dispersion techniques and characterization methods * Thermal conductivity and thermo-physical properties * Theoretical models and experimental techniques * Heat transfer applications in microelectronics, fuel cells, and vehicle engines This text is written for researchers in any branch of science and technology, without any prerequisite.It therefore includes some basic information describing conduction, convection, and boiling of nanofluids for those readers who may not have adequate background in these areas. Regardless of your background, you'll learn to develop nanofluids not only as coolants, but also for a host ofnew applications on the horizon.

Nanofluids

Nanofluids Book
Author : Mohammad Hatami,Dengwei Jing
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-01-15
ISBN : 0081029349
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanofluids: Mathematical, Numerical and Experimental Analysis provides a combined treatment of the numerical and experimental aspects of this crucial topic. Mathematical methods such as the weighted residual method and perturbation techniques, as well as numerical methods such as Finite Element and Lattice-Boltzmann are addressed, along with experimental methods in nanofluid analysis. The effects of magnetic field, electric field and solar radiation on the optical properties and synthesis of nanofluid flow are examined and discussed as well. This book also functions as a comprehensive review of recent progress in nanofluids analysis and its application in different engineering sciences. This book is ideal for all readers in industry or academia, along with anyone interested in nanofluids for theoretical or experimental design reasons. Explains the governing equations in which magnetic or electric fields are applied Gives instructions on how to confirm numerical modeling results by comparing with experimental outcomes Provides detailed information on the governing equations where nanofluids are used as a working fluid

Hybrid Nanofluids

Hybrid Nanofluids Book
Author : Zafar Said
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2022-01-21
ISBN : 0323855717
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hybrid Nanofluids: Preparation, Characterization and Applications presents the history of hybrid nanofluids, preparation techniques, thermoelectrical properties, rheological behaviors, optical properties, theoretical modeling and correlations, and the effect of all these factors on potential applications, such as solar energy, electronics cooling, heat exchangers, machining, and refrigeration. Future challenges and future work scope have also been included. The information from this book enables readers to discover novel techniques, resolve existing research limitations, and create novel hybrid nanofluids which can be implemented for heat transfer applications. Describes the characterization, thermophysical and electrical properties of nanofluids Assesses parameter selection and property measurement techniques for the calibration of thermal performance Provides information on theoretical models and correlations for predicting hybrid nanofluids properties from experimental properties

Nanoparticle Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

Nanoparticle Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Book
Author : W. J. Minkowycz,E M Sparrow,J. P. Abraham
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-04-19
ISBN : 1439861951
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Featuring contributions by leading researchers in the field, Nanoparticle Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow explores heat transfer and fluid flow processes in nanomaterials and nanofluids, which are becoming increasingly important across the engineering disciplines. The book covers a wide range, from biomedical and energy conversion applications to materials properties, and addresses aspects that are essential for further progress in the field, including numerical quantification, modeling, simulation, and presentation. Topics include: A broad review of nanofluid applications, including industrial heat transfer, biomedical engineering, electronics, energy conversion, membrane filtration, and automotive An overview of thermofluids and their importance in biomedical applications and heat-transfer enhancement A deeper look at biomedical applications such as nanoparticle hyperthermia treatments for cancers Issues in energy conversion from dispersed forms to more concentrated and utilizable forms Issues in nanofluid properties, which are less predictable and less repeatable than those of other media that participate in fluid flow and heat transfer Advances in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of membrane filtration at the microscale The role of nanofluids as a coolant in microchannel heat transfer for the thermal management of electronic equipment The potential enhancement of natural convection due to nanoparticles Examining key topics and applications in nanoscale heat transfer and fluid flow, this comprehensive book presents the current state of the art and a view of the future. It offers a valuable resource for experts as well as newcomers interested in developing innovative modeling and numerical simulation in this growing field.

