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Advances In Wind Turbine Blade Design And Materials

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Advances in Wind Turbine Blade Design and Materials

Advances in Wind Turbine Blade Design and Materials Book
Author : Povl Brøndsted,Rogier P. L. Nijssen
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-10-31
ISBN : 0857097288
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Wind energy is gaining critical ground in the area of renewable energy, with wind energy being predicted to provide up to 8% of the world’s consumption of electricity by 2021. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials reviews the design and functionality of wind turbine rotor blades as well as the requirements and challenges for composite materials used in both current and future designs of wind turbine blades. Part one outlines the challenges and developments in wind turbine blade design, including aerodynamic and aeroelastic design features, fatigue loads on wind turbine blades, and characteristics of wind turbine blade airfoils. Part two discusses the fatigue behavior of composite wind turbine blades, including the micromechanical modelling and fatigue life prediction of wind turbine blade composite materials, and the effects of resin and reinforcement variations on the fatigue resistance of wind turbine blades. The final part of the book describes advances in wind turbine blade materials, development and testing, including biobased composites, surface protection and coatings, structural performance testing and the design, manufacture and testing of small wind turbine blades. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials offers a comprehensive review of the recent advances and challenges encountered in wind turbine blade materials and design, and will provide an invaluable reference for researchers and innovators in the field of wind energy production, including materials scientists and engineers, wind turbine blade manufacturers and maintenance technicians, scientists, researchers and academics. Reviews the design and functionality of wind turbine rotor blades Examines the requirements and challenges for composite materials used in both current and future designs of wind turbine blades Provides an invaluable reference for researchers and innovators in the field of wind energy production

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials Book
Author : P.D. Clausen,F. Reynal,,D.H. Wood
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-31
ISBN : 0128089245
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Small wind turbine blades share a number of features with large blades, but have some important differences. The two main differences are their much higher rotational speed, which causes more fatigue cycles and higher yaw moments, and their operation at low Reynolds number, which means that thick aerofoil sections cannot be used near the root. This chapter discusses the design challenges arising from these differences, the materials commonly used for blade manufacture, and the fatigue testing of small blades. The use of timber is highlighted for very small blades, and fibre-reinforced composite manufacture of larger ones is discussed in terms of sustainability, conformity of manufactured shape, and fatigue behaviour.

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials Book
Author : F. Mølholt Jensen,K. Branner
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-31
ISBN : 0128089121
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An overview of the current and future trends in wind turbine blade structural design process is presented. The main design principles and failure mechanisms of blades in operation are assessed and explained through an industry point of view, in a realistic manner. A number of failure modes which are not addressed sufficiently in the certificate guidelines are presented. An example on how to use the new design philosophy is presented. The manufactured prototype is a 44m long load carrying spar and the weight is reduced by 40%.

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials Book
Author : D.J. Lekou
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-31
ISBN : 0128089210
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The chapter discusses the topic of probabilistic analysis of wind turbine blades. First, structural analysis models, the definition of ‘failure’ and the treatment of random variables will be explored, focusing on the challenges involved in a probabilistic design depending on the choices made during each step. Next, the various probabilistic methods (Monte Carlo method, first-order reliability method, Edgeworth expansion method, response surface method) will be described. Issues arising out of the use of composite material structures, in applications such as wind turbine blades, as well as other aspects relating to wind energy applications will be highlighted, and techniques will be discussed through examples.

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials Book
Author : L. MISHNAEVSKY
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-31
ISBN : 0128089202
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An overview of the micromechanics of materials methods and approaches that can be used for the modelling of wind turbine blade composites is given in this chapter. Using the various modelling methods reviewed here, the strength, stiffness and lifetime of composite materials can be predicted and the suitability of different groups of materials for applications in wind turbine blades can be analysed. The effects of interface and matrix properties, fibre clustering and nanoreinforcement on the strength and lifetime of composites are studied in a number of simulations, and some examples of the analysis of microstructural effects on the strength and fatigue life of composites are provided.

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials Book
Author : R.P.L. Nijssen,P. Brøndsted
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-31
ISBN : 0128089172
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Composites have been the material of choice for wind turbine blade construction for several decades. This chapter explains why. It also shows how wind turbine blade materials and our understanding of their fatigue behaviour have developed recently, and the gaps that still exist in the knowledge. The chapter discusses why fatigue is a predominant design driver for wind turbine blades. The main structural elements of the blade (load bearing components and aerodynamic shell) are considered in terms of material and design requirements, and fundamental research questions are addressed. Finally, there is a comment on current and future trends, as well as a list of recommended reading.

