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Animal Models In Eye Research

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Animal Models in Eye Research

Animal Models in Eye Research Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2011-04-28
ISBN : 9780080921037
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The eye is a complex sensory organ, which enables visual perception of the world. Thus the eye has several tissues that do different tasks. One of the most basic aspects of eye function is the sensitivity of cells to light and its transduction though the optic nerve to the brain. Different organisms use different ways to achieve these tasks. In this sense, eye function becomes a very important evolutionary aspect as well. This book presents the different animal models that are commonly used for eye research and their uniqueness in evaluating different aspects of eye development, evolution, physiology and disease. * Presents information on the major animal models used in eye research including invertebrates and vertebrates * Provides researchers with information needed to choose between model organisms * Includes an introductory chapter on the different types of eyes, stressing possible common molecular machinery

Animal Models of Ophthalmic Diseases

Animal Models of Ophthalmic Diseases Book
Author : Chi-Chao Chan
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-12-01
ISBN : 3319194348
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes experimental animal models that mimic common human ocular diseases: herpetic keratitis, cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, uveitis, retinitis pigmentosa, Graves’ disease, and intraocular tumors. In conjunction, these models reflect the diversity and utility of tools used to study human disease. World expert clinicians discuss each model based on their clinical experience and the text is supported by numerous photos and diagrams. In describing the most pertinent animal models of ophthalmic diseases, this book will be of interest to ophthalmologists, vision researchers, fellows, residents and medical students.

Sourcebook of Models for Biomedical Research

Sourcebook of Models for Biomedical Research Book
Author : P. Michael Conn
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-03-07
ISBN : 1597452858
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The collection of systems represented in this volume is a unique effort to reflect the diversity and utility of models used in biomedicine. That utility is based on the consideration that observations made in particular organisms will provide insight into the workings of other, more complex systems. This volume is therefore a comprehensive and extensive collection of these important medical parallels.

Experimental Animal Models of Human Diseases

Experimental Animal Models of Human Diseases Book
Author : Bartholomew Ibeh
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2018-05-23
ISBN : 1789231647
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The world has recorded losses in terms of human life as well as extensive time spent in experimentation with development of new drugs, elucidation of disease mechanism(s), and therapeutic agent discovery. Ethical and legal issues cojoin in slowing down scientific discoveries in medicine and biology. The past two (2) decades, therefore, have seen tremendous attempts that largely are successful in developing animal models with the characteristics of mimicking, approximating, or expressing transplanted human organs/tissues. These models or rather approaches seem to be fast, cost-effective, and easy to maintain compared to primates. This book is a collection of expert essays on animal models of human diseases of global interest. A visible objective of the book is to provide real-time experimental approach to scientists, clinicians, ethicists, medicolegal/medical jurisprudence workers, immunologists, postgraduate students, and vaccinologists and informative and multidisciplinary approach for the identification of new therapeutic targets and biomarkers using animal models as well as investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of human diseases. An increased understanding of the genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms responsible for the development of human diseases has laid out the foundation for the development of rational therapies mainly with animal models.

Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research

Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research Book
Author : National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Institute for Laboratory Animal Research,Commission on Life Sciences,Committee on the Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1988-02-01
ISBN : 0309038391
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Scientific experiments using animals have contributed significantly to the improvement of human health. Animal experiments were crucial to the conquest of polio, for example, and they will undoubtedly be one of the keystones in AIDS research. However, some persons believe that the cost to the animals is often high. Authored by a committee of experts from various fields, this book discusses the benefits that have resulted from animal research, the scope of animal research today, the concerns of advocates of animal welfare, and the prospects for finding alternatives to animal use. The authors conclude with specific recommendations for more consistent government action.

