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Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution

Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution Book
Author : Jane Q. Koenig
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461545692
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution provides the reader with an overview of the health effects of air pollution in human subjects. The majority of the book is devoted to the discussion of the health effects of common widespread air pollutants regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through national ambient air quality standards. The book reviews the sources and fate of common air pollutants in ambient air and researches the adverse effects of these outdoor and indoor air pollutants in `in vivo' cell systems, animals, and humans. Research for the book was conducted in controlled laboratory studies and epidemiologic studies. Special emphasis throughout Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution is placed on the effects of air pollution in subjects with asthma.

Monitoring Ambient Air Quality for Health Impact Assessment

Monitoring Ambient Air Quality for Health Impact Assessment Book
Author : World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe,World Health Organization
Publisher : WHO Regional Office Europe
Release : 1999
ISBN : 9789289013512
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A guide to the principles and methods of air quality assessment aimed at measuring population exposure to ambient air pollutants and estimating the effects on health. Addressed to policy-makers as well as scientists engaged in air quality monitoring, the book responds to the failure of most monitoring systems to provide data that are useful in estimating and managing threats to health. The need for exposure data on populations at special risk is also addressed. Throughout, emphasis is placed on methods of monitoring and modelling that are cost-effective, targeted, and appropriate to local and national conditions. The report has six chapters. The first introduces WHO activities related to air quality management and explains the need for monitoring systems capable of assessing health impact. The types of information required for health impact assessment are described in chapter two, which outlines several methods of monitoring and modelling that can be used to measure the level and distribution of exposure to air pollutants in populations, identify population groups with high exposure, and estimate adverse effects on health. Chapter three formulates a general concept of air quality assessment, offering advice on principles for designing a monitoring network, interpreting and reporting data, and solving problems with quality assurance. Also included is a comparison of the advantages, disadvantages, and costs of different methods for air quality monitoring. Against this background, the fourth and most extensive chapter describes specific methods for the monitoring of carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, lead, and atmospheric cadmium. Monitoring strategies for each pollutant are presented according to a standard format, which covers health effects, sources and exposure patterns, monitoring methods, recommended strategies for monitoring and assessment, and a practical example. The remaining chapters offer advice on the collation, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data, and summarize the main conclusions and recommendations of the report. Detailed technical guidelines for the use of various methods and models are provided in a series of annexes. The report also reproduces the newly revised WHO air quality guidelines for Europe.

Air Quality Guidelines

Air Quality Guidelines Book
Author : World Health Organization
Publisher : World Health Organization
Release : 2006
ISBN : 9289021926
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents revised guideline values for the four most common air pollutants - particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide - based on a recent review of the accumulated scientific evidence. The rationale for selection of each guideline value is supported by a synthesis of information emerging from research on the health effects of each pollutant. As a result, these guidelines now also apply globally. They can be read in conjunction with Air quality guidelines for Europe, 2nd edition, which is still the authority on guideline values for all other air pollutants. As well as revised guideline values, this book makes a brief yet comprehensive review of the issues affecting the application of the guidelines in risk assessment and policy development. Further, it summarizes information on: . pollution sources and levels in various parts of the world, . population exposure and characteristics affecting sensitivity to pollution, . methods for quantifying the health burden of air pollution, and . the use of guidelines in developing air quality standards and other policy tools. Finally, the special case of indoor air pollution is explored. Prepared by a large team of renowned international experts who considered conditions in various parts of the globe, these guidelines are applicable throughout the world. They provide reliable guidance for policy-makers everywhere when considering the various options for air quality management.

Ambient Air Pollution and Health Impact in China

Ambient Air Pollution and Health Impact in China Book
Author : Guang-Hui Dong
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-11-25
ISBN : 9811056579
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book focuses on the health impacts of air pollution in China, especially the epidemiology-based exposure-response functions for the mortality, morbidity, and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, and mental health related to pollution. It also provides the latest estimates of the magnitude of the adverse effects of air pollution on the health of the Chinese population. By providing a better understanding of the impact of air pollution on health, it improves the scientific basis of risk assessment, and also helps governments develop policies and other health protection initiatives to reduce the impacts of air pollution. The book offers environmental scientists, engineers, researchers and students a comprehensive and organized body of information in the area of air pollution.

