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Agroecosystem Diversity

Agroecosystem Diversity Book
Author : Gilles Lemaire,Paulo Cesar de Faccio Carvalho,Scott Kronberg,Sylvie Recous
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-10-08
ISBN : 0128110511
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Agro-Ecosystem Diversity: Impact on Food Security and Environmental Quality presents cutting-edge exploration of developing novel farming systems and introduces landscape ecology to agronomy. It encompasses the broad range of links between agricultural development and ecological impact and how to limit the potential negative results. Presented in seven sections, each focusing on a specific challenge to sustaining diversity, the book provides insights toward the argument that by re-introducing diversity, it should be possible to maintain a high level of productivity of agro-ecosystems while also maintaining and/or restoring a satisfactory level of environment quality and biodiversity. Demonstrates that diversified agro-ecosystems can be intensified with environmental quality preserved, restored and enhanced Includes analysis of economic constraints leading to specialization of farms and regions and the social locking forces resisting to diversification of agro-ecosystems Presents a global vision of world agriculture and the tradeoff between a necessary increase in food production and restoring environment quality

Agroecosystem Diversity

Agroecosystem Diversity Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2019-11
ISBN : 9781642242577
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ecosystems are the basis of life and all human activities. Agroecology as an approach to foster the transition to food systems that conserve resources and improve human well-being, has been increasingly promoted by scientists, Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs), international organizations, and peasant movements. Conservation of biological diversity is very important for the proper functioning of the ecosystem and for delivering ecosystem services. Maintaining high biodiversity in agroecosystems makes agricultural production more sustainable and economically viable. During the last decades, worldwide losses of biodiversity have occurred at an unprecedented scale and agricultural intensification has been a major driver of this global change. Comprised into 14 chapters, this book integrates state of the art trends and challenges on biodiversity in agricultural ecosystems at both local and global perspective. This book opens with a chapter on plant diversity in agroecosystems and agricultural landscapes. Agricultural landscapes represent a cultural landscape group. Their origin, structure and ecological relations differ from natural landscapes considerably. Agroecology is increasingly promoted by scientists, non-governmental organizations (NGO's), international organizations and peasant movements as an approach to foster the transition to sustainable and equitable food systems. Further, this book takes a look on the governance of ecosystem services in agroecology; the ecology of plant chemistry and multi-species interactions in diversified agroecosystems; activity and variety of soil microorganisms depending on the diversity of the soil tillage system; soil fungal resources in annual cropping systems and their potential for management; nocturnal risks-high bat activity in the agricultural landscape indicates potential pesticide exposure. In this chapter, we have discussed the major effects of crop protection on biodiversity in detail regarding the persistence of biodiversity that needs to be mediated, considering the preserving of ecological properties and sustainable maintenance of biological integrity in agroecosystems. Farming systems, with their concerns of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and productivity and production issues towards progress in human needs, wellbeing, and sustainable development, are challenging in most biosphere reserves. In this book, a case study presented in last chapter assesses the levels and trends of the agro-biodiversity and ecosystem services of different farming systems in the Yayo Biosphere Reserve in Ethiopia.

Biodiversity in Agroecosystems

Biodiversity in Agroecosystems Book
Author : Wanda W. Collins,Calvin O. Qualset
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1998-08-14
ISBN : 9781420049244
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

between the diversity of plant and animal species and host/dependent agricultural systems. Biodiversity in Agroecosystems shows how biodiversity can be thought of not only as the rich make-up of a great number of related and competing species within an ecologically defined community, but also as the robust behavior and resilience of those species over time and as the endurance of their eco-community. This book brings to the fore new research on biodiversity in agricultural ecosystems at both micro and macro levels, heretofore available only in journals and proceedings papers.

Agroecology

Agroecology Book
Author : Stephen R. Gliessman
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2007
ISBN : 9780849328459
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Providing the theoretical and conceptual framework for this continually evolving field, Agroecology: The Ecology of Sustainable Food Systems, Second Edition explores environmental factors and complexities affecting agricultural crops and animals. Completely revised, updated, and reworked, the second edition contains new data, new readings, new issues and case studies, and new options. It includes two completely new chapters, one on the role of livestock animals in agroecosystems and one on the cultural and community aspects of sustainable food systems. The author clearly delineates the importance of using an ecosystem framework for determining if a particular agricultural practice, input, or management decision contributes or detracts from sustainability. He explains how the framework provides the ecological basis for the functioning of the chosen management strategy over the long-term. He also examines system level interactions, stressing the need for understanding the emergent qualities of populations, communities, and ecosystems and their roles in sustainable agriculture. Using examples of farming systems in a broad array of ecological conditions, the book demonstrates how to use an ecosystem approach to design and manage agroecosystems for sustainability.

