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Application Of Brain Oscillations In Neuropsychiatric Diseases

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Application of Brain Oscillations in Neuropsychiatric Diseases

Application of Brain Oscillations in Neuropsychiatric Diseases Book
Author : Erol Başar,Canan Bașar-Eroğlu,Ayșegül Özerdem,Paolo M. Rossini,Görsev G. Yener
Publisher : Elsevier Science Health Science Division
Release : 2013
ISBN : 9780702053078
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Application of Brain Oscillations in Neuropsychiatric Diseases book written by Erol Başar,Canan Bașar-Eroğlu,Ayșegül Özerdem,Paolo M. Rossini,Görsev G. Yener, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Brain Oscillations Synchrony and Plasticity

Brain Oscillations  Synchrony and Plasticity Book
Author : Jos J. Eggermont
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-01-25
ISBN : 0128204087
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brain Oscillations, Synchrony and Plasticity: Basic Principles and Application to Auditory-Related Disorders discusses the role of brain oscillations, especially with respect to the auditory system and how those oscillations are measured, change over the lifespan, and falter leading to a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. The book begins with a description of these cortical rhythm oscillations and how they function in both the normal and pathological brain. It explains how these oscillations are important to auditory, executive and attention brain networks and how they relate to the development, production and deterioration of speech and language. In addition, treatment of malfunctioning cortical rhythms are reviewed using neuromodulation, such as transcranial magnetic, direct current, random noise, and alternating current stimulation, as well as focused ultrasound. The book concludes by describing the potential role of oscillations in dyslexia, autism, schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. Introduces readers to brain imaging methods such as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, EEG and magnetoencephalography, in the study of brain oscillations, synchrony and networks of the normal and pathological brain Highlights the role of brain oscillations in perception and cognition, in particular with respect to the auditory system, speech and language Describes lifespan changes, from preterm to senescence, of brain oscillations, brain networks and how they relate to the development and deterioration of speech and language Explains the effects of hearing loss on neural network change in the auditory and non-auditory networks such as the default mode-, the salience-, the executive- and attention networks Illustrates the breakdown of network connections in auditory-related disorders such as tinnitus and in psychiatric disorders with a strong auditory, speech and language component

Brain Body Mind in the Nebulous Cartesian System A Holistic Approach by Oscillations

Brain Body Mind in the Nebulous Cartesian System  A Holistic Approach by Oscillations Book
Author : Erol Başar
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-12-06
ISBN : 9781441961365
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brain-Body-Mind in the Nebulous Cartesian System: A Holistic Approach by Oscillations is a research monograph, with didactical features, on the mechanisms of the mind, encompassing a wide spectrum of results and analyses. The book should appeal to scientists and graduate students in the fields of neuroscience, neurology, psychiatry, physiology, psychology, physics and philosophy. Its goals are the development of an empirical-analytical construct, denoted as “Reasonings to Approach the Mind”, and the comprehension of 20 principles for understanding the mind. This book amalgamates results from work on the brain, vegetative system, brains in the evolution of species, the maturing brain, dynamic memory, emotional processes, and cognitive impairment in neuro-psychiatric disorders (Alzheimer, Schizophrenia, Bipolar disorders). The findings are comparatively evaluated within the framework of brain oscillations and neurotransmitters. Further, a holistic approach links the brain to the cardiovascular system and overall myogenic coordination of the vegetative system. The results emphasize that EEG oscillations, ultraslow oscillations, and neurotransmitters are quasi-invariant building blocks in brain-body-mind function and also during the evolution of species: The temporal domain is where the importance of research on neural oscillators is indispensable. The core, holistic concept that emerges is that the brain, spinal cord, overall myogenic system, brain-body-oscillations, and neurotransmitters form a functional syncytium. Accordingly, the concept of “Syncytium Brain-Body-Mind” replaces the concept of “Mind”. P>