Drivers and Health Impacts of Ambient Air Pollution in Slovakia

Drivers and Health Impacts of Ambient Air Pollution in Slovakia Book
Author : Weltbankgruppe
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report, created with the support of the Structural Reform Support Program of the European Commission (EC), provides an estimate of the health impacts of current concentrations of air pollutants in the Republic of Slovakia across its 72 districts (the two biggest cities are counted as one each) and evaluates the benefits of measures to reduce concentrations of pollutants relative to the costs of such measures. At the same time, a toolkit is prepared so that similar analyses can be conducted in the future. The study is motivated by the need to better understand the extent of the health consequences of the levels of ambient air pollution in Slovakia (which is among the highest in Europe) and to evaluate different actions to improve air quality in terms of their benefits relative to their costs. In this way policy actions to address air pollution can be more cost effective.

Adverse health effects of ambient air pollution

Adverse health effects of ambient air pollution Book
Author : Sics Editore
Publisher : SICS Editore
Release : 2014-10-01
ISBN : 8869309088
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With the exception of malodorous sulphur compounds, adverse health effects of ambient air pollutants are experienced only in built-up areas where the most hazardous compounds are respirable particles and nitrogen dioxide.

Air Pollution

Air Pollution Book
Author : Pallavi Saxena,Vaishali Naik
Publisher : CABI
Release : 2018-12-19
ISBN : 1786393891
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Air pollution has become a major global issue due to rapid industrialization, human population growth and increasing urbanization. The various sources of atmospheric pollutants, both those created by human activity and those from natural physical and biological processes, have become the focus of much scientific research and analysis. An understanding of how these many pollutants are affecting air quality is essential in order to design strategies to mitigate them. Written by a team of international experts, this book aims to provide a broad overview of the issues surrounding air pollution and how to control and monitor pollution levels. Beginning with a brief background on the subject, the book moves on to discuss global emissions, with an emphasis on megacities and their effects. Possible pollution control measures and methods of air pollution measurement and modelling are also explored. The book ends with descriptions of the various indices used for assessing air quality with a focus on human health impacts, and a discussion on policy making to control air pollution. The book will be useful to students of environmental science and atmospheric science, as well as environmental consultants and researchers interested in air quality . Key Features: Comprehensive introduction to the primary causes of air pollution today with an emphasis on growing urban populations and megacities Discusses both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions and their effects on human health and the environment Gives an overview of indices used today for assessing air quality and describes current methods for air pollution monitoring and modelling Discusses new technologies for mitigating the effects of air pollution and policy making for implementation of controls

Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution

Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution Book
Author : American Lung Association
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1989
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution book written by American Lung Association, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Air Pollution Control

Air Pollution Control Book
Author : Sudarshan Prasad Mahajan
Publisher : The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI)
Release : 2009-01-01
ISBN : 8179931862
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Air pollution is aggravated in recent times because of four developments: increasing traffic, growing cities, rapid economic development, and industrialization. This book discusses the most important issues pertaining to air pollutants, their characterization, ambient concentrations, and effects on human health and ecology.

Air Pollution in the Ural Mountains

Air Pollution in the Ural Mountains Book
Author : Igor Linkov,R. Wilson
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 940115208X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mankind has created pollution, and has suffered its consequences since time immemorial. This has intesified greatly since the industrial revolution. One of the main problems in society, and a major function of government is how to cope with this pollution. 80 years ago the maxim used to be "the solution to pollution is dilution"; to dilute any pollted water supply in a large river, or to build a tall chimney stack to dilute air pollutants into the air so that concentrations of pollutants are always low. Since 1950 western countries have gone further and made major attempts to reduce the emissions of the most important pollutants. The discussion of what is an important pollutant has changed. To S02 and heavy metals such as cadmium or arsenic we now add fine particles and even (when we discuss global climate change) C02. The experience and practice of the western countries was only partly followed in the USSR (although the switch from use of coal to natural gas in major cities around 1970 was very important). Since the collapse of the USSR it has become fashionable both in the west and inside Russia to blame all society's ills on pollution. The statistics do not bear out that conclusion, but pollution remains an important issue which can be reduced without significant detriment to other societal values.

