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Animal Models For The Study Of Human Disease

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Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease Book
Author : P. Michael Conn
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-05-29
ISBN : 0124159125
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease identifies important animal models and assesses the advantages and disadvantages of each model for the study of human disease. The first section addresses how to locate resources, animal alternatives, animal ethics and related issues, much needed information for researchers across the biological sciences and biomedicine.The next sections of the work offers models for disease-oriented topics, including cardiac and pulmonary diseases, aging, infectious diseases, obesity, diabetes, neurological diseases, joint diseases, visual disorders, cancer, hypertension, genetic diseases, and diseases of abuse. Organized by disease orientation for ease of searchability Provides information on locating resources, animal alternatives and animal ethics Covers a broad range of animal models used in research for human disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease Book
Author : P. Michael Conn
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013
ISBN : 9780124158948
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease identifies important animal models and assesses the advantages and disadvantages of each model for the study of human disease. The first section addresses how to locate resources, animal alternatives, animal ethics and related issues, much needed information for researchers across the biological sciences and biomedicine.The next sections of the work offers models for disease-oriented topics, including cardiac and pulmonary diseases, aging, infectious diseases, obesity, diabetes, neurological diseases, joint diseases, visual disorders, cancer, hypertension, genetic diseases, and diseases of abuse. Organized by disease orientation for ease of searchability Provides information on locating resources, animal alternatives and animal ethics Covers a broad range of animal models used in research for human disease

Experimental Animal Models of Human Diseases

Experimental Animal Models of Human Diseases Book
Author : Bartholomew Ibeh
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2018-05-23
ISBN : 1789231647
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The world has recorded losses in terms of human life as well as extensive time spent in experimentation with development of new drugs, elucidation of disease mechanism(s), and therapeutic agent discovery. Ethical and legal issues cojoin in slowing down scientific discoveries in medicine and biology. The past two (2) decades, therefore, have seen tremendous attempts that largely are successful in developing animal models with the characteristics of mimicking, approximating, or expressing transplanted human organs/tissues. These models or rather approaches seem to be fast, cost-effective, and easy to maintain compared to primates. This book is a collection of expert essays on animal models of human diseases of global interest. A visible objective of the book is to provide real-time experimental approach to scientists, clinicians, ethicists, medicolegal/medical jurisprudence workers, immunologists, postgraduate students, and vaccinologists and informative and multidisciplinary approach for the identification of new therapeutic targets and biomarkers using animal models as well as investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of human diseases. An increased understanding of the genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms responsible for the development of human diseases has laid out the foundation for the development of rational therapies mainly with animal models.

The Alchemy of Disease

The Alchemy of Disease Book
Author : John Whysner
Publisher : Columbia University Press
Release : 2020-06-02
ISBN : 0231549504
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since the dawn of the industrial age, we have unleashed a bewildering number of potentially harmful chemicals. But out of this vast array, how do we identify the actual threats? What does it take to prove that a certain chemical causes cancer? How do we translate academic knowledge of the toxic effects of particular substances into understanding real-world health consequences? The science that answers these questions is toxicology. In The Alchemy of Disease, John Whysner offers an accessible and compelling history of toxicology and its key findings. He details the experiments and discoveries that revealed the causal connections between chemical exposures and diseases. Balancing clear accounts of groundbreaking science with human drama and public-policy relevance, Whysner describes key moments in the development of toxicology and their thorny social and political implications. The book features discussions of toxicological problems past and present, including DDT, cigarettes and other carcinogens, lead poisoning, fossil fuels, chemical warfare, pharmaceuticals—including opioids—and the efficacy of animal testing. Offering valuable insight into the science and politics of crucial public-health concerns, The Alchemy of Disease shows that toxicology’s task—pinpointing the chemical cause of an illness—is as compelling as any detective story.

Animal Models of Human Birth Defects

Animal Models of Human Birth Defects Book
Author : Aimin Liu
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-04-17
ISBN : 9811523894
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book focuses on the use of animal models to study various human defects. It summarizes our current understanding of a variety of common human birth defects and the essential role of animal models in shedding light on the underlying mechanisms of these disorders. Birth defects are the leading cause of infant deaths, and cost billions of dollars in care for those affected. Unfortunately, the lack of a clear understanding of the mechanisms leading to many of these developmental disorders has hindered effective prevention and early intervention strategies. Studies using animal models have provided essential insights into several human birth defects. This book serves as a valuable reference resource for researchers and graduate students who are interested in learning the basic principles as well as the latest advances in the study of the mechanisms of human birth defects.

Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research

Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research Book
Author : National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Institute for Laboratory Animal Research,Commission on Life Sciences,Committee on the Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1988-02-01
ISBN : 0309038391
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Scientific experiments using animals have contributed significantly to the improvement of human health. Animal experiments were crucial to the conquest of polio, for example, and they will undoubtedly be one of the keystones in AIDS research. However, some persons believe that the cost to the animals is often high. Authored by a committee of experts from various fields, this book discusses the benefits that have resulted from animal research, the scope of animal research today, the concerns of advocates of animal welfare, and the prospects for finding alternatives to animal use. The authors conclude with specific recommendations for more consistent government action.

Autoimmune Disease Models

Autoimmune Disease Models Book
Author : Irun R. Cohen,Ariel Miller
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014-06-28
ISBN : 0080917364
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Because autoimmune disorders can wreak havoc in both humans and animals, these disorders are now the objects of intense and focused research. This book details specific animal models for a variety of autoimmune disorders. The contributors are recognized authorities who deal with the panoply of experimentally induced autoimmune disorders, including encephalomyelitis, allergic neuritis, uveoretinitis, myocarditis, and hepatitis. Also included are discussions of spontaneously appearing diseases such as autoimmune thyroiditis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Many other disorders are also covered in this comprehensive guide. Certain to be an aid in the planning of individual experiments and broader research programs, this book will be a valuable addition to the library of all practicing immunologists interested in immune system function and dysfunction.

Sourcebook of Models for Biomedical Research

Sourcebook of Models for Biomedical Research Book
Author : P. Michael Conn
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-03-07
ISBN : 1597452858
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The collection of systems represented in this volume is a unique effort to reflect the diversity and utility of models used in biomedicine. That utility is based on the consideration that observations made in particular organisms will provide insight into the workings of other, more complex systems. This volume is therefore a comprehensive and extensive collection of these important medical parallels.

Overcoming Challenges to Develop Countermeasures Against Aerosolized Bioterrorism Agents

Overcoming Challenges to Develop Countermeasures Against Aerosolized Bioterrorism Agents Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Institute for Laboratory Animal Research,Board on Life Sciences,Committee on Animal Models for Testing Interventions Against Aerosolized Bioterrorism Agents
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2006-08-07
ISBN : 9780309180900
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) gives the highest priority to developing countermeasures against bioterrorism agents that are highly infective when dispersed in aerosol form. Developing drugs to prevent or treat illnesses caused by bioterrorism agents requires testing their effectiveness in animals since human clinical trials would be unethical. At the request of NIAID, the National Academies conducted a study to examine how such testing could be improved. Overcoming Challenges to Develop Countermeasures Against Aerosolized Bioterrorism Agents provides recommendations to researchers on selecting the kinds of animal models, aerosol generators, and bioterrorism agent doses that would produce conditions that most closely mimic the disease process in humans. It also urges researchers to fully document experimental parameters in the literature so that studies can be reproduced and compared. The book recommends that all unclassified data on bioterrorism agent studies--including unclassified, unpublished data from U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID)--be published in the open literature. The book also calls on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to improve the process by which bioterrorism countermeasures are approved based on the results of animal studies.

Rabbit Biotechnology

Rabbit Biotechnology Book
Author : Louis-Marie Houdebine,Jianglin Fan
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-04-24
ISBN : 9048122279
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Louis-Marie Houdebine and Jianglin Fan The study of biological functions of proteins and their possible roles in the pathogenesis of human diseases requires more and more relevant animal m- els. Although mice including genetically modified mice offer many possibilities, other non-murine species are absolutely required in some circumstances. Rabbit is one of these species, which has been widely used in biomedical studies. This animal is genetically and physiologically closer to humans including cardiov- cular system and metabolism characteristics. Rabbit is thus more appropriate than mice to study some diseases such as atherosclerosis and lipid metabolism. Because of its larger size, surgery manipulation, bleeding, and turn-over studies are much easier performed in rabbits than in mice. Furthermore, transgenic rabbits can be produced using microinjection and other methods such as lentiviral v- tors. Cloning in rabbits has been proved possible, even though still laborious and time-consuming. Hopefully, functional rabbit ES cell lines will be available in the coming years. Gene deletion or knock-out in rabbits will then become possible.

