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Aluminum Lithium Alloys

Aluminum Lithium Alloys Book
Author : N Eswara Prasad,Amol Gokhale,R.J.H Wanhill
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
Release : 2013-09-20
ISBN : 0124016790
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Because lithium is the least dense elemental metal, materials scientists and engineers have been working for decades to develop a commercially viable aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy that would be even lighter and stiffer than other aluminum alloys. The first two generations of Al-Li alloys tended to suffer from several problems, including poor ductility and fracture toughness; unreliable properties, fatigue and fracture resistance; and unreliable corrosion resistance. Now, new third generation Al-Li alloys with significantly reduced lithium content and other improvements are promising a revival for Al-Li applications in modern aircraft and aerospace vehicles. Over the last few years, these newer Al-Li alloys have attracted increasing global interest for widespread applications in the aerospace industry largely because of soaring fuel costs and the development of a new generation of civil and military aircraft. This contributed book, featuring many of the top researchers in the field, is the first up-to-date international reference for Al-Li material research, alloy development, structural design and aerospace systems engineering. Provides a complete treatment of the new generation of low-density AL-Li alloys, including microstructure, mechanical behavoir, processing and applications Covers the history of earlier generation AL-Li alloys, their basic problems, why they were never widely used, and why the new third generation Al-Li alloys could eventually replace not only traditional aluminum alloys but more expensive composite materials Contains two full chapters devoted to applications in the aircraft and aerospace fields, where the lighter, stronger Al-Li alloys mean better performing, more fuel-efficient aircraft

Aluminum Lithium Alloys

Aluminum Lithium Alloys Book
Author : R.J.H. Wanhill
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-20
ISBN : 0128068531
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The material and manufacturing property requirements for selection and application of 3rd generation aluminium-lithium (Al–Li) alloys in aircraft and spacecraft are discussed. Modern structural concepts using Laser Beam Welding (LBW), Friction Stir Welding (FSW), SuperPlastic Forming (SPF) and selective reinforcement by Fibre Metal Laminates (FMLs) are also considered. Al–Li alloys have to compete with conventional aluminium alloys, Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics (CFRPs) and GLAss REinforced FMLs (GLARE), particularly for transport aircraft structures. Thus all these materials are compared before discussing their selection for aircraft. This is followed by a review of the aluminium alloy selection process for spacecraft. Actual and potential applications of 3rd generation Al–Li alloys are presented. For aircraft it is concluded that the competition between different material classes (aluminium alloys, CFRPs and FMLs) has reached a development stage where hybrid structures, using different types of materials, may become the rule rather than the exception. However, aluminium alloys are still the main contenders for spacecraft liquid propellant launchers.

Aluminum Lithium Alloys

Aluminum Lithium Alloys Book
Author : G. Jagan Reddy,R.J.H. Wanhill,Amol A. Gokhale
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-20
ISBN : 0128068450
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mechanical working of Al–Li alloys is primarily concerned with aerospace alloy rolled products (sheet and plate), extrusions, and to a lesser extent forgings. These products are fabricated by hot working with intermittent and final heat treatments. This thermomechanical processing (TMP) can be rather complex for the modern 3rd generation Al-Li alloys, but is necessary to obtain optimum combinations of properties. This Chapter is in two parts. Part 1 discusses the ‘workability’ of metals and alloys and the hot deformation characteristics of Al–Li alloys, leading to the concept of Process Maps. A comprehensive Process Map for a binary Al–Li alloy illustrates the usefulness of these Maps for defining temperature–strain rate regions for safe and unsafe hot working, recrystallization and recovery, and superplastic behaviour Part 2 provides some general considerations about processing Al–Li alloy products, followed by a review and discussion of the currently available information for 3rd generation alloys. It is concluded that their complex TMP schedules may make it difficult to obtain optimum combinations of properties for thicker products.

Aluminum Lithium Alloys

Aluminum Lithium Alloys Book
Author : Edgar A. Starke
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-20
ISBN : 0128068396
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter provides a brief overview and history of the development of aluminium-lithium alloys from the earlier days of the discovery of age hardening by Alfred Wilm to its current status. It examines the progress of alloy development from simple binary alloys to the complex alloys that are currently used in aerospace systems. The driving force for this development has been the advantages gained by weight reduction of aerospace systems by replacing conventional aluminium alloys with the lower density higher modulus aluminium-lithium alloys. The problems associated with the development of these alloys and the scientific solutions to solving these problems are described.