Review of the national ambient air quality standards for particulate matter policy sssessment of scientific and technical information

Review of the national ambient air quality standards for particulate matter policy sssessment of scientific and technical information  Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : DIANE Publishing
Release : 1982
ISBN : 1428904689
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Review of the national ambient air quality standards for particulate matter policy sssessment of scientific and technical information book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Global Health Cost of PM2 5 Air Pollution

The Global Health Cost of PM2 5 Air Pollution Book
Author : World Bank
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2022-01-20
ISBN : 1464818169
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

According to the Global Burden of Disease 2019 study, air pollution from fine particulate matter caused 6.4 million premature deaths and 93 billion days lived with illness in 2019. Over the past decade, the toll of ambient air pollution has continued to rise. Air pollution’s significant health, social, and economic effects compel the World Bank to support client countries in addressing air pollution as a core development challenge. This publication estimates that the global cost of health damages associated with exposure to air pollution is $8.1 trillion, equivalent to 6.1 percent of global GDP. People in low- and middle-income countries are most affected by mortality and morbidity from air pollution. The death rate associated with air pollution is significantly higher in low-and lower-middle income countries than in high-income countries. This publication further develops the evidence base for air-quality management through up-to-date estimates of air pollution’s global economic costs. The analyses presented here build on previous cost estimates by the Bank and its partners, as well as on more comprehensive air-quality data from monitoring stations in many cities across the world. By providing monetary estimates of air pollution’s health damages, this publication aims to support policy makers and decision-makers in client countries in prioritizing air pollution amid competing development challenges. Its findings build a robust economic case to invest scarce budgetary resources in the design and implementation of policies and interventions for improving air quality. Such investments will deliver benefits for societies at large, and particularly for vulnerable groups. This publication builds a strong case for scaling up investments for air pollution control in low-and middle-income countries.

Ambient Air Pollution

Ambient Air Pollution Book
Author : EnviroComp Institute, The
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007-03-01
ISBN : 9780979254208
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Ambient Air Pollution book written by EnviroComp Institute, The, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Fundamentals of Air Pollution

Fundamentals of Air Pollution Book
Author : Arthur C. Stern
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-01-01
ISBN : 0323147674
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fundamentals of Air Pollution focuses on air quality and the control of air pollution. This book discusses the meteorology of air pollution and the behavior of the atmosphere, which differentiates air pollution from the various aspects of environmental management and protection. Organized into four parts encompassing 28 chapters, this text begins with an overview of the gaseous composition of unpolluted air, including nitrogen, oxygen, water, argon, carbon dioxide, neon, helium, methane, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and organic vapor. This book then differentiates the primary pollutants that are emitted directly from the source and the secondary pollutants that cause eye irritation, smog, and haze. Other chapters consider the adverse effects of air pollution to human health, environment, and economy. This book is a valuable resource to air pollution, space, atmospheric, and medical scientists, as well as environmentalists, ecologists, biologists, and meteorologists. This text will also be useful to economists, engineers, sanitarians, chemists, public administrators, educators, public relations specialists, researchers, and students.

Indoor Air Pollution

Indoor Air Pollution Book
Author : Peter Pluschke
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2004-09-27
ISBN : 9783540210986
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Indoor Air Pollution has become a major topic in environmental research and health. Most people spend more than 80% of their time in buildings and are exposed to a broad range of pollutants from indoor sources such as building materials, furniture, carpets and textiles, heating and cooking, household and consumer products, etc. The volume provides a comprehensive review of the major indoor air pollutants: volatile organic compounds, biocides, indoor particles and fibres, combustion products and micro-organisms and their metabolites. Sources and sinks of air pollutants in indoor environments and their chemistry are distinctly different from ambient air pollution, even though the latter may influence indoor air quality. Adsorption and desorption processes, the pollutant source dynamics, gas phase reactions and kinetics - including the fate and final chemical destiny of chemically unstable intermediate compounds - are topics of scientific research as well as the evaluation of their sensory impact and irritation potential. Guidelines for assessing indoor pollution and a broad range of analytical methods have been recently developed and are reviewed by internationally renowned scientists. The specific characteristics of indoor air pollution in developing countries due to the widespread use of open fires for cooking, heating and lighting are analysed as well as the Chinese strategies to address the growing pollution problems by air pollution in its modern building stock.

