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Applications Of Genetic And Genomic Research In Cereals

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Applications of Genetic and Genomic Research in Cereals

Applications of Genetic and Genomic Research in Cereals Book
Author : Thomas Miedaner,Viktor Korzun
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2018-11-19
ISBN : 0081022131
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Applications of Genetic and Genomic Research in Cereals covers new techniques for practical breeding, also discussing genetic and genomic approaches for improving special traits. Additional sections cover drought tolerance, biotic stress, biomass production, the impact of modern techniques on practical breeding, hybrid breeding, genetic diversity, and genomic selection. Written by an international team of top academics and edited by an expert in the field, this book will be of value to academics working in the agricultural sciences and essential reading for professionals working in plant breeding. Provides in-depth and comprehensive coverage of a rapidly developing field Presents techniques used in genetic and genomics research, with coverage of genotyping, gene cloning, genome editing and engineering and phenotyping in various cereals Includes the latest genetic and genomic approaches for improving special traits - drought tolerance, biotic stress and biomass production Covers breeding practices, with chapters on the genetic diversity of wheat, hybrid breeding and the potential of rye and barley crops

Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae

Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae Book
Author : Catherine Feuillet,Gary J. Muehlbauer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-06-10
ISBN : 9780387774893
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sequencing of the model plant genomes such as those of A. thaliana and rice has revolutionized our understanding of plant biology but it has yet to translate into the improvement of major crop species such as maize, wheat, or barley. Moreover, the comparative genomic studies in cereals that have been performed in the past decade have revealed the limits of conservation between rice and the other cereal genomes. This has necessitated the development of genomic resources and programs for maize, sorghum, wheat, and barley to serve as the foundation for future genome sequencing and the acceleration of genomic based improvement of these critically important crops. Cereals constitute over 50% of total crop production worldwide (http://www.fao.org/) and cereal seeds are one of the most important renewable resources for food, feed, and industrial raw materials. Crop species of the Triticeae tribe that comprise wheat, barley, and rye are essential components of human and domestic animal nutrition. With 17% of all crop area, wheat is the staple food for 40% of the world’s population, while barley ranks fifth in the world production. Their domestication in the Fertile Crescent 10,000 years ago ushered in the beginning of agriculture and signified an important breakthrough in the advancement of civilization. Rye is second after wheat among grains most commonly used in the production of bread and is also very important for mixed animal feeds. It can be cultivated in poor soils and climates that are generally not suitable for other cereals. Extensive genetics and cytogenetics studies performed in the Triticeae species over the last 50 years have led to the characterization of their chromosomal composition and origins and have supported intensive work to create new genetic resources. Cytogenetic studies in wheat have allowed the identification and characterization of the different homoeologous genomes and have demonstrated the utility of studying wheat genome evolution as a model for the analysis of polyploidization, a major force in the evolution of the eukaryotic genomes. Barley with its diploid genome shows high collinearity with the other Triticeae genomes and therefore serves as a good template for supporting genomic analyses in the wheat and rye genomes. The knowledge gained from genetic studies in the Triticeae has also been used to produce Triticale, the first human made hybrid crop that results from a cross between wheat and