Aluminum Lithium Alloys

Aluminum Lithium Alloys Book
Author : K.V. Jata,A.K. Singh
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-20
ISBN : 0128068434
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter describes the development of crystallographic texture and its effects on mechanical properties in aluminum-lithium alloys. Crystallographic texture evolves during the forming of wrought products from cast ingots of Al-Li alloys and consequently affects the mechanical properties. Practical approaches to control the texture have been developed and have been successfully used in the products obtained from industrial-scale ingots. This texture tailoring has significantly reduced the yield strength anisotropy. In addition, theoretical approaches have been used to model the yield strength anisotropy of aluminum alloys in the presence of complex precipitates.

Aluminum Lithium Alloys

Aluminum Lithium Alloys Book
Author : T.S. Srivatsan,Enrique J. Lavernia,N. Eswara Prasad,V.V. Kutumbarao
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-20
ISBN : 0128068485
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The emergence of Al–Li alloys as potential light metal, for safe use in a spectrum of aircraft structures and related aerospace applications has in recent years engendered an unprecedented widespread interest aimed at studying, understanding and improving their mechanical properties. In this chapter, we present and discuss some of the key aspects relevant to aluminum-lithium alloys, spanning the specific domain of precipitation kinetics as influenced by composition and heat treatment, intrinsic microstructural features and their effects, the fundamental mechanisms contributing to strength, ductility, fracture toughness, and overall anisotropy in mechanical properties of these alloys. The tensile behavior of representative first generation, second generation and third generation aluminum-lithium alloys is also presented and briefly discussed. Microstructural influences on mechanical properties are examined with specific reference to matrix microstructural features, dislocation-microstructural feature interaction, and matrix slip characteristics.

Aluminum Lithium Alloys

Aluminum Lithium Alloys Book
Author : N.J.H. Holroyd,G.M. Scamans,R.C. Newman,A.K. Vasudevan
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-20
ISBN : 0128068523
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Industrial interest in wrought heat-treatable aluminium-lithium (Al–Li) based alloys dates back to around 1919 in Germany. However the exploitation of these alloys has historically been limited by their mechanical property anisotropy and concerns over their localized corrosion resistance and temperature stability. Recently, in the last ten years, alloy and process development has resulted in alloy compositions and thermomechanical treatments that potentially can overcome these issues. To put these developments in perspective we have reviewed the corrosion characteristics of first, second and third generation alloys with an emphasis on localized corrosion (intergranular and exfoliation) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Intergranular corrosion susceptibility of Al–Li–Cu and Al–Li–Cu–Mg alloys increases with copper content, and the depth of attack increases with ageing, i.e. UAPA~30 mm) further analysis of corrosion test results is required.

Aluminum Lithium Alloys

Aluminum Lithium Alloys Book
Author : K. Satya Prasad,N. Eswara Prasad,Amol A. Gokhale
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-20
ISBN : 0128068426
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter reviews the precipitation and precipitate phases that occur during heat treatments in multi-component Al-Li based alloys. It describes aspects related to nucleation, growth, morphology and orientation relationships of the strengthening precipitates δ’ and T1, the toughening precipitate S’ and the recrystallisation-inhibiting precipitate β’. Equilibrium precipitate phases such as T2, which are deleterious to the mechanical and corrosion properties of the alloys, are also described. It is shown that careful alloy chemistry control, two-step homogenization and controlled stretching prior to ageing can be employed to improve the volume fraction and distribution of the precipitate phases. All these processing aspects are necessary to achieve optimum combinations of properties for the alloys.

Aluminum Lithium Alloys

Aluminum Lithium Alloys Book
Author : R.J.H. Wanhill,G.H. Bray
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-20
ISBN : 012806840X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The structural and engineering property requirements for widespread deployment of aluminium-lithium (Al-Li) alloys in aircraft are discussed, particularly with respect to commercial transport aircraft. The development of Al-Li alloys has been driven mainly by the fact that additions of lithium to aluminium alloys lowers the density and increases the elastic modulus, thereby offering the potential of significant weight savings with respect to conventional (non-lithium containing) alloys. The first use of Al-Li alloys in aircraft goes back to the late 1950s (alloy AA 2020) and mid-1960s (alloys 1420 and 1421). These materials are referred to as the 1st generation Al-Li alloys. Subsequently there have been two major development programmes resulting in the 2nd and 3rd generation alloys. Development of the 2nd generation alloys began in the 1970s and continued through the 1980s. Attempts were made to develop families of Al-Li alloys for widespread replacement of conventional alloys. Ultimately this was unsuccessful except for ‘niche’ applications. The failure to find widespread application was associated largely with the too-high lithium contents of the alloys (typically more than 2 wt%). This resulted in serious disadvantages, including mechanical property anisotropy, low short-transverse ductility and fracture toughness, and thermal instability. Development of the 3rd generation Al-Li alloys began in the late 1980s and is ongoing. These alloys have significantly reduced lithium contents (0.75 – 1.8 wt%) and there are other important compositional changes. Silver and zinc have been added for strength, and zinc improves the corrosion resistance; and manganese is added besides zirconium, which was already present in 2nd generation alloys, to control recrystallization and texture. These differences and improved knowledge about thermomechanical processing and heat-treatment have resulted in a family of alloys with significant property advantages covering all major structural areas and applications for transport aircraft.