Augmentation of Brain Function Facts Fiction and Controversy

Augmentation of Brain Function  Facts  Fiction and Controversy Book
Author : Manuel F. Casanova,Mikhail Lebedev,Ioan Opris
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2018-09-14
ISBN : 2889456161
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The final volume in this tripartite series on Brain Augmentation is entitled “From Clinical Applications to Ethical Issues and Futuristic Ideas”. Many of the articles within this volume deal with translational efforts taking the results of experiments on laboratory animals and applying them to humans. In many cases, these interventions are intended to help people with disabilities in such a way so as to either restore or extend brain function. Traditionally, therapies in brain augmentation have included electrical and pharmacological techniques. In contrast, some of the techniques discussed in this volume add specificity by targeting select neural populations. This approach opens the door to where and how to promote the best interventions. Along the way, results have empowered the medical profession by expanding their understanding of brain function. Articles in this volume relate novel clinical solutions for a host of neurological and psychiatric conditions such as stroke, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, epilepsy, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), traumatic brain injury, and disorders of consciousness. In disease, symptoms and signs denote a departure from normal function. Brain augmentation has now been used to target both the core symptoms that provide specificity in the diagnosis of a disease, as well as other constitutional symptoms that may greatly handicap the individual. The volume provides a report on the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in ASD with reported improvements of core deficits (i.e., executive functions). TMS in this regard departs from the present-day trend towards symptomatic treatment that leaves unaltered the root cause of the condition. In diseases, such as schizophrenia, brain augmentation approaches hold promise to avoid lengthy pharmacological interventions that are usually riddled with side effects or those with limiting returns as in the case of Parkinson’s disease. Brain stimulation can also be used to treat auditory verbal hallucination, visuospatial (hemispatial) neglect, and pain in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. The brain acts as a telecommunication transceiver wherein different bandwidth of frequencies (brainwave oscillations) transmit information. Their baseline levels correlate with certain behavioral states. The proper integration of brain oscillations provides for the phenomenon of binding and central coherence. Brain augmentation may foster the normalization of brain oscillations in nervous system disorders. These techniques hold the promise of being applied remotely (under the supervision of medical personnel), thus overcoming the obstacle of travel in order to obtain healthcare. At present, traditional thinking would argue the possibility of synergism among different modalities of brain augmentation as a way of increasing their overall effectiveness and improving therapeutic selectivity. Thinking outside of the box would also provide for the implementation of brain-to-brain interfaces where techniques, proper to artificial intelligence, could allow us to surpass the limits of natural selection or enable communications between several individual brains sharing memories, or even a global brain capable of self-organization. Not all brains are created equal. Brain stimulation studies suggest large individual variability in response that may affect overall recovery/treatment, or modify desired effects of a given intervention. The subject’s age, gender, hormonal levels may affect an individual’s cortical excitability. In addition, this volume discusses the role of social interactions in the operations of augmenting technologies. Finally, augmenting methods could be applied to modulate consciousness, even though its neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Finally, this volume should be taken as a debate on social, moral and ethical issues on neurotechnologies. Brain enhancement may transform the individual into someone or something else. These techniques bypass the usual routes of accommodation to environmental exigencies that exalted our personal fortitude: learning, exercising, and diet. This will allow humans to preselect desired characteristics and realize consequent rewards without having to overcome adversity through more laborious means. The concern is that humans may be playing God, and the possibility of an expanding gap in social equity where brain enhancements may be selectively available to the wealthier individuals. These issues are discussed by a number of articles in this volume. Also discussed are the relationship between the diminishment and enhancement following the application of brain-augmenting technologies, the problem of “mind control” with BMI technologies, free will the duty to use cognitive enhancers in high-responsibility professions, determining the population of people in need of brain enhancement, informed public policy, cognitive biases, and the hype caused by the development of brain- augmenting approaches.

Cortical Oscillations and Plasticity Induced by Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Cortical Oscillations and Plasticity Induced by Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Book
Author : Nor Azila Noh,Giorgio Fuggetta,Douglas Barratt
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive technique that is able to modulate cortical activity beyond the stimulation period. The residual aftereffects are akin to the plasticity mechanism of the brain and suggest the potential use of rTMS for therapy. In parallel, there is evidence that altered oscillatory brain rhythms and network dynamics may lead to symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the rTMS interference upon cortical and network oscillatory activity remains relatively unknown. Despite this uncertainty, rTMS continues to be used to alleviate symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders. By combining rTMS and electroencephalography (EEG), the thesis explored the local and network cortical plasticity in healthy humans through the characteristics of oscillatory brain rhythms. We investigated cortical and network oscillatory activity following simple rTMS protocols and continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the primary motor cortex. The measurements of rTMS-induced aftereffects were quantified by the direct electrophysiology index of EEG and the indirect behavioural measures of motor evoked potentials (MEPs). The results of the experiments showed that rTMS was able to transiently modulate cortical brain rhythms, especially low frequency theta oscillations. The significance of this finding is the possible involvement of independent cortical theta generators besides mu and beta generators over the motor network with different reactivity to rTMS protocols. However, long-term potentiation/depression (LTP-/LTD)-like mechanisms may not be the only mechanisms that drive the rTMS aftereffects as shown by the dissociation between EEG and MEPs cortical output. Here, we explore alternative explanations that drive the EEG oscillatory modulations post rTMS. The significant of this work is the ability of rTMS to transiently modify the internal state of the brain by altering brain oscillations particularly low-frequency brain rhythms. This finding offers exciting possibilities for future clinical trials to explore the use of non-invasive brain stimulation to reverse abnormal synchronisation in neuropsychiatric disorders.