rye and combines the nutrition quality and productivity of wheat with the ruggedness of rye. Despite the economic importance of the Triticeae species and the need for accelerated crop improvement based on genomics studies, the size (1.7 Gb for the bread wheat genome, i.e., 5x the human genome and 40 times the rice genome), high repeat content (>80%), and complexity (polyploidy in wheat) of their genomes often have been considered too challenging for efficient molecular analysis and genetic improvement in these species. Consequently, Triticeae genomics has lagged behind the genomic advances of other cereal crops for many years. Recently, however, the situation has changed dramatically and robust genomic programs can be established in the Triticeae as a result of the convergence of several technology developments that have led to new, more efficient scientific capabilities and resources such as whole-genome and chromosome-specific BAC libraries, extensive EST collections, transformation systems, wild germplasm and mutant collections, as well as DNA chips. Currently, the Triticeae genomics "toolbox" is comprised of: - 9 publicly available BAC libraries from diploid (5), tetraploid (1) and hexaploid (3) wheat; 3 publicly available BAC libraries from barley and one BAC library from rye; - 3 wheat chromosome specific BAC libraries; - DNA chips including commercially available first generation chips from AFFYMETRIX containing 55’000 wheat and 22,000 barley genes; - A large number of wheat and barley genetic maps that are saturated by a significant number of markers; - The largest plant EST collection with 870’000 wheat ESTs, 440’000 barley ESTs and about 10’000 rye ESTs; - Established protocols for stable transformation by biolistic and agrobacterium as well as a transient expression system using VIGS in wheat and barley; and - Large collections of well characterized cultivated and wild genetic resources. International consortia, such as the International Triticeae Mapping Initiative (ITMI), have advanced synergies in the Triticeae genetics community in the development of additional mapping populations and markers that have led to a dramatic improvement in the resolution of the genetic maps and the amount of molecular markers in the three species resulting in the accelerated utilization of molecular markers in selection programs. Together, with the development of the genomic resources, the isolation of the first genes of agronomic interest by map-based cloning has been enabled and has proven the feasibility of forging the link between genotype and phenotype in the Triticeae species. Moreover, the first analyses of BAC sequences from wheat and barley have allowed preliminary characterizations of their genome organization and composition as well as the first inter- and intra-specific comparative genomic studies. These later have revealed important evolutionary mechanisms (e.g. unequal crossing over, illegitimate recombination) that have shaped the wheat and barley genomes during their evolution. These breakthroughs have demonstrated the feasibility of developing efficient genomic studies in the Triticeae and have led to the recent establishment of the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) (http//:www.wheatgenome.org) and the International Barley Sequencing Consortium (www.isbc.org) that aim to sequence, respectively, the hexaploid wheat and barley genomes to accelerate gene discovery and crop improvement in the next decade. Large projects aiming at the establishment of the physical maps as well as a better characterization of their composition and organization through large scale random sequencing projects have been initiated already. Concurrently, a number of projects have been launched to develop high throughput functional genomics in wheat and barley. Transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics analyses of traits of agronomic importance, such as quality, disease resistance, drought, and salt tolerance, are underway in both species. Combined with the development of physical maps, efficient gene isolation will be enabled and improved sequencing technologies and reduced sequencing costs will permit ultimately genome sequencing and access to the entire wheat and barley gene regulatory elements repertoire. Because rye is closely related

Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae

Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae Book
Author : Catherine Feuillet,Gary J. Muehlbauer
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2009-07-20
ISBN : 9780387774886
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sequencing of the model plant genomes such as those of A. thaliana and rice has revolutionized our understanding of plant biology but it has yet to translate into the improvement of major crop species such as maize, wheat, or barley. Moreover, the comparative genomic studies in cereals that have been performed in the past decade have revealed the limits of conservation between rice and the other cereal genomes. This has necessitated the development of genomic resources and programs for maize, sorghum, wheat, and barley to serve as the foundation for future genome sequencing and the acceleration of genomic based improvement of these critically important crops. Cereals constitute over 50% of total crop production worldwide (http://www.fao.org/) and cereal seeds are one of the most important renewable resources for food, feed, and industrial raw materials. Crop species of the Triticeae tribe that comprise wheat, barley, and rye are essential components of human and domestic animal nutrition. With 17% of all crop area, wheat is the staple food for 40% of the world’s population, while barley ranks fifth in the world production. Their domestication in the Fertile Crescent 10,000 years ago ushered in the beginning of agriculture and signified an important breakthrough in the advancement of civilization. Rye is second after wheat among grains most commonly used in the production of bread and is also very important for mixed animal feeds. It can be cultivated in poor soils and climates that are generally not suitable for other cereals. Extensive genetics and cytogenetics studies performed in the Triticeae species over the last 50 years have led to the characterization of their chromosomal composition and origins and have supported intensive work to create new genetic resources. Cytogenetic studies in wheat have allowed the identification and characterization of the different homoeologous genomes and have demonstrated the utility of studying wheat genome evolution as a model for the analysis of polyploidization, a major force in the evolution of the eukaryotic genomes. Barley with its diploid genome shows high collinearity with the other Triticeae genomes and therefore serves as a good template for supporting genomic analyses in the wheat and rye genomes. The knowledge gained from genetic studies in the Triticeae has also been used to produce Triticale, the first human made hybrid crop that results from a cross between wheat and rye and combines the nutrition quality and productivity of wheat with the ruggedness of rye. Despite the economic importance of the Triticeae species and the need for accelerated crop improvement based on genomics studies, the size (1.7 Gb for the bread wheat genome, i.e., 5x the human genome and 40 times the rice genome), high repeat content (>80%), and complexity (polyploidy in wheat) of their genomes often have been considered too challenging for efficient molecular analysis and genetic improvement in these species. Consequently, Triticeae genomics has lagged behind the genomic advances of other cereal crops for many years. Recently, however, the situation has changed dramatically and robust genomic programs can be established in the Triticeae as a result of the convergence of several technology developments that have led to new, more efficient scientific capabilities and resources such as whole-genome and chromosome-specific BAC libraries, extensive EST collections, transformation systems, wild germplasm and mutant collections, as well as DNA chips. Currently, the Triticeae genomics "toolbox" is comprised of: - 9 publicly available BAC libraries from diploid (5), tetraploid (1) and hexaploid (3) wheat; 3 publicly available BAC libraries from barley and one BAC library from rye; - 3 wheat chromosome specific BAC libraries; - DNA chips including commercially available first generation chips from AFFYMETRIX containing 55’000 wheat and 22,000 barley genes; - A large number of wheat and barley genetic maps that are saturated by a significant number of markers; - The largest plant EST collection with 870’000 wheat ESTs, 440’000 barley ESTs and about 10’000 rye ESTs; - Established protocols for stable transformation by biolistic and agrobacterium as well as a transient expression system using VIGS in wheat and barley; and - Large collections of well characterized cultivated and wild genetic resources. International consortia, such as the International Triticeae Mapping Initiative (ITMI), have advanced synergies in the Triticeae genetics community in the development of additional mapping populations and markers that have led to a dramatic improvement in the resolution of the genetic maps and the amount of molecular markers in the three species resulting in the accelerated utilization of molecular markers in selection programs. Together, with the development of the genomic resources, the isolation of the first genes of agronomic interest by map-based cloning has been enabled and has proven the feasibility of forging the link between genotype and phenotype in the Triticeae species. Moreover, the first analyses of BAC sequences from wheat and barley have allowed preliminary characterizations of their genome organization and composition as well as the first inter- and intra-specific comparative genomic studies. These later have revealed important evolutionary mechanisms (e.g. unequal crossing over, illegitimate recombination) that have shaped the wheat and barley genomes during their evolution. These breakthroughs have demonstrated the feasibility of developing efficient genomic studies in the Triticeae and have led to the recent establishment of the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) (http//:www.wheatgenome.org) and the International Barley Sequencing Consortium (www.isbc.org) that aim to sequence, respectively, the hexaploid wheat and barley genomes to accelerate gene discovery and crop improvement in the next decade. Large projects aiming at the establishment of the physical maps as well as a better characterization of their composition and organization through large scale random sequencing projects have been initiated already. Concurrently, a number of projects have been launched to develop high throughput functional genomics in wheat and barley. Transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics analyses of traits of agronomic importance, such as quality, disease resistance, drought, and salt tolerance, are underway in both species. Combined with the development of physical maps, efficient gene isolation will be enabled and improved sequencing technologies and reduced sequencing costs will permit ultimately genome sequencing and access to the entire wheat and barley gene regulatory elements repertoire. Because rye is closely related

Genetics and Genomics of Pineapple

Genetics and Genomics of Pineapple Book
Author : Ray Ming
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-11-27
ISBN : 303000614X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is the first comprehensive volume on the genetics and genomics of pineapple and provides an overview of the current state of pineapple research. Pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] is the second most important tropical fruit after banana in term of international trade. Its features are advantageous for genomic research: it has a small genome of 527 Mb which is diploid and vegetatively propagated; it is monocot, closely related to the grass family that includes major cereal crops, wheat, rice, corn, sorghum, and millet; and it serves as an out group for genetic and genomic research in grasses. In addition to exploring the evolution and improvement of pineapple, this work examines the pineapple genome with respect to genome structure and organization, comparative analyses with other angiosperm genomes, transcription factors, disease resistance, and circadian clock regulation of CAM related genes. With chapters covering botanical, genetic, genomic, and applied aspects of pineapple, this text also encourages the application of genomic technologies and suggests future prospects.