Aluminum Lithium Alloys

Aluminum Lithium Alloys Book
Author : R.J.H. Wanhill,G.H. Bray
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-20
ISBN : 0128068507
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Most aluminium-lithium (Al–Li) alloy fatigue crack growth (FCG) data have been obtained for 2nd generation alloys, specifically under constant amplitude (CA) and constant stress ratio (CR) loading, and for long/large cracks. These data show the alloys in a favourable light, but this FCG ‘advantage’ essentially disappears under realistic flight simulation loading, and is also absent for short/small cracks. Furthermore, the FCG advantage is due to inhomogeneous plastic deformation, which has undesirable consequences for other important properties. These consequences have greatly restricted the use of 2nd generation alloys in aerospace structures. FCG data for 3rd generation Al–Li alloys are becoming more available. Many of the issues associated with 2nd generation alloys have been eliminated or greatly alleviated as a result of several changes, including reduced Li contents and innovative thermomechanical processing. Consequently, the FCG behaviour of 3rd generation alloys is more similar to that of conventional alloys. Nevertheless, the 3rd generation alloys tend to have better FCG properties than equivalent conventional alloys; and these and other improvements have already led to many aircraft applications.

Aluminum Lithium Alloys

Aluminum Lithium Alloys Book
Author : N. Eswara Prasad,T.R. Ramachandran
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-20
ISBN : 0128068418
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The formation of metastable and equilibrium phases in binary Al–Li, ternary Al–Li–Mg and Al–Li–Cu, and quaternary Al–Cu–Li–Mg alloys has been studied by using a variety of experimental techniques including differential scanning calorimetry, electrical resistivity, X-ray diffraction, conventional and high-resolution electron microscopy and 3D atom probe measurements. Al3Li (δ′) is the strengthening phase in binary Al–Li and ternary Al–Li–Mg alloys. Mg reduces the solubility of Li in Al and also substitutes for Li in δ′. The characteristics of θ′ (and θ) and T1 phases in Al–Li–Cu alloys and the composition limits where these phases are formed are well understood. For low Li contents (1.4–1.5%). Formation of T1 is promoted by small additions of Ag and Mg and by cold work prior to artificial aging. Zr forms the metastable β′ (Al3Zr) phase, which has an appreciable effect on retarding recrystallization besides providing nucleation sites for composite δ′ particles. Sc and Yb additions behave in a similar way; the added advantage is improved creep strength. The available information from phase equilibria studies of Al–Li–Cu–Mg alloys is somewhat limited, but sufficient to give an indication of the desirable solution treatment and aging temperatures and the phases formed at these temperatures. 3D atom probe studies suggest the involvement of Mg atoms in the formation of clusters which lead to the formation of the T1 phase, during artificial ageing of aging of quenched Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloys. All these aspects are covered in detail, with specific reference to different commercial and semi-commercial Al–Li alloys, wherever possible.

Investigations Into the Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum Lithium Alloys

Investigations Into the Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum Lithium Alloys Book
Author : Christopher Shigeki Kumai
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1992
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Investigations Into the Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum Lithium Alloys book written by Christopher Shigeki Kumai, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Aluminum Lithium Alloys

