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Analysis Of Environmental Radionuclides

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Analysis of Environmental Radionuclides

Analysis of Environmental Radionuclides Book
Author : Pavel Povinec
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-07-28
ISBN : 9780080553375
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The purpose of this book is to present a state of art summary of current knowledge of methods of assessment of radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments. It cover the traditional methods of radioactivity measurements such as radiometrics techniques, but also recent developments in the mass spectrometry sector. The book starts with a short preface introducing the subject of the book, summarising content and philosophy of the book, as well as the most important historical achievements. The scientific topics are introduced by description of sampling methods, optimisation of sampling sites and sampling frequency. The recent developments in radiochemical separation methods using chromatography resins for the treatment of actinides, transuranics and other groups of radioelements are also described. No other book is available covering all aspects of environmental radioactivity measurements, although remarkable progress has been made in detection techniques over the last ten years. At present the new methods enable to carry out investigations which were not possible before, either because of lack of sensitivity or because of the fact that they required too large samples.

Chemical Analysis of environmental radionuclides

Chemical Analysis of environmental radionuclides Book
Author : Training Branch Division of Radiological health
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1965
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Chemical Analysis of environmental radionuclides book written by Training Branch Division of Radiological health, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Chemical Analysis of Environmental Radionuclides

Chemical Analysis of Environmental Radionuclides Book
Author : United States. Public Health Service. Division of Radiological Health
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1965
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Chemical Analysis of Environmental Radionuclides book written by United States. Public Health Service. Division of Radiological Health, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis Book
Author : Michael F. L'Annunziata
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-03-07
ISBN : 0128143967
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis: Radiation Physics and Detectors, Volume One, and Radioanalytical Applications, Volume Two, Fourth Edition, constitute an authoritative reference on the principles, practical techniques and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity - everything from the very low levels encountered in the environment, to higher levels measured in radioisotope research, clinical laboratories, biological sciences, radionuclide standardization, nuclear medicine, nuclear power, and fuel cycle facilities, and in the implementation of nuclear forensic analysis and nuclear safeguards. It includes sample preparation techniques for all types of matrices found in the environment, including soil, water, air, plant matter and animal tissue, and surface swipes. Users will find the latest advances in the applications of radioactivity analysis across various fields, including environmental monitoring, radiochemical standardization, high-resolution beta imaging, automated radiochemical separation, nuclear forensics, and more. Spans two volumes, Radiation Physics and Detectors and Radioanalytical Applications Includes a new chapter on the analysis of environmental radionuclides Provides the latest advances in the applications of liquid and solid scintillation analysis, alpha- and gamma spectrometry, mass spectrometric analysis, Cherenkov counting, flow-cell radionuclide analysis, radionuclide standardization, aerosol analysis, high-resolution beta imaging techniques, analytical techniques in nuclear forensics, and nuclear safeguards Describes the timesaving techniques of computer-controlled automatic separation and activity analysis of radionuclides Provides an extensive table of the radiation characteristics of most radionuclides of interest for the radioanalytical chemist

Analysis of Environmental Samples for Radionuclides

Analysis of Environmental Samples for Radionuclides Book
Author : DL. Reid
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1958
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The production, processing, or use of radioactive materials presents problems relative to their controlled or uncontrolled release to the internal or external plant environs. One phase is associated with the originator's responsibility for controlling and quantitatively defining through appropriate monitoring activities the material released. The analytical experience of a large production installation can be used to advantage in planning the analytical requirements for related smaller scale uses or production of radioactive substances.

Low Level Environmental Radioactivity

Low Level Environmental Radioactivity Book
Author : Richard Tykva,Jozef Sabol
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1995-04-13
ISBN : 9781566761895
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

From the Introduction Low-level radioactivity is related to those radioactive sources of ionizing radiation that are characterized by low activities. Sometimes activity here does not represent total amount of radionuclides but rather their concentration. In other cases, the total activity may be quite high, but we can measure only a relatively small portion of the material. "Low" may have, for different situations and circumstances, not only considerably different meanings but also different absolute values as far as the activity or activity concentration is concerned. For example, one can refer to low activity in the case of radiocarbon dating, where the concentration of 14C is actually lower than its natural concentration, and also in the case of radon monitoring where, especially in mines or in some enclosed spaces, its concentration may be several thousand times higher than the outdoor "atural" concentrations. Emphasis is now being placed on the analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides in the environment or on the release of radionuclides from their different man-made sources because liquid and aerial discharge level controls have become more rigorous. In addition, the applicability of low-level methodology increases the extent of different radionuclide applications considerably. Since individual radionuclides differ in their decay scheme and particles emitted as well in their energies, there is no universal method for the accurate measurement of all radioactive sources. Moreover, there is usually a mixture of radionuclides in a sample, causing some difficulties in a selective evaluation of a given radionuclide. Due to the random nature of radioactive disintegrations, the appropriate interpretation of the experimental results would be, in most cases, impossible without elaborate statistical treatment and evaluation of the data obtained. Thanks to the availability of computer-based instrumentation, the measuring data can be, in most cases, processed and evaluated on-line, which makes it possible to control and optimize the experiment in order to extract the maximum amount of information carried by the detector response. The purpose of this book is to provide an introduction to low-level radioactivity assessment and to clarify the nature of its sources, as well as the principal methods used in its measurement. Our evaluation is concentrated on the present-day aspects of low-level methodology. The book may be useful for all who need highly sensitive analysis of natural or artificial radioactivity both within and outside the nuclear field. The attempt of this book is to summarize the sources of environmental radioactivity and their possible radiological impact in terms of resulting doses to the population, and to present a sound review of the measuring methods and techniques for the evaluation of low-level radioactivities encountered in both the environment and in a number of applications where radioactive sources are used as a means of obtaining important information.