Improving the Utility and Translation of Animal Models for Nervous System Disorders

Improving the Utility and Translation of Animal Models for Nervous System Disorders Book
Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2013-04-25
ISBN : 0309266335
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nervous system diseases and disorders are highly prevalent and substantially contribute to the overall disease burden. Despite significant information provided by the use of animal models in the understanding of the biology of nervous system disorders and the development of therapeutics; limitations have also been identified. Treatment options that are high in efficacy and low in side effects are still lacking for many diseases and, in some cases are nonexistent. A particular problem in drug development is the high rate of attrition in Phase II and III clinical trials. Why do many therapeutics show promise in preclinical animal models but then fail to elicit predicted effects when tested in humans? On March 28 and 29, 2012, the Institute of Medicine Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders convened the workshop "Improving Translation of Animal Models for Nervous System Disorders" to discuss potential opportunities for maximizing the translation of new therapies from animal models to clinical practice. The primary focus of the workshop was to examine mechanisms for increasing the efficiency of translational neuroscience research through discussions about how and when to use animal models most effectively and then best approaches for the interpretation of the data collected. Specifically, the workshop objectives were to: discuss key issues that contribute to poor translation of animal models in nervous system disorders, examine case studies that highlight successes and failures in the development and application of animal models, consider strategies to increase the scientific rigor of preclinical efficacy testing, explore the benefits and challenges to developing standardized animal and behavioral models. Improving the Utility and Translation of Animal Models for Nervous System Disorders: Workshop Summary also identifies methods to facilitate development of corresponding animal and clinical endpoints, indentifies methods that would maximize bidirectional translation between basic and clinical research and determines the next steps that will be critical for improvement of the development and testing of animal models of disorders of the nervous system.

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease Book
Author : Yoichi Gondo
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-29
ISBN : 0128072245
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

To create and establish mutant mice as models for human diseases and traits, various forward and reverse genetics tools are currently available. Newly developed tools of high-throughput identification of novel mutations and site-directed mutagenesis, or gene targeting, in the mouse genome have caused forward and reverse genetics, respectively, to rapidly expand during the last two decades. Worldwide efforts including a variety of international consortiums have been producing many useful mutant mouse strains for functional genomics to elucidate the mechanisms behind diseases and traits. Resource centers and public databases have also been built to enhance their utilities. The modeling has started from Mendelian monogenic traits and has expanded to more complex quantitative traits as well. Multidisciplinary integration among, for example, molecular, cellular, and developmental biology; genetics; genomics; medicine; statistics; and informatics must be orchestrated to fully utilize the resources and knowledge of model mice.

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease Book
Author : Judith Axler Turner
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-29
ISBN : 0128071923
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Identifying and selecting the most appropriate animal model is a challenge, but the U.S. Federal Government’s National Institutes of Health, has supported several efforts to make the job of finding disease models easier. These efforts began with support for databases about specific species, and have graduated to support for discipline-specific studies and cross-species resources. This article tracks LAMHDI, the initiative to Link Animal Models to Human DIsease (www.lamhdi.org), which brings together data about five species: flies, mice, rats, yeast, and zebrafish, and allows scientists to search across these data, principally by disease and gene. This chapter explains how LAMHDI was conceived, and where LAMHDI hopes to go in moving into phenotypical as well as genotypical data through networks and visualization.