EEG Based Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease

EEG Based Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease Book
Author : Nilesh Kulkarni,Vinayak Bairagi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-04-13
ISBN : 0128153938
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

EEG-Based Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease: A Review and Novel Approaches for Feature Extraction and Classification Techniques provides a practical and easy-to-use guide for researchers in EEG signal processing techniques, Alzheimer’s disease, and dementia diagnostics. The book examines different features of EEG signals used to properly diagnose Alzheimer’s Disease early, presenting new and innovative results in the extraction and classification of Alzheimer’s Disease using EEG signals. This book brings together the use of different EEG features, such as linear and nonlinear features, which play a significant role in diagnosing Alzheimer’s Disease. Includes the mathematical models and rigorous analysis of various classifiers and machine learning algorithms from a perspective of clinical deployment Covers the history of EEG signals and their measurement and recording, along with their uses in clinical diagnostics Analyzes spectral, wavelet, complexity and other features of early and efficient Alzheimer’s Disease diagnostics Explores support vector machine-based classification to increase accuracy

Clinical Applications of Magnetoencephalography

Clinical Applications of Magnetoencephalography Book
Author : Shozo Tobimatsu,Ryusuke Kakigi
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-02-19
ISBN : 4431557296
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents an overview of the recent advances in clinical applications of magnetoencephalography (MEG). With the expansion of MEG to neuroscience, its clinical applications have also been actively pursued. Featuring contributions from prominent experts in the fields, the book focuses on the current status of the application of MEG, not only to each nervous system but also to various diseases such as epilepsy, neurological disorders, and psychiatric disorders, while also examining the feasibility of using MEG for these diseases. Clinical Applications of Magnetoencephalography offers an indispensable resource for neurologists, neurosurgeons, pediatricians, and psychiatrists, as well as researchers in the field of neuroscience.

Brain Body Mind in the Nebulous Cartesian System A Holistic Approach by Oscillations

Brain Body Mind in the Nebulous Cartesian System  A Holistic Approach by Oscillations Book
Author : Erol Başar
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2010-12-06
ISBN : 9781441961341
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brain-Body-Mind in the Nebulous Cartesian System: A Holistic Approach by Oscillations is a research monograph, with didactical features, on the mechanisms of the mind, encompassing a wide spectrum of results and analyses. The book should appeal to scientists and graduate students in the fields of neuroscience, neurology, psychiatry, physiology, psychology, physics and philosophy. Its goals are the development of an empirical-analytical construct, denoted as “Reasonings to Approach the Mind”, and the comprehension of 20 principles for understanding the mind. This book amalgamates results from work on the brain, vegetative system, brains in the evolution of species, the maturing brain, dynamic memory, emotional processes, and cognitive impairment in neuro-psychiatric disorders (Alzheimer, Schizophrenia, Bipolar disorders). The findings are comparatively evaluated within the framework of brain oscillations and neurotransmitters. Further, a holistic approach links the brain to the cardiovascular system and overall myogenic coordination of the vegetative system. The results emphasize that EEG oscillations, ultraslow oscillations, and neurotransmitters are quasi-invariant building blocks in brain-body-mind function and also during the evolution of species: The temporal domain is where the importance of research on neural oscillators is indispensable. The core, holistic concept that emerges is that the brain, spinal cord, overall myogenic system, brain-body-oscillations, and neurotransmitters form a functional syncytium. Accordingly, the concept of “Syncytium Brain-Body-Mind” replaces the concept of “Mind”. P>