Nanofluid Flow in Porous Media

Nanofluid Flow in Porous Media Book
Author : Mohsen Sheikholeslami Kandelousi,Sadia Ameen,M. Shaheer Akhtar,Hyung-Shik Shin
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2020-08-19
ISBN : 1789238374
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Studies of fluid flow and heat transfer in a porous medium have been the subject of continuous interest for the past several decades because of the wide range of applications, such as geothermal systems, drying technologies, production of thermal isolators, control of pollutant spread in groundwater, insulation of buildings, solar power collectors, design of nuclear reactors, and compact heat exchangers, etc. There are several models for simulating porous media such as the Darcy model, Non-Darcy model, and non-equilibrium model. In porous media applications, such as the environmental impact of buried nuclear heat-generating waste, chemical reactors, thermal energy transport/storage systems, the cooling of electronic devices, etc., a temperature discrepancy between the solid matrix and the saturating fluid has been observed and recognized.

Convective Heat Transfer in Porous Media

Convective Heat Transfer in Porous Media Book
Author : Yasser Mahmoudi,Kamel Hooman,Kambiz Vafai
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-11-06
ISBN : 0429672047
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Focusing on heat transfer in porous media, this book covers recent advances in nano and macro’ scales. Apart from introducing heat flux bifurcation and splitting within porous media, it highlights two-phase flow, nanofluids, wicking, and convection in bi-disperse porous media. New methods in modeling heat and transport in porous media, such as pore-scale analysis and Lattice–Boltzmann methods, are introduced. The book covers related engineering applications, such as enhanced geothermal systems, porous burners, solar systems, transpiration cooling in aerospace, heat transfer enhancement and electronic cooling, drying and soil evaporation, foam heat exchangers, and polymer-electrolyte fuel cells.

Principles of Heat Transfer in Porous Media

Principles of Heat Transfer in Porous Media Book
Author : M. Kaviany
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1468404121
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Although the empirical treatment of fluid flow and heat transfer in porous media is over a century old, only in the last three decades has the transport in these heterogeneous systems been addressed in detail. So far, single-phase flows in porous media have been treated or at least formulated satisfactorily, while the subject of two-phase flow and the related heat-transfer in porous media is still in its infancy. This book identifies the principles of transport in porous media and compares the avalaible predictions based on theoretical treatments of various transport mechanisms with the existing experimental results. The theoretical treatment is based on the volume-averaging of the momentum and energy equations with the closure conditions necessary for obtaining solutions. While emphasizing a basic understanding of heat transfer in porous media, this book does not ignore the need for predictive tools; whenever a rigorous theoretical treatment of a phenomena is not avaliable, semi-empirical and empirical treatments are given.

Nanofluid Heat and Mass Transfer in Engineering Problems

Nanofluid Heat and Mass Transfer in Engineering Problems Book
Author : Mohsen Sheikholeslami Kandelousi
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2017-03-15
ISBN : 9535130072
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the present book, nanofluid heat and mass transfer in engineering problems are investigated. The use of additives in the base fluid like water or ethylene glycol is one of the techniques applied to augment heat transfer. Newly, innovative nanometer-sized particles have been dispersed in the base fluid in heat transfer fluids. The fluids containing the solid nanometer-sized particle dispersion are called "nanofluids." At first, nanofluid heat and mass transfer over a stretching sheet are provided with various boundary conditions. Problems faced for simulating nanofluids are reported. Also, thermophysical properties of various nanofluids are presented. Nanofluid flow and heat transfer in the presence of magnetic field are investigated. Furthermore, applications for electrical and biomedical engineering are provided. Besides, applications of nanofluid in internal combustion engine are provided.

