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Antibiotics And Antimicrobial Resistance Genes In The Environment

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Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment

Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment Book
Author : Carlos F. Amabile-Cuevas
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2015-12-30
ISBN : 1315679418
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The presence of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, and antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment (i.e., outside of clinical settings, such as antibiotic-treated patients or antibiotic-impregnated locations, such as hospitals) is a cause of growing worldwide concern, as it reveals the extensive impact of antibiotic abuse and other huma

Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment

Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment Book
Author : Patricia L. Keen,Mark H. M. M. Montforts
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-01-24
ISBN : 0470905425
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Examines effects of the environmental distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes on human health and the ecosystem Resistance genes are everywhere in nature?in pathogens, commensals, and environmental microorganisms. This contributed work shows how the environment plays a pivotal role in the development of antimicrobial resistance traits in bacteria and the distribution of resistant microbial species, resistant genetic material, and antibiotic compounds. Readers will discover the impact of the distribution in the environment of antimicrobial resistance genes and antibiotics on both the ecosystem and human and animal health. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment is divided into four parts: Part I, Sources, including ecological and clinical consequences of antibiotic resistance by environmental microbes Part II, Fate, including strategies to assess and minimize the biological risk of antibiotic resistance in the environment Part III, Antimicrobial Substances and Resistance, including antibiotics in the aquatic environment Part IV, Effects and Risks, including the effect of antimicrobials used for non-human purposes on human health Recognizing the intricate links among overlapping complex systems, this book examines antimicrobial resistance using a comprehensive ecosystem approach. Moreover, the book's multidisciplinary framework applies principles of microbiology, environmental toxicology, and chemistry to assess the human and ecological risks associated with exposure to antibiotics or antibiotic resistance genes that are environmental contaminants. Each chapter has been written by one or more leading researchers in such fields as microbiology, environmental science, ecology, and toxicology. Comprehensive reference lists at the end of all chapters serve as a gateway to the primary research in the field. Presenting and analyzing the latest findings in a field of growing importance to human and environmental health, this text offers readers new insights into the role of the environment in antimicrobial resistance development, the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant genetic elements, and the transport of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics.

Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in the Environment

Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in the Environment Book
Author : Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-11-22
ISBN : 0128188839
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes (AMR) in the Environment summarizes and updates information on antibiotic producing organisms and their resistance and entry routes in soil, air, water and sediment. As antibiotic use continues to rise in healthcare, their fate, bioavailability and biomonitoring, and impacts on environment and public health are becoming increasingly important. The book addresses the impact of antibiotics and AMR to environment and public health and risk assessment. Moreover, it focused on the metagenomics and molecular techniques for the detection of antibiotics and antimicrobial genes. Lastly, it introduces management strategies, such as treatment technologies for managing antibiotics and AMR/ARGs-impacted environment, and bioremediation approaches. Summarizes and updates information on antibiotics and AMR/ARGs production and its fate and transport in the environment Includes phytoremediation and bioremediation technologies for environmental management Provides analysis of risk assessment of antibiotic resistance genes to help understand the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of antibiotics and AMR/ARGs

Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes

Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Book
Author : Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-04-07
ISBN : 3030404226
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume summarizes and updates information about antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance (AMR)/antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) production, including their entry routes in soil, air, water and sediment, their use in hospital and associated waste, global and temporal trends in use and spread of antibiotics, AMR and ARG. Antimicrobial/antibiotic resistance genes due to manure and agricultural waste applications, bioavailability, biomonitoring, and their Epidemiological, ecological and public health effects. The book addresses the antibiotic and AMR/ARG risk assessment and treatment technologies, for managing antibiotics and AMR/ARG impacted environments The book's expert contributions span 20 chapters, and offer a comprehensive framework for better understanding and analyzing the environmental and social impacts of antibiotics and AMR/ARGs. Readers will have access to recent and updated models regarding the interpretation of antibiotics and AMR/ARGs in environment and biomonitoring studies, and will learn about the management options require to appropriately mitigate environmental contaminants and pollution. The book will be of interest to students, teachers, researchers, policy makers and environmental organizations.