Deep Brain Stimulation DBS Applications

Deep Brain Stimulation  DBS  Applications Book
Author : Tipu Aziz,Alex Green
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2018-03-23
ISBN : 3038425389
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications" that was published in Brain Sciences

Brain Oscillations in Human Communication

Brain Oscillations in Human Communication Book
Author : Anne Keitel,Johanna Rimmele,Sophie Molholm,Joachim Gross
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2018-04-20
ISBN : 2889454584
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brain oscillations, or neural rhythms, reflect widespread functional connections between large-scale neural networks, as well as within cortical networks. As such they have been related to many aspects of human behaviour. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the role of brain oscillations at distinct frequency bands in cognitive, sensory and motor tasks. Consequentially, those rhythms also affect diverse aspects of human communication. On the one hand, this comprises verbal communication; a field where the understanding of neural mechanisms has seen huge advances in recent years. Speech is inherently organised in a rhythmic manner. For example, time scales of phonemes and syllables, but also formal prosodic aspects such as intonation and stress, fall into distinct frequency bands. Likewise, neural rhythms in the brain play a role in speech segmentation and coding of continuous speech at multiple time scales, as well as in the production of speech. On the other hand, human communication involves widespread and diverse nonverbal aspects where the role of neural rhythms is far less understood. This can be the enhancement of speech processing through visual signals, thought to be guided via brain oscillations, or the conveying of emotion, which results in differential rhythmic modulations in the observer. Additionally, body movements and gestures often have a communicative purpose and are known to modulate sensorimotor rhythms in the observer. This Research Topic of Frontiers in Human Neuroscience highlights the diverse aspects of human communication that are shaped by rhythmic activity in the brain. Relevant contributions are presented from various fields including cognitive and social neuroscience, neuropsychiatry, and methodology. As such they provide important new insights into verbal and non-verbal communication, pathological changes, and methodological innovations.

Seminars in Clinical Psychopharmacology

Seminars in Clinical Psychopharmacology Book
Author : Peter M. Haddad,David J. Nutt
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2020-03-31
ISBN : 1108850901
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This greatly expanded third edition provides a comprehensive overview of clinical psychopharmacology, incorporating the major advances in the field since the previous edition's publication. Renowned experts from psychiatry, pharmacy, and nursing have integrated basic science, psychopharmacology, and clinical practice throughout the book in order to provide a thorough basis for prescribing. It covers all key psychiatric drugs and disorders and includes the latest data on efficacy, safety and tolerability. Adopting a pragmatic approach to drug nomenclature, both Neuroscience-based Nomenclature (NbN) and older generic terminology are included in the text reflecting that clinicians are likely to use both systems. Many chapters refer to current National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines, making this a crucial resource. Edited by leading authorities in the field, Professor Peter M. Haddad and Professor David J. Nutt, Seminars in Clinical Psychopharmacology emphasises evidence-based prescribing with the aim of achieving better clinical outcomes for patients.

Computational EEG Analysis

Computational EEG Analysis Book
Author : Chang-Hwan Im
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-08-16
ISBN : 9811309086
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book introduces and reviews all of the currently available methods being used for computational electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis, from the fundamentals through to the state-of-the-art. The aim of the book is to help biomedical engineers and medical doctors who use EEG to better understand the methods and applications of computational EEG analysis from a single, well-organized resource. Following a brief introduction to the principles of EEG and acquisition techniques, the book is divided into two main sections. The first of these covers analysis methods, beginning with preprocessing, and then describing EEG spectral analysis, event-related potential analysis, source imaging and multimodal neuroimaging, and functional connectivity analysis. The following section covers application of EEG analysis to specific fields, including the diagnosis of psychiatric diseases and neurological disorders, brain-computer interfacing, and social neuroscience. Aimed at practicing medical specialists, engineers, researchers and advanced students, the book features contributions from world-renowned biomedical engineers working across a broad spectrum of computational EEG analysis techniques and EEG applications.

Fast Oscillations in Cortical Circuits

Fast Oscillations in Cortical Circuits Book
Author : Roger D. Traub
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 9780262293488
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Fast Oscillations in Cortical Circuits book written by Roger D. Traub, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Cortical Oscillations in Health and Disease

Cortical Oscillations in Health and Disease Book
Author : Roger D. Traub
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 9780199711505
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book reviews a number of clinical neuropsychiatric conditions in which brain oscillations play an essential role. It discusses how the intrinsic properties of neurons, and the interactions between neurons - mediated by both chemical synapses and by gap junctions - can lead to oscillations in populations of cells.

