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Advances In Smart Coatings And Thin Films For Future Industrial And Biomedical Engineering Applications

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Advances In Smart Coatings And Thin Films For Future Industrial and Biomedical Engineering Applications

Advances In Smart Coatings And Thin Films For Future Industrial and Biomedical Engineering Applications Book
Author : Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf,Nedal Yusuf Abu-Thabit
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-10-25
ISBN : 0128118938
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances In Smart Coatings And Thin Films For Future Industrial and Biomedical Engineering Applications discusses in detail, the recent trends in designing, fabricating and manufacturing of smart coatings and thin films for future high-tech. industrial applications related to transportation, aerospace and biomedical engineering. Chapters cover fundamental aspects and diverse approaches used to fabricate smart self-healing anti-corrosion coatings, shape-memory coatings, polymeric and nano-bio-ceramic cotings, bio-inspired and stimuli-responsive coatings for smart surfaces with antibacterial activkity and controlled wettability, and electrically conductive coatings and their emerging applications. With the emphasis on advanced methodologies and recent emerging applications of smart multifunctional coatings and thin films, this book is essential reading for materials scientists and rsearchers working in chemical sciences, advanced materials, sensors, pharmaceutical and biomedical engineering. Discusses the most recent advances and innovations in smart multifunctional coatings and thin films in the transportation, aerospace and biomedical engineering industries Highlights the synthesis methods, processing, testing and characterization of smart coatings and thin films Reviews the current prospects and future trends within the industry

Handbook of Nanomaterials for Manufacturing Applications

Handbook of Nanomaterials for Manufacturing Applications Book
Author : Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-04-12
ISBN : 0128213825
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Nanomaterials for Manufacturing Applications covers the challenges and obstacles involved in using nanomaterials in manufacturing. In particular, the lack of information, the possibility of adverse impacts on the environment, human health, safety and sustainability and other remaining challenges. This book addresses these challenges for the use of nanomaterials in major manufacturing sectors and suggests how they may be overcome. It was written to summarize, in a one-stop, concise manner, how nanomaterials and nanotechnology are being used to enhance current manufacturing techniques and processes in order to create more sustainable products in a range of industry sectors. This book will be of great use to materials scientists and engineers who are looking to gain a greater understanding on how nanotechnology is being used to improve the products we use in our daily lives. Demonstrates how cutting-edge developments in nanomaterials are being used to make more efficient manufacturing processes in a range of industry sectors Explores how using nanomaterials can help engineers create innovative consumer products Discusses the legal, economic and toxicity issues arising from using nanomaterials in manufacturing processes

Cotton Science and Processing Technology

Cotton Science and Processing Technology Book
Author : Hua Wang,Hafeezullah Memon
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-11-08
ISBN : 9811591695
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book summarizes all different fields of cotton fiber, including genetics, fiber chemistry, soft materials, textile, and fashion engineering. It also contains some new applications such as biomaterials, nanocoated smart fabrics, and functional textiles. Moreover, the significant improvement recently in gene modification and gene technology is introduced. This book discusses all these aspects in a more straightforward way, and new illustrations will help readers to understand the contents. It is intended for undergraduate and graduate students who are interested in cotton science and processing technologies, researchers investigating the updated applications of cotton in various fields as well as industrialists who want to have a quick review of the cotton and its different stages.

Handbook of Greener Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Compounds

Handbook of Greener Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Compounds Book
Author : Boris I. Kharisov,Oxana V. Kharissova
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-04-03
ISBN : 012821967X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Modern techniques to produce nanoparticles, nanomaterials, and nanocomposites are based on approaches that frequently involve high costs, inefficiencies, and negative environmental impacts. As such, there has been a real drive to develop and apply approaches that are more efficient and benign. The Handbook of Greener Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Compounds provides a comprehensive review of developments in this field, combining foundational green and nano-chemistry with the key information researchers need to assess, select and apply the most appropriate green synthesis approaches to their own work. Volume 1: Fundamental Principles and Methods provides a clear introduction to the fundamentals of green synthesis that places synthesis in the context of green chemistry. Beginning with a discussion of key greener physical and chemical methods for synthesis, including ultrasound, microwave and mechanochemistry methods, the book goes on to explore biological methods, including biosynthesis, green nanoformation, and virus-assisted methods. Discusses synthesis in the context of the principles of green chemistry Highlights both traditional and innovative technologies for the synthesis of nanomaterials and related composites under green chemistry conditions Reflects on the current and potential applications of natural products chemistry in synthesis