Integration of Next generation Sequencing Technologies with Comparative Genomics in Cereals

Integration of Next generation Sequencing Technologies with Comparative Genomics in Cereals Book
Author : Thandeka N. Sikhakhane
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cereals are the major sources of calories worldwide. Their production should be high to achieve food security, despite the projected increase in global population. Genomics research may enhance cereal productivity. Genomics immensely benefits from robust next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques, which produce vast amounts of sequence data in a time and cost-efficient way. Research has demonstrated that gene sequences among closely related species that share common ancestry have remained well conserved over millions of years of evolution. Comparative genomics allows for comparison of genome sequences across different species, with the implication that genomes with large sizes can be investigated using closely related species with smaller genomes. This offers prospects of studying genes in a single species and, in turn, gaining information on their functions in other related species. Comparative genomics is expected to provide invaluable information on the control of gene function in complex cereal genomes, and also in designing molecular markers across related species. This chapter discusses advances in sequencing technologies, their application in cereal genomics and their potential contribution to the understanding of the relationships between the different cereal genomes and their phenotypes.

Cereal Genomics II

Cereal Genomics II Book
Author : Pushpendra K. Gupta,Rajeev Varshney
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-05-29
ISBN : 9400764014
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

“Cereal Genomics” published in 2004 served the purpose of collecting all information on cereal genomics at one place and was well received by the cereal workers through-out the world. The last eight years have witnessed significant advancement in the field of cereal genomics. For instance, high-density genetic maps, physical maps, QTL maps and even draft genome sequence have become available for several cereal species. Furthermore, the next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have revolutionized genomics research, so that it is possible now to sequence genomes of hundreds or thousands of accessions of an individual cereal crop. Significant amounts of data generated using these NGS technologies created a demand for computational tools to analyse this massive data. In view of these developments, the Editors realised that there was a need to have an updated volume on the present status and future prospects of cereal genomics. These developments related to technology and the tools have been documented in this volume, thus supplementing our earlier edited volume “Cereal Genomics”. “Cereal Genomics II” discusses advances in cereal genomics research made during the last eight years, and presents state-of-art cereal genomics and its utilization involving both basic research such as comparative genomics and functional genomics, and applied research like QTL mapping and molecular breeding.

Accelerated Plant Breeding Volume 1

Accelerated Plant Breeding  Volume 1 Book
Author : Satbir Singh Gosal,Shabir Hussain Wani
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-05-23
ISBN : 3030418669
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plant improvement has shifted its focus from yield, quality and disease resistance to factors that will enhance commerical export, such as early maturity, shelf life and better processing quality. Conventional plant breeding methods aiming at the improvement of a self-pollinating crop, such as wheat, usually take 10-12 years to develop and release of the new variety. During the past 10 years, significant advances have been made and accelerated methods have been developed for precision breeding and early release of crop varieties. This work summarizes concepts dealing with germplasm enhancement and development of improved varieties based on innovative methodologies that include doubled haploidy, marker assisted selection, marker assisted background selection, genetic mapping, genomic selection, high-throughput genotyping, high-throughput phenotyping, mutation breeding, reverse breeding, transgenic breeding, shuttle breeding, speed breeding, low cost high-throughput field phenotyping, etc. It is an important reference with special focus on accelerated development of improved crop varieties.

Rice Functional Genomics

Rice Functional Genomics Book
Author : Narayana M. Upadhyaya
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-05-19
ISBN : 0387489142
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Rice has been chosen as a model cereal for functional genomics because of its well understood genetics. In addition, there is great similarities among all the cereals and grasses: any understanding of rice genes is directly applicable to the genes of other cereals. This book details rice functional genomics. It takes a multi-pronged genome-wide approach using structural similarities, expression profiles, and mutant phenotypes. Coverage includes the current status of genome sequencing and annotation, various tools, and resources being developed worldwide.