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Neuropsychiatric Disorders Book
Author : André Brunoni,Michael Nitsche,Colleen Loo
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-09-12
ISBN : 3319339672
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The aim of this book is to provide a comprehensive review of the use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in different psychiatric conditions. Here we review tDCS clinical studies employing different types of design (from single-session tDCS studies to randomized clinical trials) as well as studies evaluating the impact of tDCS in neurophysiological, behavioral and brain imaging outcomes. Although the understanding about physiological foundations and effectiveness of clinical therapies of psychiatric diseases has been considerably increased during the last decades, our knowledge is still limited, and consequently psychiatric diseases are still a major burden to the individual patient and society. Recently, interest in pathological alterations of neuroplasticity in psychiatric diseases as a critical condition for development, and amelioration of clinical symptoms increased, caused by the fact that new tools, such as functional imaging, and brain stimulation techniques do allow to monitor, and modulate these phenomena in humans. Especially non-invasive brain stimulation techniques evolved as an attractive potential new therapeutic tool. The interest in non-invasive brain stimulation has grown exponentially in the past 25 years, with the development of non-pharmacological, neuromodulatory techniques such as tDCS and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). TDCS, although even newer than rTMS, has attracted considerable attention in both basic and clinical research scenarios. In the context of clinical research, tDCS is being increasingly investigated as a novel treatment tool for several psychiatric disorders, such as major depression, schizophrenia and neurocognitive and substance abuse disorders. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Neuropsychiatric Disorders – Clinical Principles and Management intends to serve as a practical guide on the field, attracting the interest of psychiatrists, neurologists and neuroscientists with little or no experience with tDCS, as well as those with a background on tDCS who want to increase their knowledge in any particular psychiatric condition.

Event Related Dynamics of Brain Oscillations

Event Related Dynamics of Brain Oscillations Book
Author : Christa Neuper,Wolfgang Klimesch
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2006-12-03
ISBN : 9780080465593
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Research on brain oscillations and event-related electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related (de-) synchronization (ERD/ERS) in particular became a rapidly growing field in the last decades. A large number of laboratories worldwide are using ERD/ERS to study cognitive and motor brain function and the importance of this tool in neurocognitive research is widely recognized. This book is a summary of the most current research, methods, and applications of the study of event-related dynamics of brain oscillations. Facing the rapid progress in this field, it brings together, on the one side, fundamental questions of the underlying events, which still remain to be clarified and, on the other side, some of the most significant novel findings, which point to the key topics for future research. In particular, the chapters of this volume cover the neurophysiological fundamentals and models (Section I), new methodological approaches (Section II), current ERD research related to cognitive (Section III) and sensorimotor brain function (Section IV), invasive approaches and clinical applications (Section V), and novel developments of EEG-based brain-computer interfaces and neurofeedback (Section IV).

New Insights on Basic and Clinical Aspects of EEG and MEG Connectome

New Insights on Basic and Clinical Aspects of EEG and MEG Connectome Book
Author : Ryouhei Ishii,Roberto D. Pascual-Marqui,Leonides Canuet,Jing Xiang,William C. Gaetz
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2018-08-31
ISBN : 2889455319
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recent advances in the neuroimaging field areas allow us to visualize the aggregate of neural connections at the macroscopic level within the brain, the so-called “connectome”. In order to promote the development of the neurophysiological investigation of connectome of brain oscillations, this eBook aims at bringing together contributions from researchers in basic and clinical neuroscience using EEG and MEG connectome analysis. The most important focal point will be to address the functional roles of connectome of brain oscillations in contributing to understandings of higher cognitive processes in normal subjects and pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases. This Research Topic presented novel methodologies and various applications of neurophysiological connectome analysis. As a result, these papers were cited more than 120 times in these four years in total and threw light and impact on new directions for investigating the connectome of human brain.