Surveying Antimicrobial Resistance The New Complexity of the Problem

Surveying Antimicrobial Resistance  The New Complexity of the Problem Book
Author : Gilberto Igrejas,José Luis Capelo,Carlos Lodiero,Patrícia Poeta
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-07-10
ISBN : 2889633802
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In January of 2015, under the 1st International Caparica Conference in Antibiotic Resistance, a Research Topic entitled: “Surveying Antimicrobial Resistance: Approaches, Issues, and Challenges to overcome”, was published (http://journal.frontiersin.org/researchtopic/3763/surveying-antimicrobial-resistanceapproaches- issues-and-challenges-to-overcome). The problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), caused by excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics, is a public health issue that concerns us all. The introduction of penicillin in the 1940s, the start of the antibiotics era, has been recognized as one of the greatest advances in therapeutic medicine. However, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), AMR infections are now an increasing worldwide public health threat and a post-antibiotic era is imminent, where common infections and minor injuries could be fatal. AMR is a typical ‘One Health’ problem, in which livestock animals and the environment constitute AMR reservoirs and transmission routes to and from the human population. Without effective antimicrobials to counter and prevent infections, other major achievements in modern medicine, such as organ transplantation, cancer chemotherapy and major surgery, risk being compromised. AMR infections in animals have negative outcomes on animal health, welfare, biosecurity and production. In 2006, the ban of growth promoting antibiotics highlighted antibiotic use in animal production as a risk factor in the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Bacteria can be transferred to humans via several routes; consumption of animal products, exposure through contact with animals, and the contamination of ground and surface waters by animal waste products. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that antimicrobial use in animals is reduced to a minimum, without compromising animal health and welfare. Mechanisms of bacterial antibiotic resistance are classified according to the types of antibiotic molecules or their targets in the cell. Environmental antibiotic-resistance genes are spread then acquired by clinically relevant microorganisms. Many resistance genes are conveyed into pathogen genomes via mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons or integrons, increasing the propagation of potential resistant pathogens. Substantial progress has already been made in elucidating the basic regulatory networks that endow bacteria with their extraordinary capacity to adapt to a diversity of lifestyles and external stress factors. So how will we face bacteria in the future?

Antibiotics and Antibiotics Resistance Genes in Soils

Antibiotics and Antibiotics Resistance Genes in Soils Book
Author : Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi,Vladimir Strezov,Ajit Varma
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-11-03
ISBN : 3319662600
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in the soil environment. It covers a wide range of topics to help readers understand antibiotics and ARGs in soils, the risks they pose for the environment, and options for effective control. In addition, it presents a range of essential tools and methodologies that can be used to address antibiotics and ARGs in a consistent, efficient, and cost-effective manner. Gathering contributions by international experts, the book addresses both theoretical aspects and practical applications.The topics discussed include antibiotics-producing microorganisms; the routes of entry and fate of antibiotics and resistance genes; biomonitoring approaches; dissemination of ARGs in soils; risk assessment; the impact of antibiotics and ARGs on the soil microbial community and other biota; bioremediation and biodegradation approaches; and soil management strategies for antibiotics and ARG-contaminated soils.As such, the book will be of interest to students, researchers and scholars in environmental science and engineering, toxicology, the medical and pharmaceutical sciences, environmental biotechnology, soil sciences, microbial ecology and plant biotechnology. Readers and Journals: 1. This new volume on antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in the soil environment will be of interest to students, researchers and scholars in environmental science and engineering, toxicology, the medical and pharmaceutical sciences, environmental biotechnology, soil sciences,microbial ecology and plant biotechnology. 2. The book will provide government authorities all over the world with effective strategies for the management of antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARG)- contaminated soil. 3. Gathering contributions by international experts,the book addresses both theoretical aspects and practical applications.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes

Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes Book
Author : Patricia L. Keen,Raphaël Fugà ̈re
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-09-26
ISBN : 1119192447
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Antimicrobial resistance is arguably the greatest threat to worldwide human health. This book evaluates the roles of human water use, treatment and conservation in the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Designed as a companion volume to Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), this book is a multi-disciplinary synthesis of topics related to antimicrobial resistance and wastewater treatment processes. Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes assembles detailed discussions written by many of the world's best-known experts in microbiology, civil engineering, chemistry, environmental science, public health and related fields. The book presents a collection of subjects that includes: Current knowledge of the role of the environment in development and spread of antimicrobial resistance Chemical analysis of antibiotics in environmental samples Molecular methods for analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes Advanced wastewater treatment processes and antimicrobial resistance effects Public perception of risk related to health consequences of antimicrobial resistance Public health implications of antimicrobial resistance with focus on wastewater treatment processes Antimicrobial resistance has gained a foothold in the global consciousness as a serious public health threat. There is a much greater appreciation for the role of the environment in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and the effects of pollutants that can potentially promote development of resistance in bacteria. Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants are a concern. In Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes, readers will be guided through examinations of the current science related to this important health issue.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters

Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters Book
Author : Karina Yew-Hoong Gin,Charmaine Ng
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2019-04-30
ISBN : 3038976083
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This Special Issue on Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters features 11 articles on the monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in natural aquatic systems (i.e., reservoirs, rivers), and effluent discharge from water treatment plants to assess the effectiveness of AMR removal and resulting loads in treated waters. Some of the key elements of AMR studies presented in this Special Issue highlight the underlying drivers of AMR contamination in the environment and the evaluation of the hazard imposed on aquatic organisms in receiving environments through ecological risk assessments. As described in this Issue, screening antimicrobial peptide (AMP) libraries for biofilm disruption and antimicrobial candidates are promising avenues for the development of new treatment options to eradicate resistance.

Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 46

Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 46 Book
Author : Harsh Panwar,Chetan Sharma,Eric Lichtfouse
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-09-29
ISBN : 3030530248
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

According to the World Health Organization, antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to global health because the number of alternative antibiotics is very limited. Antimicrobial resistance is a slow evolutionary process that has been accelerated by human activities in health, environment and agriculture sectors. Due to their wide application, antibiotics and their residues have been found in almost all food products and natural ecosystems. This book reviews the drivers, impact and mitigation of antimicrobial resistance, with focus on methods and targets.

Transmission Dynamics of Antibiotic Resistance Genes Between Human associated and Environmental Microbial Communities

Transmission Dynamics of Antibiotic Resistance Genes Between Human associated and Environmental Microbial Communities Book
Author : Pablo Tsukayama
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The increased use of antibiotics in human medicine and agriculture over the past decades has introduced significant selective pressures on bacterial populations in virtually all human-associated environments and lead to the evolution of multidrug-resistant bacteria that compromise our ability to treat infectious disease. Due to the high likelihood of contact and genetic exchange with pathogens during disease progression, the mammalian gut microbiota is considered one of the most accessible reservoirs of resistance determinants. The spread of resistant organisms and their genes occurs not only between humans via direct contact, but can also be disseminated into and from animal populations and environments exposed to human activities, with important consequences for human health and disease. The goal of my dissertation was to understand the mechanisms by which antimicrobial resistance determinants are exchanged between gut-associated communities and the environment, and to determine the role of human activity in these dissemination patterns. To this end, I characterized bacterial communities and resistomes in (1) human, animal, and environmental samples from a shantytown in Lima, Peru --an area representative of many urban developing country settings-- and (2) wild baboon populations from Southern Africa that have little or no contact with human populations. Collectively, I show that (1) there is large, shared pool of resistance genes shared between humans at the household and community level; (2) Sewage microbial communities are novel, diverse, and significantly different from the human fecal communities that serve as their input; (3) Antibiotic resistance is an ancient feature of primate gut metagenomes. Future work should be aimed at understanding the biotic and abiotic factors that affect the movement of ARGs from environmental reservoirs into pathogenic strains through real-time monitoring of environmental resistomes and pathogenic strains in the hospital and community settings.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Fish Reasons Risks and Alternative Strategies

Antimicrobial Resistance in Fish  Reasons  Risks and Alternative Strategies Book
Author : Saurav Lamichhane,Namraj Jaishi,Biplov Shrestha
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release : 2021-09-07
ISBN : 3346481492
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Academic Paper from the year 2021 in the subject Biology - Micro- and Molecular Biology, , course: Bachelor of Science in Fisheries, language: English, abstract: This text deals with the antimicrobial resistance in fish as a result of its use in aquaculture, the development and spread of this resistance and the risk associated with the antimicrobial resistant in fish culture. Antimicrobial resistance arises due to the overuse of antimicrobial drugs, most prominently antibiotics and others like antivirals, antifungals, etc. An antibiotic is a substance produced by one microorganism that selectively inhibits the growth of another microorganism and there are different types of it. Its use in aquaculture is accompanied by various factors and increasing use of it has several impacts. As of now, the aquaculture sector is growing rapidly and currently, it accounts for more than half of the fish used for human consumption. Demand for food has been increased since the population of the world is growing rapidly so, dependent on aquaculture to provide a safe, reliable, and economic supply of aquatic food has also increased. This increase in production has been accompanied by the intensive use of antibiotics in the aquaculture industry which is leading to the production of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens.