The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit

The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit Book
Author : Patrick J. Manning
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014-04-25
ISBN : 148328882X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

After nearly 20 years, the publication of this Second Edition of The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit attests to its popularity within the scientific community as well as to the need to update an expanding database on the rabbit as a major species in laboratory investigation. The principal aim of this text is to provide a comprehensive and authoritative source of scientifically based information on a major laboratory animal species. The text continues to emphasize the normal biology as well as diseases of the European (domestic) rabbit, Orytolagus cuniculus, especially the New Zealand White breed, with occasional reference to other rabbit species (Sylvilagus sp.) and hares (Lepus sp.). New topics have been added to this second edition in response to changing trends in biomedical research and product testing as well as to suggestions from readers. New chapters included on: Anesthesia and analgesia Models in infectious disease research Models in ophthalmology and vision research Polyclonal antibody production Toxicity and safety testing Drug doses and clinical reference data

Improving the Utility and Translation of Animal Models for Nervous System Disorders

Improving the Utility and Translation of Animal Models for Nervous System Disorders Book
Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2013-04-25
ISBN : 0309266335
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nervous system diseases and disorders are highly prevalent and substantially contribute to the overall disease burden. Despite significant information provided by the use of animal models in the understanding of the biology of nervous system disorders and the development of therapeutics; limitations have also been identified. Treatment options that are high in efficacy and low in side effects are still lacking for many diseases and, in some cases are nonexistent. A particular problem in drug development is the high rate of attrition in Phase II and III clinical trials. Why do many therapeutics show promise in preclinical animal models but then fail to elicit predicted effects when tested in humans? On March 28 and 29, 2012, the Institute of Medicine Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders convened the workshop "Improving Translation of Animal Models for Nervous System Disorders" to discuss potential opportunities for maximizing the translation of new therapies from animal models to clinical practice. The primary focus of the workshop was to examine mechanisms for increasing the efficiency of translational neuroscience research through discussions about how and when to use animal models most effectively and then best approaches for the interpretation of the data collected. Specifically, the workshop objectives were to: discuss key issues that contribute to poor translation of animal models in nervous system disorders, examine case studies that highlight successes and failures in the development and application of animal models, consider strategies to increase the scientific rigor of preclinical efficacy testing, explore the benefits and challenges to developing standardized animal and behavioral models. Improving the Utility and Translation of Animal Models for Nervous System Disorders: Workshop Summary also identifies methods to facilitate development of corresponding animal and clinical endpoints, indentifies methods that would maximize bidirectional translation between basic and clinical research and determines the next steps that will be critical for improvement of the development and testing of animal models of disorders of the nervous system.

Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science

Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science Book
Author : Jann Hau,Steven J. Schapiro
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-05-17
ISBN : 0429801599
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Building upon the success of previous editions of the bestselling Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science, first published in 1994, this latest revision combines all three volumes in one definitive guide. It covers the essential principles and practices of Laboratory Animal Science as well as selected animal models in scientific disciplines where much progress has been made in recent years. Each individual chapter focuses on an important subdiscipline of laboratory animal science, and the chapters can be read and used as stand-alone texts, with only limited necessity to consult other chapters for information. With new contributors at the forefront of their fields, the book reflects the scientific and technological advances of the past decade. It also responds to advances in our understanding of animal behavior, emphasizing the importance of implementing the three Rs: replacing live animals with alternative methods, reducing the number of animals used, and refining techniques to minimize animal discomfort. This fourth edition will be useful all over the world as a textbook for laboratory animal science courses for postgraduate and undergraduate students and as a handbook for scientists who work with animals in their research, for university veterinarians, and for other specialists in laboratory animal science.

Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment

Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Developmental Toxicology
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2000-12-21
ISBN : 0309070864
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment reviews advances made during the last 10-15 years in fields such as developmental biology, molecular biology, and genetics. It describes a novel approach for how these advances might be used in combination with existing methodologies to further the understanding of mechanisms of developmental toxicity, to improve the assessment of chemicals for their ability to cause developmental toxicity, and to improve risk assessment for developmental defects. For example, based on the recent advances, even the smallest, simplest laboratory animals such as the fruit fly, roundworm, and zebrafish might be able to serve as developmental toxicological models for human biological systems. Use of such organisms might allow for rapid and inexpensive testing of large numbers of chemicals for their potential to cause developmental toxicity; presently, there are little or no developmental toxicity data available for the majority of natural and manufactured chemicals in use. This new approach to developmental toxicology and risk assessment will require simultaneous research on several fronts by experts from multiple scientific disciplines, including developmental toxicologists, developmental biologists, geneticists, epidemiologists, and biostatisticians.