Dynamic Functional Connectivity in Neuropsychiatric Disorders Methods and Applications

Dynamic Functional Connectivity in Neuropsychiatric Disorders  Methods and Applications Book
Author : Wenbin Guo,Feng Liu,Zaixu Cui
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-12-03
ISBN : 2889661954
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Dynamic Functional Connectivity in Neuropsychiatric Disorders Methods and Applications book written by Wenbin Guo,Feng Liu,Zaixu Cui, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Neurophysiology of the Migraine Brain

Neurophysiology of the Migraine Brain Book
Author : Gianluca Coppola,Wei-Ta Chen
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-10-20
ISBN : 3030565386
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Roughly one in every five patients referred to a neurologist suffers from headaches; the majority have migraines. Although headache specialists understand migraine on a clinical basis, the pathophysiological changes that provoke and accompany the development of a migraine attack continue to elude us. Several decades have passed since the pioneering electroencephalographic study by Golla and Winter (1959), which underscored the role of abnormal rhythmic activities in migraine. Since then, there have been substantial advances in the field; a wealth of neurophysiological studies has enriched our understanding of the pathophysiological facets of the migraine pathology. Virtually every known technique of clinical electrophysiology has since been used to study the migraine brain and, more recently, new neurophysiological tools have been added to the arsenal. Nevertheless, applying the principles of peripheral and central neuromodulation offers a promising way to transfer the principles of synaptic plasticity to the patient’s bedside. This book belongs to the Headache Series endorsed by the European Headache Federation. Written by internationally recognized experts in their respective fields, it covers all aspects of clinical neurophysiological methods that represent significant advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of migraine. It will offer a valuable toolkit for beginners, and a reference guide for experts.

Eyeblink Conditioning in Psychiatric Conditions State of the Field and Future Directions

Eyeblink Conditioning in Psychiatric Conditions   State of the Field and Future Directions Book
Author : Tracy L. Greer,Lucien T. Thompson
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2017-09-22
ISBN : 2889452751
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC) is a model paradigm for associative (also termed Pavlovian) learning, one of the simplest and best understood forms of learning and memory. Because EBC paradigms are readily adapted across species, the neural substrates of EBC have been well characterized, and include but are not limited to the cerebellum and anterior interpositus nucleus, the hippocampus, and prefrontal cortices. The ability to collect EBC data across many different species (i.e. including but not limited to humans) also has the distinct advantage of facilitating translational research, and therefore may be of particular benefit to elucidate mechanistic changes associated with a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. In fact, EBC paradigms have been employed to assess individuals with a wide range of neurological deficits (including Korsakoff’s amnesia, Alzheimer's disease as well as normal aging, dyslexia, inflammatory tremor, dystonia, and multiple sclerosis) and psychiatric disorders (including major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, autism, and alcohol use/addiction disorders). Individuals with these disorders exhibit differential impairments across different EBC task types (e.g., delay vs. trace EBC), with some showing impairment in one but not the other task and some showing impairments in both; across learning stage (e.g., acquisition, discrimination, or extinction), and across response variables (e.g., magnitude and timing of the conditioned eyeblink motor response, modality of the conditioned stimulus). Evaluating specific individual differences in the context of variable brain pathology should aid characterization and refinement of our understanding of complex neuropsychiatric disorders. The field of psychiatry has seen a transition from more traditional use of symptom clusters to define psychiatric disorders with subsequent examination of associated behaviors and traits, to the use of physiological and behavioral indicators to characterize individuals with respect to various psychological domains [in line with the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative]. This approach employs a neuroscience-based framework to assess the pathophysiology of chronic mental illnesses. Behavioral and cognitive processes are critical domains of interest in evaluating potential maladaptive patterns that may be indicative of specific psychopathologies. Furthermore, the rapid development of technological advances that allow for more detailed examination (e.g., EEG, MEG, MRI, fMRI, infrared imaging) and manipulation (e.g. transcranial magnetic and direct current stimulation) of brain functions should enhance our ability to better characterize EBC performance and its utility in characterizing aspects of particular neuropathologies. Substantial research evidence exists for the value of EBC paradigms to inform our understanding of the pathophysiologies underlying a wide variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Despite these findings, this readily implemented classic cognitive-behavioral paradigm is relatively underutilized in clinical settings. This e-book highlights recent convergence of clinical and research efforts in this area and aims to promote a resurgent interest in eyeblink classical conditioning, and to emphasize the potential for future translational and diagnostic applications of EBC in combination with other techniques to strengthen our understanding of alterations in brain function manifested in behaviors characteristic of specific psychopathologies.