Antibiotic Drug Resistance

Antibiotic Drug Resistance Book
Author : José-Luis Capelo-Martínez,Gilberto Igrejas
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2019-09-24
ISBN : 1119282527
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents a thorough and authoritative overview of the multifaceted field of antibiotic science – offering guidance to translate research into tools for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases. Provides readers with knowledge about the broad field of drug resistance Offers guidance to translate research into tools for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases Links strategies to analyze microbes to the development of new drugs, socioeconomic impacts to therapeutic strategies, and public policies to antibiotic-resistance-prevention strategies

Antibiotic Resistance

Antibiotic Resistance Book
Author : Derek J. Chadwick,Jamie A. Goode
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2008-04-30
ISBN : 0470515368
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Antibiotic Resistance: Origins, Evolution, Selection and Spread Chairman: Stuart B. Levy, 1997 Over the last 50 years, the rapid increase in the use of antibiotics, not only in people, but also in animal husbandry and agriculture, has delivered a selection unprecedented in the history of evolution. Consequently, society is facing one of its gravest public health problems-the emergence of infectious bacteria with resistance to many, and in some cases all, available antibiotics. This book brings together a multidisciplinary group of experts to discuss this problem. It begins by examining the origins of resistance and goes on to look at how the use of antibiotics in human medicine and farming/agriculture has selected for resistant bacteria. Separate chapters describe the evolution of resistance determinants and how these are spread both within and between bacterial species. Finally, the book contains discussions on strategies for countering the threat of antibiotic resistance. A major re-thinking of our approach to the treatment of infectious diseases is proposed-that antibiotic resistance should be seen as a problem created by the disruption of normal microbial ecology. To restore efficacy to earlier antibiotics, and to maintain the success of new antibiotics that are introduced, we need to use these drugs in a way that ensures an ecological balance that favours the predominance of susceptible bacteria.

Antimicrobial Resistance

Antimicrobial Resistance Book
Author : Yashwant Kumar
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2019-05-02
ISBN : 178985783X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The discovery of antibiotics was considered a milestone in health sciences and became the mainstay of antimicrobial therapy to treat and control bacterial infections. However, its utility has subsequently become limited, due to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance among different bacterial species, which has emerged as a global threat. The development and spread of antimicrobial resistance have been attributed to many factors, including indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the healthcare and livestock industries. The present scenario of antibiotic resistance urgently requires interventions in terms of development of newer antimicrobials, evaluation of alternative therapies, and formulation of stringent policies to curb indiscriminate use of antimicrobials. This book highlights the importance and development of antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic, environmental and food bacteria, including the significance of candidate alternative therapies.

The multiple roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in nature

The multiple roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in nature Book
Author : Fiona Walsh
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-05-15
ISBN : 2889195252
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance have most commonly been viewed in the context of human use and effects. However, both have co-existed in nature for millennia. Recently the roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes have started to be discussed in terms of functions other than bacterial inhibition and protection. This special topic will focus on both the traditional role of antibiotics as warfare mechanisms and their alternative roles and uses within nature such as antibiotics as signals or communication mechanisms, antibiotic selection at low concentrations, the non-specific role of resistance mechanisms in nature: e.g. efflux pumps, evolution of antibiotic resistance and the role of persisters in natural antibiotic resistance.

Responsible Use of Antibiotics in Aquaculture

Responsible Use of Antibiotics in Aquaculture Book
Author : Pilar Hernández Serrano,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher : Food & Agriculture Org.
Release : 2005
ISBN : 9789251054369
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Antibiotics are drugs of natural or synthetic origin that have the capacity to kill or to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms. Antibiotics that are sufficiently non-toxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases of human, animals and plants. They have long been present in the environment and have played a crucial role in the battle between man and microbe. Many bacterial species multiply rapidly enough to double their numbers every 20-30 minutes, so their ability to adapt to changes in the environment and survive unfavourable conditions often results in the development of mutations that enable the species to survive changing external conditions. Another factor contributing to their adaptability is that individual cells do not rely on their own genetic resources. Many, if not all, have access to a large pool of itinerant genes that move form one bacteria cell to another and spread through bacterial populations through a variety of mobile genetic elements, of which plasmids and transposable elements are two examples. The capacity of bacteria to adapt to changes in their environment and thus survive is called resistance. Drug choices for the treatment of common infectious diseases are becoming increasingly limited and expensive and, in some cases, unavailable due to the emergence of drug resistance in bacteria and fungi-resistance that is threatenging to reverse much medical progress of the past 50 years. Dissemination of resistant micro-organisms may occur in both hospitals and communities. It is recognized that a major route of transmission of resistant micro-organishm from animals to humans is through the food chain. In aquaculture, antibiotics have been used mainly for therapeutic purposes and as prophylactic agents. The contribution to antimicrobial resistance of antibiotics used in aquaculture is reviewed here, using a risk analysis framework. Some recommendations on responsible conduct in this context are proposed, aimed at diminishing the threat of build up of antimicrobial resistance.