Genetics Genomics and Breeding of Sorghum

Genetics  Genomics and Breeding of Sorghum Book
Author : Yi-Hong Wang,Hari D. Upadhyaya,Chittaranjan Kole
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-07-08
ISBN : 1482210088
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sorghum is one of the hardiest crop plants in modern agriculture and also one of the most versatile. Its seeds provide calorie for food and feed, stalks for building and industrial materials and its juice for syrup. This book provides an in-depth review of the cutting-edge knowledge in sorghum genetics and its applications in sorghum breeding. Each chapter is authored by specialists in their fields to report the latest trends and findings. The book showcases the definitive value of sorghum as a model system to study the genetic basis of crop productivity and stress tolerance and will provide a foundation for future studies in sorghum genetics, genomics, and breeding.

Advances in Plant Breeding Strategies Cereals

Advances in Plant Breeding Strategies  Cereals Book
Author : Jameel M. Al-Khayri,Shri Mohan Jain,Dennis V. Johnson
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-11-14
ISBN : 3030231089
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book examines the development of innovative modern methodologies towards augmenting conventional plant breeding, in individual crops, for the production of new crop varieties under the increasingly limiting environmental and cultivation factors to achieve sustainable agricultural production, enhanced food security, in addition to providing raw materials for innovative industrial products and pharmaceuticals. This Volume 5, subtitled Cereals, focuses on advances in breeding strategies using both traditional and modern approaches for the improvement of individual crops. It addresses important staple food crops including barley, fonio, finger millet, foxtail millet, pearl millet, proso millet, quinoa, rice, rye, tef, triticale and spelt wheat. The volume is contributed by 53 internationally reputable scientists from 14 countries. Each chapter comprehensively reviews the modern literature on the subject and reflects the authors own experience.

Blast Disease of Cereal Crops

Blast Disease of Cereal Crops Book
Author : S. Chandra Nayaka,Rajashekara Hosahatti,Ganesh Prakash,C. Tara Satyavathi,Rajan Sharma
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021
ISBN : 303060585X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Blast is an important foliar disease that infects the majority of cereal crops like rice, finger millet, pearl millet, foxtail millet and wheat, and thus results in a huge economic impact. The pathogen is responsible for causing epidemics in many crops and commonly shifts to new hosts. Magnaporthe spp. is the most prominent cause of blast disease on a broad host range of grasses including rice as well as other species of Poaceae family. To date, 137 members of Poaceae hosting this fungus have been described in fungal databases. This book provides information on all blast diseases of different cereal crops. The pathogen evolves quickly due to its high variability, and thus can quickly adapt to new cultivars and cause an epidemic in a given crop. Some of the topics covered here include historical perspectives, pathogen evolution, host range shift, cross-infectivity, and pathogen isolation, use of chemicals fungicides, genetics and genomics, and management of blast disease in different cereal crops with adoption of suitable methodologies. In the past two decades there have been significant developments in genomics and proteomics approaches and there has been substantial and rapid progress in the cloning and mapping of R genes for blast resistance, as well as in comparative genomics analysis for resolving delineation of Magnaporthe species that infect both cereals and grass species. Blast disease resistance follows a typical gene-for-gene hypothesis. Identification of new Avr genes and effector molecules from Magnaporthe spp. can be useful to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the fast evolution of different strains of this fungal genus. Advances in these areas may help to reduce the occurrence of blast disease by the identification of potential R genes for effective deployment. Additionally, this book highlights the importance of blast disease that infects different cereal hosts in the context of climate change, and genomics approaches that may potentially help in understanding and applying new concepts and technologies that can make real impact in sustainable management of blast disease in different cereal crops.