Comparative Physiology Natural Animal Models and Clinical Medicine

Comparative Physiology  Natural Animal Models and Clinical Medicine Book
Author : Michael A Singer
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2007-07-27
ISBN : 1908979305
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes a novel and unique approach to the treatment of human diseases based on the study of natural animal models. A natural animal model is defined as an animal group or species that possesses a set of biochemical/physiological characteristics which are natural and adaptive for that animal, but are quite abnormal for humans. For example, how is it that birds can tolerate blood glucose concentrations which in humans are associated with diabetes. The natural animal model is living proof that a biological answer to this question is available. By studying natural animal models, we can gain valuable insights into the treatment of various human clinical disorders. Covering a wide range of disorders, this book describes in detail how medical scientists can take advantage of all the “research” that nature has already performed over billions of years in biological problem solving through extensive animal design testing and selection. Contents:IntroductionDiabetes MellitusChronic Renal FailureAtherosclerotic Vascular DiseaseDisuse Osteoporosis and Disuse Muscle AtrophyAmmonia ToxicityHypoxia/IschemiaEpilogue Readership: Advanced undergraduate and graduate students in biology, medical scientists, comparative physiologists and biologists. Keywords:Comparative;Physiology;Models;Clinical Medicine;NaturalKey Features:Discusses in detail for each of six clinical disorders the current understanding of the pathogenesis of the disorder and how the natural animal model has solved that particular problemSuggests potential research questions based upon what is known and not known about the natural animal modelClearly illustrates that natural animal models not only provide a different perspective from traditional animal models, but also prove that biological solutions currently exist for different human diseasesHighlights the power of a comparative physiological approach to the development of treatments for human diseasesReviews:“This is an interesting and important book … A few of these questions about natural models for disease have been raised before by comparative physiologists, but they have largely been ignored by those involved in medical research. Dr Singer hopes that a presentation by a clinician will correct this situation. I sincerely hope that he is correct for I agree with his basic thesis.”Professor Emeritus William H Dantzler University of Arizona “Michael Singer has produced a marvellous volume of thought provoking observations … This volume presents a tour de force of integrative and comparative physiology to consider the possible answers to such questions … For many reasons, I cannot recommend this splendid book highly enough.”Troels Ring Aalborg Hospital, Denmark “The style is easily readable, with a logical progression from a clinical setting in the Introduction, through a number of common disease entities … There is a satisfying combination of science and art, and a call for further research in each area … The book is suitable for medical professionals of all levels of training and interests, from the Basic Scientist in the laboratory to the Clinician at the bedside.”Professor A R Morton Queen's University, Ontario

The Animal Research War

The Animal Research War Book
Author : P. Conn,J. Parker
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2008-05-12
ISBN : 0230611990
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This thoughtful and surprising book analyzes the effect of animal extremism on the world's scientists, their institutions, and professional societies. The Animal Research War traces the evolution of the animal rights movement, profiles its leadership, and reveals the truth behind university animal research.

Animal Models in Cancer Drug Discovery

Animal Models in Cancer Drug Discovery Book
Author : Asfar Azmi,Ramzi M. Mohammad
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-04-16
ISBN : 0128147059
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Animal Models in Cancer Drug Discovery brings forward the most cutting-edge developments in tumor model systems for translational cancer research. The reader can find under this one volume virtually all types of existing and emerging tumor models in use by the research community. This book provides a deeper insight on how these newer models could de-risk modern drug discovery. Areas covered include up to date information on latest organoid derived models and newer genetic models. Additionally, the book discusses humanized animal tumor models for cancer immunotherapy and how they leverage personalized therapies. The chapter on larger animal, canine models and their use in and their use in pre-investigational new drug (pre-IND) development makes the volume unique. Unlike before, the incorporation of several simplified protocols, breeding methodologies, handling and assessment procedures to study drug intervention makes this book a must read. Animal Models in Cancer Drug Discovery is a valuable resource for basic and translational cancer researchers, drug discovery researchers, contract research organizations, and knowledge seekers at all levels in the biomedical field. Encompasses discussions on innovative animal models, xenograft, genetic models, primary models, organoid systems, humanized and other models in modern biology paradigms that are enhancing research in the field of drug discover Covers the use of these models in personalized medicine, immunotherapy, toxicology, pre-IND assessments and related drug development arenas Presents protocols, procedures, and a comprehensive glossary to help new readers understand technical terms and specialized nomenclature

Learning from Disease in Pets

Learning from Disease in Pets Book
Author : Rebecca A. Krimins
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-11-24
ISBN : 0429509111
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Learning from Disease in Pets: A ‘One Health’ Model for Discovery is the first encompassing reference guide for veterinarians, researchers and physicians on conducting studies using spontaneous models of disease in animals. The study of naturally occurring disease in (pet) animals can help model our understanding of the biology, prevention and therapy of human and animal diseases. Studies of pet dogs, for instance, can aid treatment of complex medical problems such as cancer, orthopedic, cardiopulmonary, and neuro-inflammatory diseases, and zoonotic infections. Each chapter within this novel cross-species approach is contributed by a leader, or leaders, in their field of research. Using clinical trials to learn how pets with real diseases respond to therapy can lead to breakthroughs in human medicine, as well as benefiting pets suffering from otherwise debilitating illness. Despite similarities of diseases across species, there are very few spontaneous models of disease used in research compared with models where disease is induced in healthy laboratory animals. Many medical researchers and veterinarians have a multitude of questions regarding how to use naturally occurring diseases in pets for the discovery of treatments and diagnostics: this book will demonstrate how to safely make this happen. This book encourages veterinarians to build on and disseminate existing findings for the wider benefit of pets and humans. Many pets suffering from incurable illnesses may benefit from clinical trials; the book includes a section on the imperative communication styles necessary within the research environment and with clients, a compelling discussion on the ethics of using pets in veterinary clinical research, comprehensive tables of diseases that spontaneously occur in animals and humans, the regulatory requirements necessary to move therapy from benchside research to patient bedside, as well as intricate details on how to design a robust clinical study.