Antimicrobial Resistance from a One Health Perspective in Nepal

Antimicrobial Resistance from a One Health Perspective in Nepal Book
Author : Cristin Cowles Weekley Young
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 9781658412988
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

While the discovery and subsequent availability of antimicrobials revolutionized modern healthcare in humans and animals, growing resistance to antimicrobials by bacterial pathogens threatens to undermine one of the greatest scientific advances of the 20th century, as the discovery of new antimicrobials has slowed while antibiotic use and subsequent resistance (AMR) is rising globally (1-4). Current human mortality rates due to AMR are already over half a million deaths annually worldwide, and recent reports have estimated that if AMR is not controlled, the mortality rate will exceed 10 million per year by 2050, with an economic burden of over $100 trillion USD in lost output (4). These impacts will be felt globally, with low- and middle-income countries being hardest hit, as AMR can spread easily in humans and agricultural settings in these countries due to large variation in healthcare infection-control practices, high rates of infectious diseases, high population densities with poor water, sanitation, and hygiene regulations, and suboptimal agricultural regulations in place for biosecurity and use of veterinary antimicrobials (5-7). Despite evidence indicating that many countries face particularly high-risk conditions for AMR, there remain substantial data gaps characterizing the prevalence and abundance of AMR in humans, animals, and the surrounding environment, especially for community-acquired infections (7). This paucity of One Health-focused research on AMR in low-income and underserved settings worldwide highlights the need for transdisciplinary research to elucidate drivers of antimicrobial resistance and to characterize AMR transmission across One Health domains (7-9). This dissertation seeks to address these gaps in evidence by focusing on an urban, informal settlement with intensifying livestock production in Kathmandu, Nepal. Chapter 1 illustrated a One Health framework that can be used to investigate co-occurrence of resistance genes within and between species and to inform on environmental reservoirs of resistance genes in a densely populated, urban community in Nepal. We concurrently sampled humans, chickens, ducks, swine, and water, as well as rodents and shrews near dwellings. Sixty-nine resistance genes were identified, and detection of the same gene among different species was widespread. The highest prevalence of resistance genes were detected in ducks and gene prevalence varied markedly by species and sample type. Overall, ermB, tetA, mefA, and tetB were most commonly detected; antibiotics associated with these resistance genes, including doxycycline, azithromycin, and gentamicin, are widely used in Nepal in both humans and animals (10). Chapter 2 evaluated putative risk factors relating to the occurrence of specific resistance genes associated with antibiotics of global health importance for both humans and animals as prioritized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Organisation for Animal Health (OiE), respectively. Seven genes were chosen based on prevalence in the community and were evaluated independently in multivariate analyses in order to characterize potential reservoirs and transmission pathways for each gene in this urban, informal settlement setting. By assessing which species and sample types were associated with the detection of a gene, this study was able to more fully characterize the genetic resistome in this community and provide guidance for prioritization of prevention and intervention efforts for disrupting AMR transmission of critically important antibiotics for humans and animals in Nepal. Finally, to better understand the sociodemographic and human behavioral drivers of AMR gene burden in low-income community settings, Chapter 3 assessed individual- and household-level risk factors associated with the carriage and burden of AMR genes found in humans. Resistance genes were found in all samples tested with an average of 7 resistance genes from 10 antibiotic classification groups found per participant (n=67). Age and having animals inside the dwelling in the past year were both risk factors for resistance gene carriage and burden, while having a dedicated location for trash and animal waste was protective. Predictors were similar across multivariate and antibiotic resistance classification group-specific models, signifying that activities that generally mitigate risk factors for gene carriage in humans will aid in reducing overall resistance gene burden across antibiotic resistance classification groupings in this community. The conclusions drawn from this body of work help further the understanding of the antibiotic resistome in low-income, urban settings. The concurrent sampling design combined with broad screening for AMR genes offers a unique framework on which to base further efforts to characterize the community resistome, evaluate reservoirs of AMR, and better inform policy for combating the spread of resistance among and between animals, humans, and the environment. References 1. Blair JMA, Webber MA, Baylay AJ, Ogbolu DO, Piddock LJV. Molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Nature Publishing Group. Nature Publishing Group; 2014 Dec 1;13(1):42-51. 2. World Health Organization. WHO global strategy for containment of antimicrobial resistance. 2001. 3. Yao X, Doi Y, Zeng L, Lv L, Liu J-H. Carbapenem-resistant and colistin-resistant Escherichia coli co-producing NDM-9 and MCR-1. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Elsevier Ltd; 2016 Jan 28;:1-2. 4. O'Neill J. Antimicrobial Resistance: Tackling a crisis for the health and wealth of nations. UK Government; 2014 Dec. 5. Holmes AH, Moore L, Sundsfjord A, Steinbakk M, Regmi S, Karkey A, et al. Understanding the mechanisms and drivers of antimicrobial resistance. The Lancet. 2015 Nov 18;387(10014):176-87. 6. Bhattacharya S, Khanal B, Bhattarai NR, Das ML. Prevalence of Shigella species and Their Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Eastern Nepal. J Health Popul Nutr. 2005 Mar 12;23(4):339-42. 7. Rousham EK, Unicomb L, Islam MA. Human, animal and environmental contributors to antibiotic resistance in low-resource settings: integrating behavioural, epidemiological and One Health approaches. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2018 Apr 11;285(1876):20180332. 8. Thakur S, Gray GC. The Mandate for a Global "One Health" Approach to Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2019;100(2):227-8. 9. Ogawa VA, Shah CM, Hughes JM, King LJ. Prioritizing a One Health Approach in the Immediate Fight Against Antimicrobial Resistance. EcoHealth. 2018 Mar 9. 10. Administration DOD. NATIONAL LIST OF ESSENTIAL MEDICINES NEPAL (FIFTH REVISION) [Internet]. Fifth Revision. Ministry of Health. Available from: http://www.dda.gov.np/content/essential-drug-list