Animal Models of Human Disease

Animal Models of Human Disease Book
Author : Kyung-Tai Min,Karen T. Chang
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0123848784
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Animal experiments have contributed much to our understanding of mechanisms of disease and are important for determining new therapies. This volume reviews the latest research and developments in this field. * Discusses new discoveries, approaches, and ideas * Contributions from leading scholars and industry experts * Reference guide for researchers involved in molecular biology and related fields

Retinal Degenerations

Retinal Degenerations Book
Author : Joyce Tombran-Tink,Colin J. Barnstable
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-11-06
ISBN : 159745186X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents new and noteworthy research into retinal diseases. It focuses on what we currently know about the environment, genetics and mechanisms that lead to retinal degenerations, new diagnostics, and innovative therapeutic modalities to preserve vision. Written by renowned scientific investigators, this innovative collection of treatment strategies and technological discoveries allows for the realistic translation of research into practice.

Animal Eyes

Animal Eyes Book
Author : Michael F. Land,Dan-Eric Nilsson
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2012-03-01
ISBN : 0191625361
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Animal Eyes provides a comparative account of all known types of eye in the animal kingdom, outlining their structure and function with an emphasis on the nature of the optical systems and the physical principles involved in image formation. A universal theme throughout the book is the evolution and taxonomic distribution of each type of eye, and the roles of different eye types in the behaviour and ecology of the animals that possess them. In comparing the specific capabilities of eyes, it considers the factors that lead to good resolution of detail and the ability to function under a wide range of light conditions. This new edition is fully updated throughout, incorporating more than a decade of new discoveries and research.

Myopia

Myopia Book
Author : Roger W. Beuerman
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2010
ISBN : 981283298X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Myopia is the most common optical disorder in the world, and is on the rise in many countries, particularly in East Asia. The impact of myopia is evident as the driving force in the development of refractive surgery and of the spectacle and contact lens industries. While myopia is often seen as a childhood disease that involves complex genetic-environmental factors, it is also a major cause of adult blindness. In Singapore (where myopia has reached one of the highest rates in the world) as well as in Taiwan, Japan and Hong Kong, affected patients have greater severity of myopia, leading to additional secondary complications such as glaucoma. This book provides a comprehensive coverage of all aspects of myopia. It is aimed at ophthalmologists, optometrists, opticians, scientists and pharmaceutical companies. The topics are uniquely treated in that they cover research at the laboratory bench as well as clinical applications and population-based approaches in epidemiology.

Care Use and Welfare of Marmosets as Animal Models for Gene Editing Based Biomedical Research

Care  Use  and Welfare of Marmosets as Animal Models for Gene Editing Based Biomedical Research Book
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Institute for Laboratory Animal Research,Roundtable on Science and Welfare in Laboratory Animal Use
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2019-08-26
ISBN : 0309488516
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The marmoset, a type of small monkey native to South America, is a research model of increasing importance for biomedical research in the United States and globally. Marmosets offer a range of advantages as animal models in neuroscience, aging, infectious diseases, and other fields of study. They may be particularly useful for the development of new disease models using genetic engineering and assisted reproductive technologies. However, concerns have been voiced with respect to the development of new marmoset-based models of disease, ethical considerations for their use, the supply of marmosets available for research, and gaps in guidance for their care and management. To explore and address these concerns, the Roundtable on Science and Welfare in Laboratory Animal Use hosted a public workshop on October 22-23, 2018, in Washington, DC. The workshop focused on the availability of marmosets in the United States and abroad; animal welfare and ethical considerations stemming from the use of wildtype and genetically modified marmosets; and standards of housing and care, dietary needs, and feeding requirements for marmosets in captivity. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Retinal Degenerative Diseases