Millets and Pseudo Cereals

Millets and Pseudo Cereals Book
Author : Mohar Singh, Ph.D,Salej Sood
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2020-10-09
ISBN : 0128200898
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Millets and Pseudo Cereals is the first comprehensive resource to focus on the potential crop improvements through genetic enhancements. The choice of food crop for a region is primarily determined by the conditions of climate and soil. Once labelled as orphan crops, millets and pseudo-cereals are now known as miracle grains due to their adaptation to harsh conditions and high nutritional quality. Small millets and pseudo-cereals are now seen to occupy special niches through their ability to adapt to challenging conditions. These crops have a comparative advantage in marginal lands where they withstand stress conditions and contribute to sustainable production. They also contribute to the diversity-richness and production stability of agro-ecosystems. Millets include sorghum, pearl millet, finger millet, foxtail millet, proso millet, barnyard millet, little millet and kodo millet while the other group which are not cereals but consumed as cereals and generally referred as pseudo-cereals comprises of grain amaranths, buckwheat and chenopods. Millets and Pseudo Cereals presents current information on the genetic architecture of important economic traits and the genomic resources for gene enabled breeding. This compilation contains information on the global status, available germplasm resources, nutritional value, breeding advancements, genomics applications and sustainability of agriculture through millets and pseudo-cereals cultivation. This book is a valuable resource for those conducting research and exploring new areas for advancing crop genetic understanding. Explores the current challenges of pseudo-cereal production and how that can be overcome by developing genetic and breeding resources using appropriate germplasm Provides holistic information on millets and pseudo-cereals Features global perspectives from an international contributing team of authors

Use of Agriculturally Important Genes in Biotechnology

Use of Agriculturally Important Genes in Biotechnology Book
Author : Geza Hrazdina
Publisher : IOS Press
Release : 2000
ISBN : 9781586030193
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

During the 45 years of communist regimes in Hungary, Poland and Slovakia, agriculture was centrally directed without regard of quality factors and market needs, and was heavily subsidized. Democratization of the countries and adoption of market driven economies, including agriculture, created conditions that require new thinking and approaches to find market areas that will fill the needs of each country, and provide produce that is not redundant for the Common Market. The aim of this book is to facilitate solving common agricultural problems using the tools of biotechnology. The book addresses five themes: Plant Transformations, Plant Genomics, Breeding Plants for Resistance and Legal Aspects of Biotechnology, including risk assessment. Some specific topics dealt with are: The way from fundamental research to start-up company, Crop improvement by transgenic technology; Strategies for improving resistance; Current procedures for applying risk assessment in genetically modified crops; Questions arising from the implementation of the Hungarian gene technology law; Public perception and legislation of Biotechnology in Poland.

Cereals

Cereals Book
Author : Marcelo J. Carena
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-04-21
ISBN : 9780387722979
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Agriculture depends on improved cultivars, and cultivars are developed through proper plant breeding. Unfortunately, applied plant breeding programs that are focused on cereal commodity crops are under serious erosion because of lack of funding. This loss of public support affects breeding continuity, objectivity, and, perhaps equally important, the training of future plant breeders and the utilization and improvement of plant genetic resources currently available. Breeding programs should focus not only on short-term research goals but also on long-term genetic improvement of germplasm. The research products of breeding programs are important not only for food security but also for commodity-oriented public and private programs, especially in the fringes of crop production. Breeding strategies used for long-term selection are often neglected but the reality is that long-term research is needed for the success of short-term products. An excellent example is that genetically broad-based public germplasm has significantly been utilized and recycled by industry, producing billions of dollars for industry and farmers before intellectual property rights were available. Successful examples of breeding continuity have served the sustainable cereal crop production that we currently have. The fact that farmers rely on public and private breeding institutions for solving long-term challenges should influence policy makers to reverse this trend of reduced funding. Joint cooperation between industry and public institutions would be a good example to follow. The objective of this volume is to increase the utilization of useful genetic resources and increase awareness of the relative value and impact of plant breeding and biotechnology. That should lead to a more sustainable crop production and ultimately food security. Applied plant breeding will continue to be the foundation to which molecular markers are applied. Focusing useful molecular techniques on the right traits will build a strong linkage between genomics and plant breeding and lead to new and better cultivars. Therefore, more than ever there is a need for better communication and cooperation among scientists in the plant breeding and biotechnology areas. We have an opportunity to greatly enhance agricultural production by applying the results of this research to meet the growing demands for food security and environmental conservation. Ensuring strong applied plant breeding programs with successful application of molecular markers will be essential in ensuring such sustainable use of plant genetic resources.

