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Airborne Radioactive Contamination In Inhabited Areas

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Airborne Radioactive Contamination in Inhabited Areas

Airborne Radioactive Contamination in Inhabited Areas Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2009-08-14
ISBN : 9780080914251
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

For many decades, investigations of the behaviour and implications of radioactive contamination in the environment have focused on agricultural areas and food production. This was due to the erroneous assumption that the consequences of credible contaminating incidents would be restricted to rural areas. However, due to the Chernobyl accident, more than 250,000 persons were removed from their homes, demonstrating a great need for knowledge and instruments that could be applied to minimise the manifold adverse consequences of contamination in inhabited areas. Also, today the world is facing a number of new threats, including radiological terrorism, which would be likely to take place in a city, where most people would become directly affected. A recent report from the US Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism concludes that it is most likely that a large radiological, or even nuclear, terror attack on a major city somewhere in the world will occur before 2013. For the first time ever, the specific problems of airborne radioactive contamination in inhabited areas are treated in a holistically covering treatise, pinpointing factorial interdependencies and describing instruments for mitigation. The state-of-the-art knowledge is here explained in Airborne Radioactive Contamination in Inhabited Areas y leading scientists in the various disciplines of relevance. Unique holistic description of airborne radioactive contamination of inhabited areas and its consequences State-of-the-art information on problems associated with both accidental and malicious contamination events, in particularly 'dirty bombs' Detailed description of processes and parameters governing the severity of contaminating incidents Written by key experts in the world

Environmental Radioactivity and Emergency Preparedness

Environmental Radioactivity and Emergency Preparedness Book
Author : Mats Isaksson,Christopher L. Raaf
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-01-06
ISBN : 1315355558
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Radioactive sources such as nuclear power installations can pose a great threat to both humans and our environment. How do we measure, model and regulate such threats? Environmental Radioactivity and Emergency Preparedness addresses these topical questions and aims to plug the gap in the lack of comprehensive literature in this field. The book explores how to deal with the threats posed by different radiological sources, including those that are lost or hidden, and the issues posed by the use of such sources. It presents measurement methods and approaches to model and quantify the extent of threat, and also presents strategies for emergency preparedness, such as strategies for first-responders and radiological triage in case an accident should happen. Containing the latest recommendations and procedures from bodies such as the IAEA, this book is an essential reference for both students and academicians studying radiation safety, as well as for radiation protection experts in public bodies or in the industry.

Radioactivity in the Environment

Radioactivity in the Environment Book
Author : Vlado Valkovic
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-04-17
ISBN : 0444642137
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Radioactivity in the Environment, Second Edition, presents the facts on the presence of both natural and manmade radionuclides in the environment. Sources of ionizing radiation that can lead to human exposure are discussed, including natural sources, nuclear explosions, nuclear power generation, the use of radiation in medical, industrial and research purposes, and radiation-emitting consumer products. In this thoroughly updated edition, users will find new sections on developments in radioactive nuclides in nature and technologically modified exposure to natural radiation, new threats by terrorist individuals, groups and countries, changes to the status of nuclear power in the world, and more. Additional new sections cover radioisotopes in geo-prospecting and the oil industry, the use of radiation in environmental protection, detector types and detectors used for personal dosimetry, the "Dirty Bomb", the Fukushima accident, and North Korea testing sites and nuclear capabilities. Includes details of analytical laboratory procedures for radioactivity measurement in different samples Features a new chapter on decontamination after radiation exposure Expands the discussion on nuclear fusion to cover ITER and other installations

TENR Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation

TENR   Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation Book
Author : Anselmo Salles Paschoa,F. Steinhausler
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2009-12-31
ISBN : 9780080914183
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book on TENR discusses the basic Physics and Chemistry principles of natural radiation. The current knowledge of the biological effects of natural radiation is summarized. A wide variety of topics, from cosmic radiation to atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic radiation is addressed, including radon, thoron, and depleted uranium. Issues like terrorism and geochronology using natural radiation are also examined. Comprehensive global TENR data assembly Critical assessment of the significant radiological impact of TENR on man and the environment as compared to radiological impact from man-made sources in nuclear technology and nuclear medicine Illustration of the importance of TENR for the future conceptual development of radiation protection