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials Book
Author : J. G.Holierhoek
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-31
ISBN : 0128089164
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aeroelasticity concerns the interaction between aerodynamics, dynamics and elasticity. This interaction can result in negatively or badly damped wind turbine blade modes, which can have a significant effect on the turbine lifetime. The first aeroelastic problem that occurred on commercial wind turbines concerned a negatively damped edgewise mode. It is important to ensure that there is some out-of-plane deformation in this mode shape to prevent the instability. For larger turbine blades with lower torsional stiffness and the possibility of higher tip speeds for the offshore designs, classical flutter could also become relevant. When designing a wind turbine blade, it is therefore crucial that there is enough damping for the different modes and that there is no coincidence of natural frequencies with excitation frequencies (resonance). An effective aeroelastic analysis is also important, and the tools used for such an analysis must include the necessary detail in the structural model.

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials Book
Author : H. Söker
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-31
ISBN : 012808913X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter deals with loads on wind turbine blades. It describes the load generating process, wind fields, and the concepts of stresses and strains. Aerodynamic loads, loads introduced by inertia, gravitation and gyroscopic effects, and actuation loads are discussed. The loading effects on the rotor blades and how they are interconnected with the dynamics of the turbine structure are highlighted. There is a discussion on how stochastic loads can be analysed and an outline of cycle counting methodology. The method of design verification testing is briefly described.

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials Book
Author : C. Bak
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-31
ISBN : 0128089148
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter describes the process of aerodynamic rotor design for horizontal axis wind turbines. Apart from describing the state-of-the-art, it presents the mathematical models used, explains how airfoil and rotor control choice are decided and lists common design constraints. An example is used to illustrate the rotor design process, covering all the main aspects from choice of rotor size, airfoil types and number of blades to the exact aerodynamic shape of the blades. At the end of the chapter there is a summary of future trends and sources of further information.

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials Book
Author : W.A. Timmer,C. Bak
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-31
ISBN : 0128089156
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter focuses on airfoils for wind turbine blades and their characteristics. The use of panel codes such as XFOIL and RFOIL and CFD codes for the prediction of airfoil characteristics is briefly described. The chapter then discusses the requirements for wind turbine blade airfoils and the effect of leading edge roughness and Reynolds number. After a description of how airfoils can be tested the chapter discusses methods to represent airfoil characteristics at high angles of attack. A number of methods for correcting characteristics for the effect of three-dimensional flow on the blade are presented. The chapter then discusses ways to establish a data set for blade design and concludes with a view on future research in the field of wind turbine blade airfoils.

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials Book
Author : B. Kjærside Storm
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-31
ISBN : 0128089237
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter discusses surface layer protection for wind turbine rotor blades. The surface protection and coating can be a gelcoat or a paint and can be made of unsaturated polyester, epoxy, polyurethane or acrylic. As wind turbines are often erected in harsh climates, the blade surface will be exposed to conditions that cause erosion and wear. There are tests to measure resistance against these attacks, and the surface is designed to minimize damage to the blade caused by the environment. By using existing standards for surface layers for offshore use and for helicopters, it has been found that a combination of accelerated tests for UV degradation, chemical attack and wear give a complete picture of the performance of surface layers.

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials Book
Author : J.F. Mandell,D.D. Samborsky,D.A. Miller
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-31
ISBN : 0128089180
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter explores the influence of resin and reinforcing fabric variations on the fatigue sensitivity for a wide range of typical blade laminates reported recently in the SNL/MSU/DOE database. Test results are presented for static and fatigue property variations with resin type, reinforcing fabric construction and weight, fiber content and laminate construction. Critical resin/fabric interactions and damage mechanisms are identified. The effects of resin and fiber type are also explored for material transitions at ply drops, where ply delamination is the dominant damage.

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials Book
Author : A.P. Vassilopoulos
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-31
ISBN : 0128089199
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fatigue life prediction of wind turbine rotor blades is a very challenging task, as blade failure is led by different failure types that act synergistically. Inherent defects like wrinkles, fiber misalignments and voids, that can be introduced during fabrication, can constitute potential damage initiation points and rapidly develop to failure mechanisms like matrix cracking, transverse-ply cracking, interface cracking, debonding, fiber breakage, etc. Different methods have been established to address this problem, some based on phenomenological and others on actual damage mechanics modeling. This chapter aims to provide an overview of fatigue life modeling and prediction methodologies for the composite materials and structural composite elements that compose a wind turbine rotor blade under complex loading conditions.