Retinal Degenerative Diseases Book
Author : Matthew M. LaVail,John Ash,Robert E. Anderson,Joe G. Hollyfield,Christian Grimm
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-12-21
ISBN : 1461406315
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book will contain the proceedings of the XIV International Symposium on Retinal Degeneration (RD2010), held July 13-17, 2010, in Mont-Tremblant, Quebec, Canada. The volume will present representative state-of-the-art research in almost all areas of retinal degenerations, ranging from cytopathologic, physiologic, diagnostic and clinical aspects; animal models; mechanisms of cell death; candidate genes, cloning, mapping and other aspects of molecular genetics; and developing potential therapeutic measures such as gene therapy and neuroprotective agents for potential pharmaceutical therapy.

Comparative Physiology Natural Animal Models and Clinical Medicine

Comparative Physiology  Natural Animal Models and Clinical Medicine Book
Author : Michael A Singer
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2007-07-27
ISBN : 1908979305
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes a novel and unique approach to the treatment of human diseases based on the study of natural animal models. A natural animal model is defined as an animal group or species that possesses a set of biochemical/physiological characteristics which are natural and adaptive for that animal, but are quite abnormal for humans. For example, how is it that birds can tolerate blood glucose concentrations which in humans are associated with diabetes. The natural animal model is living proof that a biological answer to this question is available. By studying natural animal models, we can gain valuable insights into the treatment of various human clinical disorders. Covering a wide range of disorders, this book describes in detail how medical scientists can take advantage of all the “research” that nature has already performed over billions of years in biological problem solving through extensive animal design testing and selection. Contents:IntroductionDiabetes MellitusChronic Renal FailureAtherosclerotic Vascular DiseaseDisuse Osteoporosis and Disuse Muscle AtrophyAmmonia ToxicityHypoxia/IschemiaEpilogue Readership: Advanced undergraduate and graduate students in biology, medical scientists, comparative physiologists and biologists. Keywords:Comparative;Physiology;Models;Clinical Medicine;NaturalKey Features:Discusses in detail for each of six clinical disorders the current understanding of the pathogenesis of the disorder and how the natural animal model has solved that particular problemSuggests potential research questions based upon what is known and not known about the natural animal modelClearly illustrates that natural animal models not only provide a different perspective from traditional animal models, but also prove that biological solutions currently exist for different human diseasesHighlights the power of a comparative physiological approach to the development of treatments for human diseasesReviews:“This is an interesting and important book … A few of these questions about natural models for disease have been raised before by comparative physiologists, but they have largely been ignored by those involved in medical research. Dr Singer hopes that a presentation by a clinician will correct this situation. I sincerely hope that he is correct for I agree with his basic thesis.”Professor Emeritus William H Dantzler University of Arizona “Michael Singer has produced a marvellous volume of thought provoking observations … This volume presents a tour de force of integrative and comparative physiology to consider the possible answers to such questions … For many reasons, I cannot recommend this splendid book highly enough.”Troels Ring Aalborg Hospital, Denmark “The style is easily readable, with a logical progression from a clinical setting in the Introduction, through a number of common disease entities … There is a satisfying combination of science and art, and a call for further research in each area … The book is suitable for medical professionals of all levels of training and interests, from the Basic Scientist in the laboratory to the Clinician at the bedside.”Professor A R Morton Queen's University, Ontario