Social and Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management

Social and Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management Book
Author : Deborah Oughton,Sven Ove Hansson
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-09-07
ISBN : 0080914292
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Social and Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management provides a comprehensive treatment of the major ethical and social issues resulting from the use of ionizing radiation. It covers topics such as nuclear fuel cycles, radioactive waste treatment, nuclear bomb testing, nuclear safety management, stakeholder engagement, cleanup after nuclear accidents, ecological risks from radiation, environmental justice, health and safety for radiation workers, radiation dose standards, the ethics of clinical radiology, and the principles of radiation protection and their ethical underpinnings. With authors ranging from philosophers to radiation protection officials and practitioners, the book spans from theoretical to practical implications of this important area of radiation risk assessment and management. Covers all the major social and ethical issues in relation to radiation protection Information is easily accessible and non-technical Authors include leading radiation protection officials as well as specialists who are more independent of the radiation protection system, thus presenting both authoritative and more critical views Includes theoretical perspectives as well as practical experience

Environmental Radionuclides

Environmental Radionuclides Book
Author : Klaus Froehlich
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2009-09-23
ISBN : 9780080913292
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Environmental Radionuclides presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth’s environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which in a variety of applications, especially in hydrology and climatology, have to be consulted to evaluate radionuclide measurements in terms of the ages of groundwater and climate archives, respectively. The basic principles underlying the various applications of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental studies are described in the first part of the book. The book covers the two major groups of applications: the use of radionuclides as tracers for studying transport and mixing processes: and as time markers to address problems of the dynamics of such systems, manifested commonly as the so-called residence time in these systems. The applications range from atmospheric pollution studies, via water resource assessments to contributions to global climate change investigation. The third part of the book addresses new challenges in the development of new methodological approaches, including analytical methods and fields of applications. A state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides Conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers

Tropical Radioecology

Tropical Radioecology Book
Author : J.R. Twining,M. Baxter
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-10-18
ISBN : 0080450164
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Tropical Radioecology is a guide to the wide range of scientific practices and principles of this multidisciplinary field. It brings together past and present studies in the tropical and subtropical areas of the planet, highlighting the unique aspects of tropical systems. Until recently, radioecological models for tropical environments have depended upon data derived from temperate environments, despite the differences of these regions in terms of biota and abiotic conditions. Since radioactivity can be used to trace environmental processes in humans and other biota, this book offers examples of studies in which radiotracers have been used to assess biokinetics in tropical biota. This book: Features chapters co-authored by world experts that explain the origins, inputs, distributions, behaviour, and consequences of radioactivity in tropical and subtropical systems. Provides comprehensive lists of relevant data and identifies current knowledge gaps to allow for targeted radioecological research in the future. Integrates radioecological information into the most recent radiological consequences modelling and best-practice probabilistic ecological risk analysis methodology, given the need to understand the implications of enhanced socio-economic development in the world's tropical regions. John Twining has published research and conducted field and laboratory studies on the nuclear industry's impact on the environment over four decades. While much of this work has been related to Australia's role as a uranium supplier, he has also evaluated this impact at the Maralinga test sites in the deserts of central Australia and the effects of French testing in the central Pacific. John also focused on the uptake of radionuclides by crops and the use of isotopes as tracers of biological processes. Much of this work was accomplished in tropical or subtropical environments, and this experience proved valuable for Tropical Radioecology. John is now associate editor for the Journal of Environmental Radioecology and a self-employed consultant radioecologist.

Nuclear Reactor Safety

Nuclear Reactor Safety Book
Author : F Farmer
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-12-02
ISBN : 0323159680
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nuclear Reactor Safety aims to put the nuclear hazard in perspective by providing an objective overall technical review of the field. It focuses on reactor accidents and their consequences. The technical arguments will be concerned broadly with reactor accident conditions and will deal with both the arrangements necessary to prevent any dangerous diversion from normal operation and to ameliorate the consequences if such a diversion should occur. The book is organized into three parts. Part I describes the nature of fission products and the hazards to man and his environment resulting from the uncontrolled release of fission products in accident conditions. Part II discusses a quantitative approach to reactor safety assessment and the quantification of vessel integrity. Part III deals with the basic principles of analysis and assessment of reactor safety, and then considers the specific safety problems of thermal and fast reactors in detail. This book is intended for two types of readers. First are technicians, those engaged in nuclear engineering: designers, constructors, and operators of nuclear stations, as well as those who would make a career in nuclear safety. Second are those (not necessarily scientists) who are tasked with making decisions in the field of energy use and allocation, or are concerned with environmental matters.