Preparation Characterization Properties and Application of Nanofluid

Preparation  Characterization  Properties  and Application of Nanofluid Book
Author : I. M. Mahbubul
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2018-09-20
ISBN : 012813299X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Preparation, Characterization, Properties and Application of Nanofluid begins with an introduction of colloidal systems and their relation to nanofluid. Special emphasis on the preparation of stable nanofluid and the impact of ultrasonication power on nanofluid preparation is also included, as are characterization and stability measurement techniques. Other topics of note in the book include the thermophysical properties of nanofluids as thermal conductivity, viscosity, and density and specific heat, including the figure of merit of properties. In addition, different parameters, like particle type, size, concentration, liquid type and temperature are discussed based on experimental results, along with a variety of other important topics. The available model and correlations used for nanofluid property calculation are also included. Provides readers with tactics on nanofluid preparation methods, including how to improve their stability Explores the effect of preparation method and stability on thermophysical and rheological properties of nanofluids Assesses the available model and correlations used for nanofluid property calculation

Nanofluids and Mass Transfer

Nanofluids and Mass Transfer Book
Author : Mohammad Reza Rahimpour,Mohammad Amin Makarem,Mohhamad Reza Kiani,Mohammad Amin Sedghamiz
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-09-04
ISBN : 0128241330
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the recent decades, efficiency enhancement of refineries and chemical plants has been become a focus of research and development groups. Use of nanofluids in absorption, regeneration, liquid-liquid extraction and membrane processes can lead to mass transfer and heat transfer enhancement in processes which results in an increased efficiency in all these processes. Nanofluids and Mass Transfer introduces the role of nanofluids in improving mass transfer phenomena and expressing their characteristics and properties. The book also covers the theory and modelling procedures in details and finally illustrates various applications of Nanofluids in mass transfer enhancement in various processes such as absorption, regeneration, liquid-liquid extraction and membrane processes and how can nanofluids increase mass transfer in processes. Introduces specifications of nanofluids and mechanisms of mass transfer enhancement by nanofluids in various mass transfer processes Discusses mass transfer enhancement in various mass transfer processes such as: absorption, regeneration, liquid-liquid extraction and membrane processes Offers modelling mass transfer and flow in nanofluids Challenges industrialization and scale up of nanofluids

Enhanced Heat Transfer Mechanism of Nanofluid MQL Cooling Grinding

Enhanced Heat Transfer Mechanism of Nanofluid MQL Cooling Grinding Book
Author : Li, Changhe,Ali, Hafiz Muhammad
Publisher : IGI Global
Release : 2019-10-25
ISBN : 179981548X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In today’s modern world, the manufacturing industry is embracing an energy-efficient initiative and adopting green techniques. One aspect that has failed to adopt this scheme is flood grinding. Current flood grinding methods increase the treatment cost of grinding fluid and waste large quantities. In order to remain sustainable and efficient, in-depth research is necessary to study green grinding technologies that can ensure machining precision and surface quality of workpiece and reduce grinding fluid-induced environmental pollution. Enhanced Heat Transfer Mechanism of Nanofluid MQL Cooling Grinding provides emerging research exploring the theoretical and practical aspects of nanofluid lubrication and its application within grinding flow and green manufacturing. Featuring coverage on a broad range of topics such as airflow distribution, morphology analysis, and lubrication performance, this book is ideally designed for mechanical professionals, engineers, manufacturers, researchers, scientists, academicians, and students seeking current research on clean and low-carbon precision machining methods.

Inverse Heat Conduction and Heat Exchangers

Inverse Heat Conduction and Heat Exchangers Book
Author : Suvanjan Bhattacharyya,Mohammad Moghimi Ardekani,Ranjib Biswas,R. C. Mehta
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2020-12-02
ISBN : 1789851777
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A direct solution of the heat conduction equation with prescribed initial and boundary conditions yields temperature distribution inside a specimen. The direct solution is mathematically considered as a well-posed one because the solution exists, is unique, and continuously depends on input data. The estimation of unknown parameters from the measured temperature data is known as the inverse problem of heat conduction. An error in temperature measurement, thermal time lagging, thermocouple-cavity, or signal noise data makes stability a problem in the estimation of unknown parameters. The solution of the inverse problem can be obtained by employing the gradient or non-gradient based inverse algorithm. The aim of this book is to analyze the inverse problem and heat exchanger applications in the fields of aerospace, mechanical, applied mechanics, environment sciences, and engineering.