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials Book
Author : B. Madsen,P. Brøndsted,T. Løgstrup Andersen
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-31
ISBN : 0128089229
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter about biobased composites starts by presenting the most promising types of cellulose fibres; their properties, processing and preforms for composites, together with an introduction to biobased matrix materials. The chapter then presents the typical mechanical properties of biobased composites, based on examples of composites with different fibre/matrix combinations, followed by a case study of the stiffness and specific stiffness of cellulose fibre composites vs glass fibre composites using micromechanical model calculations. Finally, the chapter presents some of the special considerations to be addressed in the development and application of biobased composites.

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials Book
Author : J.J. Heijdra,M.S. Borst,D.R.V. Van Delft
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-31
ISBN : 0128089253
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

International safety and design standards for structural performance analysis require full-scale testing of each wind turbine blade prototype and of blades that have undergone major design changes. The purpose of blade testing is to demonstrate that the blade design and production are such that the blade possesses the intended strength and service life. Full-scale testing can be seen as final design verification that also checks the assumptions used in the design. In this chapter, aspects of full-scale blade testing are considered in the practical context of the blade test laboratory. An overview is given of the tests which make up the complete test program, the loads used for each and the equipment and instrumentation used.

Openfoam for Wind Energy Engineering How to Use the Open Source Toolbox for Wind Energy Related CFD Simulations

Openfoam for Wind Energy Engineering  How to Use the Open Source Toolbox for Wind Energy Related CFD Simulations Book
Author : Bernhard Stoevesandt,Jonas Schmidt,Hassan Kassem,Matthias Schramm,Bastian Dose,Hamid Rahimi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-09
ISBN : 9780128148709
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

OpenFOAM for Wind Energy Engineering: How to use the Open-Source Toolbox for Wind Energy-Related CFD Simulations is a concise, approachable and clear guide for wind engineers and students facing the steep learning curve associated with using this powerful, yet complex, software. The book addresses the specific problems and challenges users encounter when using OpenFOAM for wind energy applications and provides solutions and/or approaches to solutions that are dependent on the problem. The book is an essential introduction to an important open-source tool that was written specifically to meet the information needs of wind industry professionals, researchers and graduate students studying wind energy. Addresses the specific challenges users encounter when using OpenFOAM for wind energy applications Goes into detail on topics crucial for wind engineers that aren't covered in general OpenFOAM manuals, such as turbulence models in thick airfoil simulations and the simulation of rotating turbines Includes downloadable code that users can use to quickly get started when using OpenFOAM for wind energy applications for the first time

Offshore Wind Turbine End of Life Scenarios

Offshore Wind Turbine End of Life Scenarios Book
Author : Athanasios Kolios
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2019-09-15
ISBN : 9780081026076
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Offshore Wind Turbine End of Life Scenarios: Service Life Extension and Decommissioning provides all the information required to make considered decisions about what will happen when wind turbines reach the end of their nominated life span. The book outlines a holistic approach to wind turbine asset assessment as a foundation for end of service life planning. The first two chapters introduce the topic of wind turbine end of life scenarios and review relevant legislation and standards, as well as outlining decision criteria and methods for techno economic assessment. After a chapter on supply chain issues, the authors then go on to cover the scenario of service life extension, from design and inspection to certification. This is followed by a chapter on decommissioning, once again from design of the process to recycling. The requirements of certifying authorities and insurers are then discussed, leading to a chapter on environmental impact assessment, which considers pre and post mortem inspection and environmental life cycle assessment. Readers are then presented with a series of case studies to illustrate the principles discussed in the preceding chapters. A summary and conclusions complete the book. This book is a unique and essential resource for all those who are required to assess wind turbine assets and make decisions on wind turbine end of life scenarios. First book to address this crucial topic, meeting the need for a consolidated source of information in this area Includes case studies to illustrate the methods proposed Gives practical advice on technical considerations for wind turbine service life extension and decommissioning, as well as covering the requirements of external stakeholders, such as certification authorities, insurers and environmental agencies