OCT and Imaging in Central Nervous System Diseases

OCT and Imaging in Central Nervous System Diseases Book
Author : Andrzej Grzybowski,Piero Barboni
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-01-01
ISBN : 3030262693
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The second edition of OCT and Imaging in Central Nervous System Diseases offers updated state-of-the-art advances using optical coherence tomography (OCT) regrading neuronal loss within the retina. Detailed information on the OCT imaging and interpretation is provided for the evaluation of disease progression in numerous neurodegenerative disorders and as a biological marker of neuroaxonal injury. Covering disorders like multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, intracranial hypertension, Friedreich’s ataxia, schizophrenia, hereditary optic neuropathies, glaucoma, and amblyopia, readers will given insights into effects on the retina and the and optic nerve. Individual chapters are also devoted to OCT technique, new OCT technology in neuro-ophthalmology, OCT and pharmacological treatment, and the use of OCT in animal models. Similar to the first edition, this book is an excellent and richly illustrated reference for diagnosis of many retinal diseases and monitoring of surgical and medical treatment. OCT allows to study vision from of the retina to the optic tracts. Retinal axons in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) are non-myelinated until they penetrate the lamina cribrosa. Hence, the RNFL is an ideal structure for visualization of any process of neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, or regeneration. By documenting the ability of OCT to provide key information on CNS diseases, this book illustrates convincingly that the eye is indeed the “window to the brain”.

Advances in Animal Experimentation and Modeling

Advances in Animal Experimentation and Modeling Book
Author : Ranbir Chander Sobti
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-12-17
ISBN : 0323910440
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Exploration in Laboratory Animal Sciences Understanding Life Phenomena updates our knowledge about the newer technologies such as molecular biology, genomics including sequencing, proteomics, transcriptomics, cell culture, stem cell culture, transgenesis and their translation to understand systematics and phylogeny of laboratory animals at molecular level. In seven sections Exploration in Laboratory Animal Sciences Understanding Life Phenomena resolves issues of conservation, applications in environment monitoring, production of drugs and others. Comparative research has enabled use of domestic animal models that translate the advances in basic biosciences to the schemes for human welfare including medicine. Molecular geneticists are unravelling the complexities of mammalian genes and the field of biotechnology is maturing at a fast pace. Additionally, research focused on immunology and animal behavior offer new insight into ways of enhancing animal welfare. The rise in consumption of animal proteins in addition to the challenges of sustaining our natural resources has given animal scientists a vast array of opportunities to engage in integrative systems-based research for meeting the challenges that behold us. Exploration in Laboratory Animal Sciences Understanding Life Phenomena also discusses the manipulation of animals as factories for the production of safe foods, drugs, and sensors and others to meet the contemporary challenges faced by mankind in the new world order created by pandemic of Covid 19. It also includes several chapters on the causation and management of certain diseases and impact of microbes on life. Provides insight to newer and futuristic technologies to understand disease process and drug design by animal models Addresses a wide variety of species and covers a wide variety of topics (such as animal species, the laboratory setting, regulatory guidelines, and ethical considerations) to fully prepare for work with all types of animals Gives a perspective on laboratory animal use that allows to explain the benefits of animal use as required by veterinary technology program accreditation procedure Includes examples of animal bio-technological techniques (including stem cell and tissue engineering) for their applications to humanity Offers new insight into ways of enhancing animal welfare by the inclusion of research results focused on immunology and laboratory animal behavior

Assessing Ocular Toxicology in Laboratory Animals

Assessing Ocular Toxicology in Laboratory Animals Book
Author : Andrea B Weir,Margaret Collins
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-04
ISBN : 1627031642
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ocular toxicity is routinely assessed in toxicology studies conducted for regulatory purposes. Ocular anatomy and physiology and the assessment of ocular toxicity itself can be challenging to scientists involved in the safety assessment of pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other agents. Anatomical and physiological differences between species can impact the nature of ocular effects observed following intended or unintended exposure of ocular tissues to xenobiotics. Ocular Toxicity in Laboratory Animals provides a concise reference addressing ocular anatomy and physiology across species that will enhance the design and interpretation of toxicology studies conducted for regulatory purposes. The book provides an overview of routine and advanced techniques that are used to assess ocular toxicity including slit lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, electrophysiology and imaging methods for the anterior and posterior segments of the eye. Additionally, the book defines the regulatory expectations for pharmaceuticals intended to treat ocular diseases and for other non-pharmaceutical regulated chemicals. With contributions from experts in the field, Ocular Toxicity in Laboratory Animals is an authoritative, accessible guide for toxicologists and other scientists involved in conducting toxicology studies for regulatory purposes and/or reviewing data from such studies.

Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office

Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1993
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.