Modeling Neuropsychiatric Disorders in Laboratory Animals

Modeling Neuropsychiatric Disorders in Laboratory Animals Book
Author : Kurt Leroy Hoffman
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2015-08-28
ISBN : 0081001061
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Modeling Neuropsychiatric Disorders in Laboratory Animals serves as a guide for students and basic investigators in the fields of behavioral sciences, psychology, neuroscience, psychiatry, and other professionals interested in the use of animal models in preclinical research related to human neuropsychiatric disorders. The text focuses on the rationale and theory of using animal behavior, both pathological and normal, as a tool for understanding the neural underpinnings of neuropsychiatric disorders. Chapters contain discussions on both classical and modern views on the validation of animal models for neuropsychiatric disorders, also discussing the utility of endophenotypes in modeling neuropsychiatric disease. Subsequent chapters deal with four specific classes of disorders, including anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Final sections discuss the future for the development, validation, and use of animal models in basic and preclinical research. Focuses on the rationale and theory of using animal behavior, both pathological and normal, as a tool for understanding the neural underpinnings of neuropsychiatric disorders Serves as a guide for students and basic investigators in the fields of behavioral sciences, psychology, neuroscience, psychiatry, and other professionals Discusses specific classes of disorders, including anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders

Cellular and Animal Models in Human Genomics Research

Cellular and Animal Models in Human Genomics Research Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-07-30
ISBN : 012816574X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cellular and Animal Models in Human Genomics Research provides an indispensable resource for applying comparative genomics in the annotation of disease-gene associated variants that are identified by human genomic sequencing. The book presents a thorough overview of effective protocols for the use of cellular and animal modeling methods to turn lists of plausible genes into causative biomarkers. With chapters written by international experts, the book first addresses the fundamental aspects of using cellular and animal models in genetic and genomic studies, including in-depth examples of specific models and their utility, i.e., yeast, worms, flies, fish, mice and large animals. Protocols for properly conducting model studies, genomic technology, modeling candidate genes vs. genetic variants, integrative modeling, utilizing induced pluripotent stem cells, and employing CRISPR-Cas9 are also discussed in-depth. Provides a thorough, accessible resource that helps researchers and students employ cellular and animal models in their own genetic and genomic studies Offers guidance on how to effectively interpret the results and significance of genetic and genomic model studies for human health Features chapters from international experts in the use of specific cellular and animal models, including yeast, worms, flies, fish, mice, and large animals, among other organisms

Human and Animal Models for Translational Research on Neurodegeneration Challenges and Opportunities From South America

Human and Animal Models for Translational Research on Neurodegeneration  Challenges and Opportunities From South America Book
Author : Agustín Ibáñez,Lucas Sedeño,Adolfo M. García,Robert M.J. Deacon,Patricia Cogram
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2018-06-21
ISBN : 2889454940
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neurodegenerative diseases are the most frequent cause of dementia, representing a burden for public health systems (especially in middle and middle-high income countries). Although most research on this issue is concentrated in first-world centers, growing efforts in South America are affording important breakthroughs. This emerging agenda poses new challenges for the region but also new opportunities for the field. This book aims to integrate the community of experts across the globe and the region, and to establish new challenges and developments for future investigation. We present research focused on neurodegenerative research in South America. We introduce studies assessing the interplay among genetic, neural, and behavioral dimensions of these diseases, as well as articles on vulnerability factors, comparisons of findings from various countries, and works promoting multicenter and collaborative networking. More generally, our book covers a broad scope of human-research approaches (behavioral assessment, neuroimaging, electromagnetic techniques, brain connectivity, peripheral measures), animal methodologies (genetics, epigenetics, proteomics, metabolomics, other molecular biology tools), species (all human and non-human animals, sporadic, and genetic versions), and article types (original research, review, and opinion papers). Through this wide-ranging proposal, we hope to introduce a fresh approach to the challenges and opportunities of research on neurodegeneration in South America.