Translational Genomics for Crop Breeding 2 Volume Set

Translational Genomics for Crop Breeding  2 Volume Set Book
Author : Rajeev Varshney
Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell
Release : 2013-12-04
ISBN : 9781118760246
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Genomics Applications in Crop Improvement two volume set brings together a diverse field of international experts in plant breeding genomics to share their experiences in the field, from success stories to lessons learnt. In recent years advances in genetics and genomics have greatly enhanced our understanding of the structural and functional aspects of plant genomes. Several novel genetic and genomics approaches such as association genetics, advanced back-cross QTL analysis, allele mining, comparative and functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, etc. offer unprecedented opportunities to examine crop genetic variation and utilize this variability for breeding purposes. Enhancing the prediction of the phenotype from a genotype using genomics tools is referred to as 'genomics-assisted breeding'. To date, genomics-assisted breeding has shown its potential for crop improvement in several crops, however these successes have been largely restricted to temperate cereal and legume crops, and others such as Eucalyptus, sugarcane, tomato and other vegetables crops. Moreover, while success stories are available for improving resistance to biotic stresses, only a few examples are available on development of superior lines for abiotic stresses. These volumes will allow researchers the tools to begin to apply these technologies more broadly and will hopefully lead to lasting improvements in a wide variety of economically important crops. Volume One, Biotic Stress, focuses on genomic-assisted advances for improving economically important crops against biotic stressors, such as viruses, fungi, nematodes, and bacteria. Looking at key advances in crops such as rice, barley, wheat, and potato amongst others. Volume Two, Abiotic Stress, Quality and Yield Improvement, focuses on advances improving crop resistance to abiotic stresses such as extreme heat, drought, flooding as well as advances made in quality and yield improvement. Chapters examine advances in such key crops as rice, maize, and sugarcane, among others. Two volumes covering important topics in crop genomics and applying that information to breeding improved varieties of economically important crops Volumes cover improving resistance to abiotic and biotic stressors as well as breeding efforts to improve yield and quality Includes chapters on current challenges for plant breeders such as fusarium disease in wheat and cyst nematodes in soybean crops Organized by crop, with chapters covering a variety of topics for each including disease resistance, drought tolerance, salinity tolerance and overall improvement of yield Written by an international team of experts This book is intended for crop science researchers, plant biologists, geneticists, physiologists, cellular and molecular biologists, and advanced students in related fields will also find this set useful.

Genomics Assisted Crop Improvement

Genomics Assisted Crop Improvement Book
Author : R.K. Varshney,Roberto Tuberosa
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-12-12
ISBN : 1402062958
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This superb volume provides a critical assessment of genomics tools and approaches for crop breeding. Volume 1 presents the status and availability of genomic resources and platforms, and also devises strategies and approaches for effectively exploiting genomics research. Volume 2 goes into detail on a number of case studies of several important crop and plant species that summarize both the achievements and limitations of genomics research for crop improvement.

OMICS Applications in Crop Science

OMICS Applications in Crop Science Book
Author : Debmalya Barh
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2013-12-16
ISBN : 1466585250
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Merging topical data from recently published review and research articles, as well as the knowledge and insight of industry experts, Omics Applications in Crop Science delves into plant science, and various technologies that use omics in agriculture. This book concentrates on crop breeding and environmental applications, and examines the applications of various omics technologies including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics to important agronomic, horticultural, medicinal, plantation, fiber, forage, and bioenergy crops. It covers the application of omics technologies in several important crops, including cereal, and pulse. It explores the brassica species, drought tolerance in rice, and genetic engineering of the potato. The book discusses temperate fruits; and omics of medicinal plants, the metabolomics of Catharanthus roseus and how the medicinally important alkaloids of the plant are produced, as well as the omics of another important medicinal plant, Withania somnifera. It examines floriculture, the omics advances in tea, and omics strategies in improving the fiber qualities of cotton. It provides omics-related information on forest trees and forage crops, and offers a detailed account on how omics technologies are applicable in molecular farming, along with associated issues such as commercial aspects of molecular farming, clinical trials of plant-produced pharmaceuticals, regulatory issues and intellectual property rights. Written as a resource for plant biologists, plant breeders, agriculture scientists, researchers and college students studying various fields in agriculture, and the agri industries, OMICS Applications in Crop Science compiles the latest research in this essential field of modern crop and plant science utilizing various omics technologies and their applications in a number of important crops/plants from agronomy, pomology, olericulture, floriculture, medicinal plants, plantation and energy crops, agro-forestry, and more.