Bioevaluation of World Transport Networks

Bioevaluation of World Transport Networks Book
Author : Andrew Adamatzky
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2012
ISBN : 9814407038
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a monstrous single cell well known for its task-solving abilities solves computational geometry and logical problems, navigates robots and generates music. The slime mould could also build motorways, highways and expressways. It is used to analyse transport networks of Africa, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, Iberia, Italy, Malaysia, Mexico, The Netherlands, UK and USA. The largest cities are represented by oat flakes and the slime mould is inoculated in a capital. When all oat flakes are covered by the slime mould, the structure of the protoplasmic networks formed are analyzed. In the laboratory experiments and theoretical analyses, intriguing country-specific properties of the motorway networks are uncovered and compared with the man-made and slime mould networks. They are studied as proximity graphs, leading to hierarchies of complexity and bio-rationality of the motorways. The book will inspire novel and original thoughts, paradigms and approaches for re-evaluation of historical findings on the emergence of ancient roads and will help to design future transcontinental pathways. The book is self-contained and does not require any special training or knowledge. This lavishly illustrated text will be appreciated by readers from all walks of life.

Radioactive Contamination of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

Radioactive Contamination of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Book
Author : Hideo Yamazaki
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020
ISBN : 9811573689
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents the 5-year monitoring of radioactive contamination in the Tokyo metropolitan area due to the Fukushima accident, covering radiation monitoring of soil, litter, river, water, seawater, aquatic sediments, fish and shellfish, and plants in urban areas. Based on spatial and temporal data, it evaluates the environmental radiation contamination of the Tokyo metropolitan following the first nuclear accident affecting an urban area since Chernobyl. Since little is known about the contamination in Kiev city, this data is particularly valuable, offering insights into the dynamics of radioactive contamination in metropolitan areas, which are of interest in relation to the behavior of radionuclides resulting not only from nuclear accidents but also from nuclear terrorism? As such, this book will be appeal to nuclear and radiation experts, environmental administration professionals and specialists in environmental protection groups, as well as student and academics in the related fields.

Environmental Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident and Their Remediation

Environmental Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident and Their Remediation Book
Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
Publisher : IAEA
Release : 2006
ISBN : 9789201147059
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the consequent reactor fire resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with other UN bodies, the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning the environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident.

Radioactive Fallout after Nuclear Explosions and Accidents

Radioactive Fallout after Nuclear Explosions and Accidents Book
Author : Y.A. Izrael
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2002-06-20
ISBN : 9780080540238
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

To achieve successful solutions to the problems resulting from local, distant and global radioactive fallout after nuclear explosions and accidents and to achieve successful retrospective analyses of the radiation conditions from recent observations, certain information is needed: the distribution of the exposure dose rate in the atmosphere and in a country; the distribution of radionuclides in natural environments and the nuclide composition of the radioactive fallout; the features of formation of the aerosol particle-carriers of the radioactivity and of the nuclide distribution of the particles of different sizes formed under different conditions; the processes involved in the migration of radioactive products in different zones and environments; the external and internal effects of nuclear radiation on human beings. This monograph is devoted to a number of these problems, namely, to studies of the radioactive fallout composition, the formation of the aerosol particles that transport the radioactive products and to the analysis of the external radiation doses resulting from nuclear explosions and/or accidents. Problems of restoration and rehabilitation of contaminated land areas are also touched upon in the monograph. To solve such problems one requires knowledge of the mobility of radionuclides, an understanding of their uptake by plants, their transportation within the food chain and finally their uptake by animal and/or human organisms. The results of many years of study of radioactive fallout from atmospheric and underground nuclear explosions and accidents are summarized in this book. It is intended for various specialists - geophysicists, ecologists, health experts and inspectors, as well as those who are concerned with radioactive contamination of natural environments.

Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident Book
Author : Tomoko M. Nakanishi,Keitaro Tanoi
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-02-25
ISBN : 4431558284
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book reports the results from on-site research into radioactive cesium contamination in various agricultural systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident that occurred in March 2011. This is the second volume from the research groups formed in the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo who have published the initial data in their first volume. In this book, additional data collected in the subsequent years are presented to show how the radioactivity level in agricultural products and their growing environments have changed with time. The data clarify the route by which radioactive materials entered agricultural products and their movement among different components (e.g., soil, water, and trees) within an environmental system (e.g., forests). The book consists of various topics, including radioactivity inspection of food products; decontamination trials for rice and livestock production; the state of contamination in wild animals and birds, trees, mushrooms, and timber; the dynamics of radioactivity distribution in mountain and paddy fields; damage incurred by the forestry and fishery industries; and the change in consumers’ minds. The last chapter introduces a real-time radioisotope imaging system, the forefront technique to visualize actual movement of cesium in soil and in plants. This is the only book to provide systematic data about the actual change of radioactivity, and thus is of great value for all researchers who wish to understand the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture. The project is ongoing; the research groups continue their work in the field for further evaluation of the long-term effects.