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis VI

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis VI Book
Author : Nicholas Evans
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2019-09-18
ISBN : 1788017358
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Anthropogenic radionuclides have been introduced into the environment by incidents such as nuclear weapon tests, accidents in nuclear power plants, transport accidents and accidental or authorised discharges from nuclear facilities. Scientists need accurate analysis of these radionuclides in order to estimate the risk to the public from released radioactivity. This book is a snapshot of the work of leading scientists from across the globe on environmental radiochemistry and radioecology, nuclear forensics and radiation detection, radioanalytical techniques and nuclear industry applications. The research contributions were first presented at the 13th International Symposium on Nuclear and Environmental Radiochemical Analysis in September 2018. This essential work provides a key reference for graduates and professionals who work across fields involving analytical chemistry, radiochemistry, environmental science and technology, and waste disposal.

Environmental Radionuclides

Environmental Radionuclides Book
Author : Klaus Froehlich
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2009-09-23
ISBN : 9780080913292
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Environmental Radionuclides presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth’s environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which in a variety of applications, especially in hydrology and climatology, have to be consulted to evaluate radionuclide measurements in terms of the ages of groundwater and climate archives, respectively. The basic principles underlying the various applications of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental studies are described in the first part of the book. The book covers the two major groups of applications: the use of radionuclides as tracers for studying transport and mixing processes: and as time markers to address problems of the dynamics of such systems, manifested commonly as the so-called residence time in these systems. The applications range from atmospheric pollution studies, via water resource assessments to contributions to global climate change investigation. The third part of the book addresses new challenges in the development of new methodological approaches, including analytical methods and fields of applications. A state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides Conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers

Environmental Monitoring at a Former Uranium Milling Site

Environmental Monitoring at a Former Uranium Milling Site Book
Author : Kairat Kuterbekov
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-09-10
ISBN : 331994875X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents a comprehensive study of the environmental situation prevailing in the areas located near the Koshkar-Ata (Kazakhstan) tailings dump and the development of rehabilitation measures taking into account the area’s soil and climatic features. Given their impact on the local population’s health, rehabilitation activities and their monitoring are vital for countries where nuclear power technologies are developed and where uranium mining industry wastes exist. Book analyzes the negative influences of the tailings on soil and vegetation cover on near-ground atmospheric layers and groundwater. Based on radiometric, field and laboratory analytical research methods, it presents quantitative information on the levels of pollution of the environment by radionuclides and chemical toxicants, and includes the results of constant monitoring of dust from radioactive and toxic wastes in the area. The book also offers recommendations for technical solutions for reclaiming radioactive tailing ponds, as well as for the development of disposal sites for radioactive waste in the tailing ponds, based on effective rehabilitation technologies developed at two control sites. The study attracted considerable interest from the Republic of Kazakhstan’s state authorities and public organizations, and raised awareness of the need for rehabilitation measures at the KOSHKAR-ATA tailing pond. The monograph is intended for specialists in the field of environmental protection and radiation ecology, as well as senior undergraduate and graduate students, doctoral students and young scientists. This publication is recommended by the Academic Council of the L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University.

Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis

Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis Book
Author : John E. Till,Helen A. Grogan
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2008-07-10
ISBN : 0195127277
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A comprehensive book that explains methods used for estimating risk to people exposed to radioactive materials released to the environment by nuclear facilities or in an emergency such as a nuclear terrorist event.

Handbook for the Assessment of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Using Environmental Radionuclides

Handbook for the Assessment of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Using Environmental Radionuclides Book
Author : F. Zapata
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-05-08
ISBN : 0306480549
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This publication deals with soil erosion and sedimentation. Soil erosion and associated sediment deposition are natural landscape-forming processes that can be greatly accelerated by human intervention through deforestation, overgrazing, and non-sustainable farming practices. Soil erosion and sedimentation may not only cause on-site degradation of the natural resource base, but also off-site problems— downstream sediment deposition in fields, floodplains and water bodies, water pollution, eutrophication and reservoir siltation, etc. —with serious environmental and economic impairment. There is an urgent need for accurate information to quantify the problem and to underpin the selection of effective soil-conservation technologies and sedimentation-remediation strategies, including assessment of environmental and economic impacts. Existing classical techniques to document soil erosion are capable of meeting some of these needs, but they all possess important limitations. The quest for alternative techniques for assessing soil erosion, to complement existing methods, directed attention to the use of environmental radionuclides, in particular fallout as tracers to quantify rates and establish patterns of soil redistribution within the landscape. The concept of a project on the use of environmental radionuclides to quantify soil redistribution was first formulated at an Advisory Group Meeting convened in Vienna, April 1993, by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis V