Clean Air for Europe s Cities

Clean Air for Europe s Cities Book
Author : European Commission
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1998
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Clean Air for Europe s Cities book written by European Commission, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Traffic Related Air Pollution

Traffic Related Air Pollution Book
Author : Haneen Khreis,Mark Nieuwenhuijsen,Joe Zietsman,Tara Ramani
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-08-20
ISBN : 0128181230
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Traffic-Related Air Pollution synthesizes and maps TRAP and its impact on human health at the individual and population level. The book analyzes mitigating standards and regulations with a focus on cities. It provides the methods and tools for assessing and quantifying the associated road traffic emissions, air pollution, exposure and population-based health impacts, while also illuminating the mechanisms underlying health impacts through clinical and toxicological research. Real-world implications are set alongside policy options, emerging technologies and best practices. Finally, the book recommends ways to influence discourse and policy to better account for the health impacts of TRAP and its societal costs. Overviews existing and emerging tools to assess TRAP’s public health impacts Examines TRAP’s health effects at the population level Explores the latest technologies and policies--alongside their potential effectiveness and adverse consequences--for mitigating TRAP Guides on how methods and tools can leverage teaching, practice and policymaking to ameliorate TRAP and its effects

An Assessment of Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

An Assessment of Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean Book
Author : Pan American Health Organization. Area of Sustainable Development and Environmental Health
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download An Assessment of Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean book written by Pan American Health Organization. Area of Sustainable Development and Environmental Health, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Ambient air pollution and health in Accra Ghana

Ambient air pollution and health in Accra  Ghana Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : World Health Organization
Release : 2021-04-08
ISBN : 9240022295
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With the objectives to reduce deaths and diseases associated with air and climate pollutants, and to enhance health co-benefits from policies and measures to tackle air and climate pollution, WHO has carried out, in cooperation with various international partners, an Urban Health Initiative (UHI). The UHI aims to mobilizing and empowering the health sector and using the sector’s influential position to promote the implementation of air and climate pollutant reduction strategies, and it intends to demonstrate to the public and decision-makers the full range of health and economic benefits to the local population, that can be achieved from implementing local emission reduction policies and strategies. This publication is part of a case study series that carried out in the UHI pilot project in Accra. This case study is aimed at discussing ambient air pollution and health impacts for specific scenarios of reduction of concentrations.

Indoor Air Pollution

Indoor Air Pollution Book
Author : Peter Pluschke
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2010-12-01
ISBN : 9783642059261
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Indoor Air Pollution has become a major topic in environmental research and health. Most people spend more than 80% of their time in buildings and are exposed to a broad range of pollutants from indoor sources such as building materials, furniture, carpets and textiles, heating and cooking, household and consumer products, etc. The volume provides a comprehensive review of the major indoor air pollutants: volatile organic compounds, biocides, indoor particles and fibres, combustion products and micro-organisms and their metabolites. Sources and sinks of air pollutants in indoor environments and their chemistry are distinctly different from ambient air pollution, even though the latter may influence indoor air quality. Adsorption and desorption processes, the pollutant source dynamics, gas phase reactions and kinetics - including the fate and final chemical destiny of chemically unstable intermediate compounds - are topics of scientific research as well as the evaluation of their sensory impact and irritation potential. Guidelines for assessing indoor pollution and a broad range of analytical methods have been recently developed and are reviewed by internationally renowned scientists. The specific characteristics of indoor air pollution in developing countries due to the widespread use of open fires for cooking, heating and lighting are analysed as well as the Chinese strategies to address the growing pollution problems by air pollution in its modern building stock.