Biodiversity Structure and Function Volume I

Biodiversity   Structure and Function   Volume I Book
Author : Wilhelm Barthlott,K. Eduard Linsenmair,Stefan Porembski
Publisher : EOLSS Publications
Release : 2009-08-19
ISBN : 1905839340
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biodiversity: Structure and Function is a component of Encyclopedia of Environmental and Ecological Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Biodiversity: Structure and Function discusses matters of great relevance to our world such as: Characterization of Biodiversity; Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning; Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Biodiversity Dynamics; Evolutionary and Genetic Aspects of Biodiversity; Biodiversity Monitoring, Assessment, Data Management, and Indicators; The Value of Biodiversity; Halting Biodiversity Loss: Fundamentals and Latest Trends of Conservation Science and Action; Application of Ecological Knowledge to Habitat Restoration. These two volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

Biodiversity and Pest Management in Agroecosystems Second Edition

Biodiversity and Pest Management in Agroecosystems  Second Edition Book
Author : Miguel Altieri,Clara Nicholls
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2004-01-27
ISBN : 9781560229230
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Explore the latest research on biological control! Completely updated for 2004, this new edition examines methods for making agricultural systems less susceptible to insect pests. Containing new findings and reports of strategies, Biodiversity and Pest Management in Agroecosystems, Second Edition will show you how pests can be managed by enhancing beneficial biodiversity using agroecological diversification methods. Biodiversity and Pest Management in Agroecosystems, Second Edition provides you with an essential overview of the role of biodiversity in agriculture and then gets specific, with new and updated information on: the agroecology of pest management plant diversity and pest outbreaks within agroecosystems diversification strategies for pest management how sustainable farming systems are designed You'll also explore: the role of plant diversity on the biology of beneficial insects insect regulation in diverse agroecosystems manipulation of plant diversity in agroecosystems ecological and socioeconomic implications The fact is, many modern agroecosystems are unstable as a consequence of constant human intervention in crop systems which ignore ecological principles. With case studies on a variety of crops and pests, Biodiversity and Pest Management in Agroecosystems, Second Edition explores entomological aspects of agriculture and analyzes the ecological basis for the maintenance of biodiversity. It will familiarize you with the theory and practice of enhancing biological pest control in agricultural systems by managing vegetational diversity via multiple cropping, cover cropping, rotations, and other spatial and temporal designs. With studies on intercropping, cover cropping, weed management, and crop-field border vegetation manipulation, this book covers the effects of these diverse systems on pest population density and the mechanisms underlying pest reduction in polycultures. Make it a part of your reference/teaching collection today!

Sustainable Agroecosystem Management

Sustainable Agroecosystem Management Book
Author : Patrick J. Bohlen,Gar House
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2009-03-24
ISBN : 1420052152
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Emphasizes Centrality of the Ecosystem PerspectiveSustainable management of agroecosystems in the 21st century faces unprecedented challenges. Protecting the environment while feeding a burgeoning population that could reach nine billion by mid-century, preserving the world's biodiversity, and sustaining agriculture in an increasingly urban world i

Biotic Diversity in Agroecosystems

Biotic Diversity in Agroecosystems Book
Author : D. Pimentel,Maurizio G. Paoletti
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-12-02
ISBN : 0444596763
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The preservation of biodiversity is a high priority among biologists, ecologists and environmentalists. The impact that human activities have on biodiversity is clear; however, few studies have focused on the importance of biodiversity to natural and agricultural ecosystems. In fact, many natural species are essential to sustainable agricultural programs. A new school of thought is appreciating the ecological principles and benefits that diversity of natural biota have for humans and the environment. Landscape ecology and agroecology can play a major role in protecting the environment and conserving biological diversity. The practical opportunities for improving the sustainability of agriculture and making it more environmentally sound were discussed at the Symposium on Agroecology and Conservation Issues, from which 22 papers were collected for this volume. Strategies for increasing biodiversity in agricultural landscapes are provided alongside discussion that agriculture will continue to spread into forests, to meet the growing need for food. Although humans recognize the value of crop and livestock species, few really appreciate the fact that agriculture and forestry cannot function in a productive sustainable way when significant numbers of species in natural biota are lost.

Agroecological Innovations

Agroecological Innovations Book
Author : Norman Uphoff
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2013-06-17
ISBN : 1136571981
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The world's food supply needs to rise significantly, yet both arable and water supplies per capita are decreasing. Not only are modern agricultural methods beyond the reach of those suffering the greatest food insecurity but they are also ecologically damaging, relying upon fossil energy and chemical inputs. This volume offers a collection of innovative and diverse approaches to agricultural development. Documented in 12 case studies, these approaches are reliant upon greater knowledge, skill and labour input, rather than larger capital expenditure. They are shown to increase yield substantially, sometimes doubling or tripling output. This volume presents the concepts and operational means for reorienting agricultural efforts towards these more environmentally friendly and socially desirable approaches in the developed as well as developing world.