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis V Book
Author : Peter Warwick
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2015-07-27
ISBN : 1782621555
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Incidents in the past have made scientists aware of the need for accurate methods of radionuclide analyses in order to estimate the risk to the public from released radioactivity. This book is an authoritative, up-to-date collection of research contributions presented at the 12th International Symposium on Environmental Radiochemical Analysis. Representing the work of leading scientists from across the globe it presents information on radiochemical analysis, measurement of radioactivity, naturally occurring radioactive materials, radioactively contaminated land, fate of radionuclides in natural and engineered environments and behaviour and analysis of radionuclides in radioactive wastes. This essential work will be a key reference for graduates and professionals who work across fields involving analytical chemistry, environmental science and technology, and waste disposal.

Chemistry and Analysis of Radionuclides

Chemistry and Analysis of Radionuclides Book
Author : Jukka Lehto,Xiaolin Hou
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-01-19
ISBN : 3527633022
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis Book
Author : Michael F. L'Annunziata
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-09-01
ISBN : 0123848741
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The updated and much expanded 3e of the Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis is an authoritative reference providing the principles, practical techniques, and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity from the very low levels encountered in the environment to higher levels measured in radioisotope research, clinical laboratories, biological sciences, radionuclide standardization, nuclear medicine, nuclear power, and fuel cycle facilities and in the implementation of nuclear forensic analysis and nuclear safeguards. The book describes the basic principles of radiation detection and measurement and the preparation of samples from a wide variety of matrices, assists the investigator or technician in the selection and use of appropriate radiation detectors, and presents state-of-the-art methods of analysis. Fundamentals of radiation properties, radionuclide decay, the calculations involved, and methods of detection provide the basis for a thorough understanding of the analytical procedures. The Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis, 3e, is suitable as a teaching text for university and professional training courses. The only comprehensive reference that describes the principles of detection and practical applications of every type of radioactivity detector currently used. The new 3e is broader in scope, with revised and expanded chapters, new authors, and seven new chapters on Alpha Spectrometry, Radionuclide Standardization, Radioactive Aerosol Measurements, Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring, Marine Radioactivity Analysis, Nuclear Forensic Analysis and Analytical Techniques in Nuclear Safeguards Discusses in detail the principles, theory and practice applied to all types of radiation detection and measurement, making it useful for both teaching and research

Sampling for Radionuclides in the Environment

Sampling for Radionuclides in the Environment Book
Author : International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Sampling for Radionuclides in the Environment book written by International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Radionuclides in the Environment

Radionuclides in the Environment Book
Author : Clemens Walther,Dharmendra K. Gupta
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-10-30
ISBN : 331922171X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides extensive and comprehensive information to researchers and academicians who are interested in radionuclide contamination, its sources and environmental impact. It is also useful for graduate and undergraduate students specializing in radioactive-waste disposal and its impact on natural as well as manmade environments. A number of sites are affected by large legacies of waste from the mining and processing of radioactive minerals. Over recent decades, several hundred radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes) of natural elements have been produced artificially, including 90Sr, 137Cs and 131I. Several other anthropogenic radioactive elements have also been produced in large quantities, for example technetium, neptunium, plutonium and americium, although plutonium does occur naturally in trace amounts in uranium ores. The deposition of radionuclides on vegetation and soil, as well as the uptake from polluted aquifers (root uptake or irrigation) are the initial point for their transfer into the terrestrial environment and into food chains. There are two principal deposition processes for the removal of pollutants from the atmosphere: dry deposition is the direct transfer through absorption of gases and particles by natural surfaces, such as vegetation, whereas showery or wet deposition is the transport of a substance from the atmosphere to the ground by snow, hail or rain. Once deposited on any vegetation, radionuclides are removed from plants by the airstre am and rain, either through percolation or by cuticular scratch. The increase in biomass during plant growth does not cause a loss of activity, but it does lead to a decrease in activity concentration due to effective dilution. There is also systemic transport (translocation) of radionuclides within the plant subsequent to foliar uptake, leading the transfer of chemical components to other parts of the plant that have not been contaminated directly.

Criteria for Requesting Specific Radionuclides Analysis Through Gross A and Gross B Concentration Measurements in Environmental Samples

Criteria for Requesting Specific Radionuclides Analysis Through Gross A and Gross B Concentration Measurements in Environmental Samples Book
Author : E.G. Ferreira
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1977
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Criteria for Requesting Specific Radionuclides Analysis Through Gross A and Gross B Concentration Measurements in Environmental Samples book written by E.G. Ferreira, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Intercomparison of Laboratory Analysis of Radionuclides in Environmental Samples

Intercomparison of Laboratory Analysis of Radionuclides in Environmental Samples Book
Author : Sven P. Nielsen,Nordisk Kernesikkerhedsforskning
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 9788778932075
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Intercomparison of Laboratory Analysis of Radionuclides in Environmental Samples book written by Sven P. Nielsen,Nordisk Kernesikkerhedsforskning, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.