Antimicrobial Resistance

Antimicrobial Resistance Book
Author : Mihai Mares,Swee Hua Erin Lim,Kok-Song Lai,Romeo-Teodor Cristina
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2021-03-03
ISBN : 1839624329
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Tackling the realities of the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) situation today is no longer uncommon. Many battles have been fought in the past since the discovery of antibiotics between man and microbes. In the tussle of new antibiotic modifications, the transmission of resistant genes, both vertically and horizontally unveils yet another resistant attribute for the microbe, for it only to be faced with a more powerful, wide spectrum antibiotic; the cycle continues-and the winner is yet to be known. This book aims to provide some insight into various molecular mechanisms, agricultural mitigation methods, and the One Health applications to maybe, just maybe, tip the scales towards us.

Degradations of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria from various sources

Degradations of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria from various sources Book
Author : Pardeep Singh,Mika Sillanpää
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2022-08-15
ISBN : 9780323998666
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The excessive use of antibiotics has given rise to an increase in microbial resistance, threatening our ability to treat infectious diseases. The growth in resistance to antimicrobials and antibiotics threatens to reverse almost a century of medical progress. urgent action plans to tackle the crisis of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) and multi-resistant bacteria are needed. It is a major research task to find effective ways to reduce the release and degradation of antibiotics and ARBs to the environment. Degradations of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria from various sources addresses various issues related the generations and degradations, eliminations of antibiotics and antibiotics resistance bacteria. Degradations of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria from various sources contains both practical and theoretical latest and broad aspects of antibiotics and antibiotics resistance bacteria management through the various recent methods. Various factors which are responsible for the efficient degradations are highlighted in the Degradations of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria from various sources as separate chapters. Socioeconomic and policies on the ARBs are also discussed. Contains both practical and theoretical latest and broad aspects of antibiotics resistant bacteria Emphasizes the health impact of antibiotic resistance and genes Gives insight in the applications of anaerobic digestions for eliminations of ARBs (antibiotic resistance blockers) and ARGs (Antibiotic Resistance Genes) Shows how ARB's influences the degradation processes and management