Field and Laboratory Investigations in Agroecology

Field and Laboratory Investigations in Agroecology Book
Author : Stephen R. Gliessman
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2007-01
ISBN : 9780849328466
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Agroecology is defined as the application of ecological concepts and principles to the design and management of sustainable food systems. Offering step-by-step guidance for structured investigation, Field and Laboratory Investigations in Agroecology, Second Edition reviews ecological concepts and principles in an agricultural setting and provides in-depth, practical experience. From background information to procedures and suggestions for writing up the results, the book covers 24 different agroecological investigations, each designed to provide all the information needed to plan and execute experimental or comparative studies. It deals with how an individual plant responds to the environment, how environmental factors are measured and characterized, and how environmental factors affect individual plants. The manual investigates how populations of organisms act in agroecosystems, focuses on the level of the community, and explores the between-species interactions of the organisms that make up crop communities. Examining whole farms or systems within farm boundaries, investigations touch on the complexity with which farmers manage agroecosystems. In the last section, the book addresses components of the food system at a local level. Comprising both basic and complex topics, Field and Laboratory Investigations in Agroecology, Second Edition presents a broad scope of issues relevant to agroecology today. This edition facilitates hands-on, experiential learning that involves close observation, creative interpretation, and constant questioning of findings.

Biological Diversity

Biological Diversity Book
Author : Paul E. Hatcher,Nick Battey
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-03-23
ISBN : 0470979860
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biological Diversity takes a fresh, innovative approach to the teaching of biodiversity. Rather than detailing and cataloguing the major taxa and their evolutionary relationships, the authors have selected 18 groups of organisms and used these as a framework in which to discuss the species and their interactions with man and each other. There is a strong narrative theme throughout – the exploited and the exploiters - and, in many cases, there is emphasis on the historical context. A wide range of organisms are covered, from the unicellular to birds and mammals and with an equal consideration of plants and animals. Species have been chosen for their ability to best illustrate particular biological principles, and for their strong interaction with other species. After an introduction the book is divided into two parts: ‘Exploited’ and ‘Exploiters’. Each of the chapters, although linked to each other, forms a stand-alone essay. They are scientifically rigorous, up-to-date and do not shy away from addressing some controversial issues. Chapters have’ text boxes’ highlighting important issues and concepts, lists of further reading and references. In addition to tables and figures the book has a selection of original illustrations drawn by leading artist Steven Appleby. This fresh approach will appeal to all those interested in the biological sciences, and aims to be accessible to people with a diversity of backgrounds. It will prove particularly useful to biology students, enabling them to get to grips with important biological principles and concepts that underpin the diversity of life, and the interrelationship of humans with other groups of organisms.

Structure and Function in Agroecosystem Design and Management

Structure and Function in Agroecosystem Design and Management Book
Author : Masae Shiyomi,Hiroshi Koizumi
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2001-02-21
ISBN : 1420041460
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Structure and Function in Agroecosystem Design and Management presents an advanced discussion of the need to design agricultural systems that 1) increase reliance on biological interactions in agroecosystems as a means of decreasing dependence on the use of large quantities of agrochemicals and the consumption of fossil fuel energy and 2) continue to produce optimal crop yields. Written by international experts, this book discusses biological interactions, matter circulation, and disturbance operating within the agroecosystems in question. The book covers matter cycling and focuses on reducing practices that require the consumption of large quantities of agrochemicals and fossil fuels. The editors then explore the effects of environmental changes and how they will change the management of the next generation of agroecosystems. Is it possible to replace current technologies based on fossil energy with proper interactions operating between crops, livestock, and other organisms to enhance production? If the answer is yes, then modern agriculture can be transformed into an integrated system in which the use of complex biotic interactions is the key technology. Structure and Function in Agroecosystem Design and Management focuses on how can work when designed according to sound ecological practices, and provides the foundation to manage them in an ecologically efficient manner.

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Book
Author : Opender Koul,G. S. Dhaliwal,Gerrit W. Cuperus
Publisher : CABI
Release : 2004-06-02
ISBN : 9780851999524
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

IPM Systems need to be developed for agriculture to be economically and environmentallystrong, in production, storage, and food processing. Although the concept and philosophy ofintegrated pest management have been largely accepted for some time, its implementation iscomplex and faces numerous potential problems. If IPM is to enjoy widespread approval and adoption, it must be clearly defined and economically and socially acceptable. The topics covered in this book include a range of topics, such as: risk-benefit analysis, transgenic crops in IPM and consumer response to IPM.

Areawide Pest Management

Areawide Pest Management Book
Author : Opender Koul,Gerrit W. Cuperus,Norman Elliott
Publisher : CABI
Release : 2008
ISBN : 1845933729
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book aims (1) to lay out the historical underpinnings of the areawide pest (including weeds, plant and stored grain insect pests) management (AWPM) and to highlight current activity in the field; (2) to delve into concepts that have direct impact on the successful implementation of AWPM, which include: (i) biological and ecological concepts important for understanding the dynamics of populations in spatially heterogeneous environments; (ii) the critical role of inter-agency and multidisciplinary interactions in the development and implementation of AWPM programmes, which are often complex inter-agency and intergovernmental endeavours; (iii) the roles of modelling, meteorology and databases in AWPM programmes which, by their nature, are information intensive; and (iv) the importance of economic and sociological evaluation in successful AWPM implementation; and (3) to compile recent case examples of pest management programmes that have used the AWPM approach. A survey in presented on a wide variety of programmes developed for protecting agricultural and natural resource systems and which use a wide range of pest management tactics.