Nuclear Waste Management Reorganization Act of 1979

Nuclear Waste Management Reorganization Act of 1979 Book
Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs,United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs. Subcommittee on Energy, Nuclear Proliferation, and Federal Services
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1980
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Nuclear Waste Management Reorganization Act of 1979 book written by United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs,United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs. Subcommittee on Energy, Nuclear Proliferation, and Federal Services, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental Health Perspectives Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009-07
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Environmental Health Perspectives book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis Book
Author : Michael F. L'Annunziata
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-08-16
ISBN : 0123848733
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Authoritative reference providing the principles, practical techniques, and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity.

Environmentally Devastated Areas in River Basins in Eastern Europe

Environmentally Devastated Areas in River Basins in Eastern Europe Book
Author : Alfons G. Buekens,Vasily V. Dragalov
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-04-17
ISBN : 3642722660
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The fall of the iron curtain revealed widespread environmental and safety short comings in relation to industrial operations, mining and other human activities. It was the purpose of this Advanced Research Workshop, sponsored by NATO, to bring together a group of eminent experts from East and West in order to present and analyse environmental data, assess environmental damage, establish priorities, strategies and methods of remediation and compare these with case studies from the Western World. In this volume a number of important contributions have been gathered, that reflect the presentations and discussions held. Alfons Georges Buekens Vasily Victorovich Dragalov Table of Contents I. General Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scientific and Technological Policy of Ministry of Sciences of Russian Federation in Application to Water Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Target Federal Program - Revival of the Volga. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 II. River Basins and their Characterization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 River Basin Management in the Upper and Middle Odra River . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Water Quality and Environmental Degradation in the Tom River Basin (Western Siberia): The Need for an Integrated Management Approach . . . . . . 29 Danube Environmental Programme on the Hron River Basin, Slovakia . . . . . 39 Global Regularities in the Occurence of the Environmentally Devastated Urban Areas as a Fundamental Basis for Urbo-Monitoring (Methodology of Sustainable Development of Towns in River Basins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Principles of Integrated Water Management for the Revival of Old Industrial Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Pollution Potentials of Storm Runoff from Urban and Industrial Areas . . . . . 105 Assessment of Pollution Hazards in the Estarreja Aquifer (Portugal) Remediation Strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Civil defense aspects of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident

Civil defense aspects of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident Book
Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Military Installations and Facilities
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1979
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Civil defense aspects of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident book written by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Military Installations and Facilities, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Control of Radiation Hazards in the Atomic Energy Program

Control of Radiation Hazards in the Atomic Energy Program Book
Author : U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1950
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Control of Radiation Hazards in the Atomic Energy Program book written by U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Environmental and Source Monitoring for Purposes of Radiation Protection

Environmental and Source Monitoring for Purposes of Radiation Protection Book
Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide international guidance, coherent with contemporary radiation protection principles and IAEA safety requirements, on the strategy of monitoring in relation to: (a) control of radionuclide discharges under practice conditions, and (b) intervention, such as in cases of nuclear or radiological emergencies or past contamination of areas with long lived radionuclides. Three categories of monitoring are discussed: monitoring at the source of the discharge (source monitoring), monitoring in the environment (environmental monitoring) and monitoring of individual exposure in emergencies (individual monitoring). The Safety Guide also provides general guidance on assessment of the doses to critical groups of the population due to the presence of radioactive materials or radiation fields in the environment both from routine operation of nuclear and other related facilities (practice) and from nuclear or radiological emergencies and past contamination of areas with long lived radionuclides (intervention). The dose assessments are based on the results of source monitoring, environmental monitoring, individual monitoring or their combinations. This Safety Guide is primarily intended for use by national regulatory bodies and other agencies involved in national systems of radiation monitoring, as well as by operators of nuclear installations and other facilities where natural or human made radionuclides are treated and monitored.