A Holistic Approach to Rice Research and Genetic Engineering

A Holistic Approach to Rice Research and Genetic Engineering Book
Author : Huanming Yang
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2003
ISBN : 9789812382078
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The aim of this book series is to familiarize scientists, students and the general public with exciting new discoveries and developments in rice genomics. Leading scientists in rice genomics and related fields are invited to write articles in a cohesive format that appeals to both researchers and laypersons with an interest in genomics and biotechnology. The first volume provides the background information and highlights the major achievements in rice genomics; ongoing developments in this exciting field are also discussed. This volume promotes genomics as a holistic approach to rice research and genetic engineering. The chief editor of the series is Prof Huanming Yang of the Beijing Genomics Institute. As one of the most distinguished scientists in rice research today, Prof Yang led a team of researchers who successfully sequenced and analyzed the draft sequence of the indica rice subspecies. In Vol 1 of the series, he co-authors an article entitled ?An International Campaign for Agricultural and Livestock Genomics?.

Cereal Genomics

Cereal Genomics Book
Author : Pushpendra K. Gupta,R.K. Varshney
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2006-01-26
ISBN : 1402023596
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cereals make an important component of daily diet of a major section of human population, so that their survival mainly depends on the cereal grain production, which should match the burgeoning human population. Due to painstaking efforts of plant breeders and geneticists, at the global level, cereal production in the past witnessed a steady growth. However, the cereal production in the past has been achieved through the use of high yielding varieties, which have a heavy demand of inputs in the form of chemical fertilizers, herbicides and insecticides/pesticides, leading to environmental degradation. In view of this, while increasing cereal production, one also needs to keep in mind that agronomic practices used for realizing high productivity do not adversely affect the environment. Improvement in cereal production in the past was also achieved through the use of alien genetic variation available in the wild relatives of these cereals, so that conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources is another important area, which is currently receiving the attention of plant breeders. The work leading to increased cereal production in the past received strong support from basic research on understanding the cereal genomes, which need to be manipulated to yield more from low inputs without any adverse effects as above. Through these basic studies, it also became fairly apparent that the genomes of all cereals are related and were derived from the same lineage, million of years ago.

Millets and Pseudo Cereals

Millets and Pseudo Cereals Book
Author : Mohar Singh,Salej Sood
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2020-09-20
ISBN : 0128204052
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Millets and Pseudo Cereals is the first comprehensive resource to focus on the potential crop improvements through genetic enhancements. The choice of food crop for a region is primarily determined by the conditions of climate and soil. Once labelled as orphan crops, millets and pseudo-cereals are now known as miracle grains due to their adaptation to harsh conditions and high nutritional quality. Small millets and pseudo-cereals are now seen to occupy special niches through their ability to adapt to challenging conditions. These crops have a comparative advantage in marginal lands where they withstand stress conditions and contribute to sustainable production. They also contribute to the diversity-richness and production stability of agro-ecosystems. Millets include sorghum, pearl millet, finger millet, foxtail millet, proso millet, barnyard millet, little millet and kodo millet while the other group which are not cereals but consumed as cereals and generally referred as pseudo-cereals comprises of grain amaranths, buckwheat and chenopods. Millets and Pseudo Cereals presents current information on the genetic architecture of important economic traits and the genomic resources for gene enabled breeding. This compilation contains information on the global status, available germplasm resources, nutritional value, breeding advancements, genomics applications and sustainability of agriculture through millets and pseudo-cereals cultivation. This book is a valuable resource for those conducting research and exploring new areas for advancing crop genetic understanding. Explores the current challenges of pseudo-cereal production and how that can be overcome by developing genetic and breeding resources using appropriate germplasm Provides holistic information on millets and pseudo-cereals Features global perspectives from an international contributing team of authors