Aluminum Lithium Alloys Book
Author : S.P. Lynch,R.J.H. Wanhill,R.T. Byrnes,G.H. Bray
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-20
ISBN : 0128068515
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aluminium-Lithium (Al–Li) alloys have been of interest since the 1950s when they were first used on a military aircraft. Having lithium as the main alloying element in Al alloys is attractive since (i) each 1 wt% Li reduces the density by ~3% and increases modulus by ~5%, and (ii) high strengths can be achieved by precipitation-hardening. During the 1980s, extensive research and development was carried out on alloys with high lithium contents (>2 wt%≡~8 at%) such as AA 8090 (Al 2.4 Li 1.2 Cu 0.7 Mg 0.12 Zr) (wt%). The mechanical properties of these ‘second-generation’ Al–Li alloys, however, did not match those of conventional Al (-Zn)-Mg-Cu alloys, and the lower fracture toughness of these alloys (for equivalent strengths was a particular problem. Thus, 2nd generation Al–Li alloys did not see widespread use. The experience with 2nd generation Al–Li alloys led to the development of ‘3rd generation’ alloys with lower Li contents (0.75–1.7 wt%), and some of these alloys have a better overall balance of properties, including fracture toughness, than the best available conventional Al alloys. These 3rd generation Al–Li alloys should therefore see extensive use in future civil and military aircraft. This chapter on fracture toughness and fracture modes of aerospace Al–Li alloys outlines why fracture toughness is important for aerospace structures and components, and summarises testing procedures and terminologies in regard to plane-strain and plane-stress fracture toughness. The relationships between fracture toughness/fracture modes and microstructural features such as grain morphology, constituent particles, impurity phases, matrix precipitates, grain-boundary precipitates, and grain boundary segregation, are then discussed. Proposed explanations for the low fracture toughness of 2nd generation Al–Li alloys, associated with low-energy intergranular and transgranular shear fractures, are discussed in some depth, followed by a summary of the alloy-design principles behind the development of 3rd generation Al–Li alloys with a much improved resistance to low-energy fracture modes. Quantitative data for fracture toughness of 2nd and 3rd generation Al–Li alloys in comparison with conventional Al alloys are provided, showing that 3rd generation Al–Li alloys have outstanding combinations of toughness and strength combined with reduced densities. The superior toughness of 3rd generation Al–Li alloys compared with 2nd generation alloys is reflected in the differences in fracture-surface topography and fracture path. The chapter concludes with a summary of the current and proposed uses of 3rd generation Al–Li alloys in aircraft structures and components

Aluminum Lithium Alloys

Aluminum Lithium Alloys Book
Author : G. Madhusudhan Reddy,Amol A. Gokhale
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-20
ISBN : 0128068477
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The application of aluminium-lithium alloys over a wide range of engineering technologies will require development of both effective methods for joining these materials and through understanding of their welding metallurgy. This chapter covers the pertinent literature regarding the weld metal porosity, susceptibility to cracking during welding, eqiaxed zone formation and associated fusion boundary cracking, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of welds. Microstructural modification is especially attractive for alloys with pronounced hot cracking susceptibility. Aluminum–lithium alloys are one such class of materials. Since the hot cracking tendency is known to be a function of weld metal composition, several crack resistant filler materials such as AA 2319, AA 4043 and AA 5356 are in common use. While primary approach to the problem is thus to modify weld metal chemistry, a secondary solution is to reduce the coarseness of the solidification structure. Of the various techniques available for modifying the structure, pulsed current, magnetic arc oscillation techniques of gas tungsten arc welding and inoculation using grain refining additions offers the greatest promise for practical applications. Improving weldability of these alloys through modification of fusion zone microstructure are covered in this chapter. Lastly, solid state welding processes such as friction and friction stir welding of Al-Li alloys are briefly discussed.

Aluminum Lithium Alloys

Aluminum Lithium Alloys Book
Author : N. Eswara Prasad,T.S. Srivatsan,R.J.H. Wanhill,G. Malakondaiah,V.V. Kutumbarao
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-20
ISBN : 0128068493
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The low cycle fatigue (LCF) and high cycle fatigue (HCF) properties of Al–Li alloys are influenced by alloy composition, microstructural characteristics, tensile stretching prior to artificial aging, and crystallographic texture. In general the fatigue properties, notably the notched HCF resistances, of Al–Li alloys are similar to those of conventional aerospace aluminium alloys. Alloy development programs on newer Al–Li alloys aim to study further the effects of minor alloying additions (rare earths, beryllium, silver and TiB); various thermomechanical treatments; alloy microstructure, notably crystallographic texture and grain size; and the fatigue load history and environment on the mechanical behavior, including the fatigue properties. It is important to note that the occurrence of bilinearity in LCF life-dependence on strain amplitude in most Al–Li alloys engenders the overestimation of the LCF lives in both the hypo-transition (lower strain amplitudes; longer fatigue lives) and hyper-transition (higher strain amplitudes; shorter fatigue lives) regions if the lives are estimated by extrapolation from either of these regions. Further, in cases such as in Al-Li alloys where there are large differences in strength-based (Basquin-like) and plastic strain – based (Coffin-Manson) power-law relationships, it is appropriate to develop an alloy design philosophy based on either plastic strain energy per cycle (Halford-Morrow) or fatigue toughness (total plastic strain energy to fracture). All of these aspects are discussed in detail in this chapter.