Nanotechnology Applications in Energy Drug and Food

Nanotechnology  Applications in Energy  Drug and Food Book
Author : Shafiquzzaman Siddiquee,Gan Jet Hong Melvin,Md. Mizanur Rahman
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-01-16
ISBN : 3319996029
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Applications of nanotechnology are the remarkable sizes dependent on physiochemical properties of nanomaterials that have led to the developed protocols for synthesizing nanomaterials over a range of size, shapes and chemical compositions. Nanomaterials are normally powders composed of nanoparticles which exhibit properties that are different from powders. Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale with their wide applications in energy sector, including -but not limited to- energy resources, energy conversion, energy storage, and energy usage; drug delivery systems including- safety concerns, perspective, challenges, target therapeutics for cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and other human diseases, nanomaterials based tissue engineering; and food sectors including to- food safety and quality, opportunities, challenges, nanomaterials based enhancing food packing, and determination of foodborne pathogens, agro and marine food, analysis of market, regulations and future prospects. The utilization of nanotechnology in the energy field will be emphasized and highlighted, in accordance to their prominent and high impact in this particular field. Recent trends and significant benefits of nanotechnology in the energy field will be revealed to the readers, and their promising advanced applications will be discussed. The current drug discovery paradigm constantly needs to improve, enhance efficiency and reduce time to the market on the basis of designing new drug discovery, drug delivery and pharmaceutical manufacturing. In this book will be highlighted nanotechnology based drug delivery is an important aspect of medicine, as more potent and specific drugs that are particularly discussed the understanding of disease pathways. Several biomaterials can be applied to small-molecule drugs as controlled release reservoirs for drug delivery and provide new insights into disease processes, thus understanding the mechanisms of action of drugs. Applications of food nanotechnology are an area of emerging interest for the food industry, for the reason, in this book will be given more priority to discuss the uses of nanomaterials for food packing, food safety and quality, and to remove the contaminated or spoiled by foodborne pathogens. And also nanotechnology based food products will be discussed how making them tastier, healthier, and more nutritious such as vitamins, to reduce fat content, and to ensure they do not degrade during a product’s shelf life. Nanotechnology is basically the uses of nanomaterials, devices and systems through the control of matter on the nanometer scale. Multidisciplinary studies are required the technology for discovery and moving so fast from concept to the reality. Nanotechnology always not only provided more benefits in energy, drugs and food products but also provided significantly benefits around multidisciplinary field applications.

Design Optimization of Wind Energy Conversion Systems with Applications

Design Optimization of Wind Energy Conversion Systems with Applications Book
Author : Karam Maalawi
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2020-04-15
ISBN : 178984407X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Modern and larger horizontal-axis wind turbines with power capacity reaching 15 MW and rotors of more than 235-meter diameter are under continuous development for the merit of minimizing the unit cost of energy production (total annual cost/annual energy produced). Such valuable advances in this competitive source of clean energy have made numerous research contributions in developing wind industry technologies worldwide. This book provides important information on the optimum design of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) with a comprehensive and self-contained handling of design fundamentals of wind turbines. Section I deals with optimal production of energy, multi-disciplinary optimization of wind turbines, aerodynamic and structural dynamic optimization and aeroelasticity of the rotating blades. Section II considers operational monitoring, reliability and optimal control of wind turbine components.

Materials for Ultra Supercritical and Advanced Ultra Supercritical Power Plants

Materials for Ultra Supercritical and Advanced Ultra Supercritical Power Plants Book
Author : Augusto Di Gianfrancesco
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2016-09-01
ISBN : 008100558X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Materials for Ultra-Supercritical and Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Power Plants provides researchers in academia and industry with an essential overview of the stronger high-temperature materials required for key process components, such as membrane wall tubes, high-pressure steam piping and headers, superheater tubes, forged rotors, cast components, and bolting and blading for steam turbines in USC power plants. Advanced materials for future advanced ultra-supercritical power plants, such as superalloys, new martensitic and austenitic steels, are also addressed. Chapters on international research directions complete the volume. The transition from conventional subcritical to supercritical thermal power plants greatly increased power generation efficiency. Now the introductions of the ultra-supercritical (USC) and, in the near future, advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) designs are further efforts to reduce fossil fuel consumption in power plants and the associated carbon dioxide emissions. The higher operating temperatures and pressures found in these new plant types, however, necessitate the use of advanced materials. Provides researchers in academia and industry with an authoritative and systematic overview of the stronger high-temperature materials required for both ultra-supercritical and advanced ultra-supercritical power plants Covers materials for critical components in ultra-supercritical power plants, such as boilers, rotors, and turbine blades Addresses advanced materials for future advanced ultra-supercritical power plants, such as superalloys, new martensitic and austenitic steels Includes chapters on technologies for welding technologies