Aluminum Lithium Alloys

Aluminum Lithium Alloys Book
Author : S. Balasivanandha Prabu,K.A. Padmanabhan
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-20
ISBN : 0128068469
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since the late 1950s, lithium is being used as an alloying element in aluminum. Their excellent ductility, which allows superplastic forming, along with their ability to decrease the density, makes aluminum-lithium alloys a primary choice for many structural applications in aerospace industry. This chapter initially discusses the processes and mechanisms that give rise to significant plasticity/Superplasticity in these alloy systems. The superplastic behavior of Al-Li alloys and their applications in forming are then discussed. The thickness variation during superplastic forming strongly depends on the peak strain rate sensitivity index (m) of the material, and an increase in the m value reduces the thickness variation in the formed component. The factors that help increase the value of m are enumerated. Superplastic forming is carried out at temperatures ≥ 0.5 Tm (Tm is the absolute melting temperature), often closer to 0.7 − 0.8 Tm. Significant cavitation and grain growth are present at such high temperatures. This has ushered in low temperature superplastic forming by the production of ultra-fine grain sizes via dispersion strengthening and severe plastic deformation (SPD). The promise of superplastic forming of Al-Li alloys for the future and the factors including cost that limit the use of Al-Li alloys are also discussed.

Aluminum Lithium Alloys

Aluminum Lithium Alloys Book
Author : Olga Grushko,Boris Ovsyannikov,Viktor Ovchinnokov
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-11-18
ISBN : 1315352508
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aluminum–Lithium Alloys: Process Metallurgy, Physical Metallurgy, and Welding provides theoretical foundations of the technological processes for melting, casting, forming, heat treatment, and welding of Al–Li alloys. It contains a critical survey of the research in the field and presents data on commercial Al–Li alloys, their phase composition, microstructure, and heat treatment of the ingots, sheets, forgings, and welds of Al–Li alloys. It details oxidation kinetics, protective alloying, hydrogen in Al–Li alloys, and crack susceptibility. It also discusses grain structure and solidification, as well as structural and mechanical properties. The book is illustrated with examples of Al–Li alloy applications in aircraft structures. Based on the vast experience of the coauthors, the book presents recommendations on solving practical problems involved with melting and casting ingots, welding of Al–Li alloys, and producing massive stampings for welded products. Provides comprehensive coverage of Al–Li alloys, not available in any single source. Presents research that is at the basis of the production technology for of ingots and products made of Al–Li alloys. Combines basic science with applied research, including upscaling and industrial implementation. Covers welding of Al–Li alloys in detail. Discusses gas and alkali-earth impurities in Al–Li alloys. Describes technological recommendations on casting and deformation of Al–Li alloys.

Environmental Fatigue in Aluminum lithium Alloys

Environmental Fatigue in Aluminum lithium Alloys Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1992
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Environmental Fatigue in Aluminum lithium Alloys book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Microstructure and Properties of Aluminum Lithium Alloys

The Microstructure and Properties of Aluminum Lithium Alloys Book
Author : Edgar A Starke (Jr),William E. Quist,VIRGINIA UNIV CHARLOTTESVILLE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCE.
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1989
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The advantages to be gained by weight reduction of aerospace structures have encouraged the aluminum industry to develop a family of aluminum alloys which contain lithium as one of the alloying elements. When alloyed with aluminum, lithium can reduce the density by approximately three percent and increase the elastic modulus by six percent for every weight percent added. A new series of aluminum alloys, typified by 2090, 2091, 8090, and 8091, have been developed and are currently being produced in commercial quantities. These alloys have densities between 7% and 10% lower than the conventional alloy 7075 with correspondingly higher stiffness. Although a combined set of specific properties of the (Aluminum-Lithium-X) alloys often exceeds those of the conventional aluminum materials used in aerospace, these properties seem to be much more sensitive to processing parameters. The strong processing-property relationship is associated with sharp crystallographic textures that are developed during primary processing and very complex precipitate microstructures whose distributions are sensitive to quench rates and degree of deformation prior to aging. This paper describes the processing-microstructure-property relationships of the new Al-Li-X alloys and focuses on strength, ductility, fracture toughness, fatigue and stress corrosion properties. Keywords: Symposia, Metallurgy, Microstructure, Alloys, Mechanical properties. (JG).