Fiber Reinforced Composites

Fiber Reinforced Composites Book
Author : Joseph Kuruvilla,Kristiina Oksman,George Gejo,Runcy Wilson,Saritha Appukuttan
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2021-03-20
ISBN : 0128210915
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polymer-based fibre-reinforced composites FRC’s have now come out as a major class of structural materials being used or regarded as substituent’s for metals in several critical components in space, automotive and other industries (marine, and sports goods) owing to their low density, strength-weight ratio, and fatigue strength. FRC’s have several commercial as well as industrial applications ranging from aircraft, space, automotive, sporting goods, marine, and infrastructure. The above-mentioned applications of FRC’s clearly reveal that FRC’s have the potential to be used in a broad range of different engineering fields with the added advantages of low density, and resistance to corrosion compared to conventional metallic and ceramic composites. However, for scientists/researchers/R&D’s to fabricate FRC’s with such potential there should be careful and precise design followed by suitable process development based on properties like mechanical, physical, and thermal that are unique to each application. Hence the last few decades have witnessed considerable research on fibre reinforced composites. Fibre Reinforced Composites: Constituents, Compatibility, Perspectives and Applications presents a widespread all-inclusive review on fibre-reinforced composites ranging from the different types of processing techniques to chemical modification of the fibre surface to enhance the interfacial adhesion between the matrix and fibre and the structure-property relationship. It illustrates how high value composites can be produced by efficient and sustainable processing methods by selecting different constituents [fibres and resins]. Researchers in academia working in composites and accompanying areas [materials characterisation] and industrial manufacturers who need information on composite constituents and how they relate to each other for a certain application will find the book extremely useful when they need to make decisions about materials selection for their products. Focuses on the different types of FRC’s that are currently available (e.g. from polymeric matrices to metallic and ceramic matrices, from carbon fibre to different types of natural fibres and from short to long fibre reinforced), their processing techniques, characterization of different properties, and how to improve the interfacial adhesion between an incompatible fibre and matrix and their applications Looks at crisis areas such as how to incorporate incompatible fibres and matrices together (e.g. Non-polar polypropylene matrix is not compatible with that of polar natural fibres and hence suitable surface modifications are required to make them compatible with each other) along with low cost processing methods, low density and high strength Uncovers clarifications to both elementary and practical problems related to the fabrication of FRCs Schematic representations depicting the interaction between different fibre types and matrices will be provided in some chapters

Sample Preparation with Nanomaterials

Sample Preparation with Nanomaterials Book
Author : Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain,Rustem Kecili,Chaudhery Ghazanfar Hussain
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2021-04-06
ISBN : 352768560X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Discover this timely, comprehensive, and up-to-date exploration of crucial aspects of the use of nanomaterials in analytical chemistry Sample Preparation with Nanomaterials: Next Generation Techniques for Sample Preparation delivers insightful and complete overview of recent progress in the use of nanomaterials in sample preparation. The book begins with an overview of special features of nanomaterials and their applications in analytical sciences. Important types of nanomaterials, like carbon nanotubes and magnetic particles, are reviewed and biological sample preparation and lab-on-a-chip systems are presented. The distinguished author places special emphasis on approaches that tend to green and reduce the cost of sample treatment processes. He also discusses the legal, economical, and toxicity aspects of nanomaterial samples. This book includes extensive reference material, like a complete list of manufacturers, that makes it invaluable for professionals in analytical chemistry. Sample Preparation with Nanomaterials offers considerations of the economic aspects of nanomaterials, as well as the assessment of their toxicity and risk. Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of: A thorough introduction to nanomaterials in the analytical sciences and special properties of nanomaterials for sample preparation An exploration of the mechanism of adsorption and desorption on nanomaterials, including carbon nanomaterials used as adsorbents Discussions of membrane applications of nanomaterials, surface enhanced raman spectroscopy, and the use of nanomaterials for biological sample preparation A treatment of magnetic nanomaterials, lab-on-a-chip nanomaterials, and toxicity and risk assessment of nanomaterials Perfect for analytical chemists, materials scientists, and process engineers, Sample Preparation with Nanomaterials: Next Generation Techniques for Sample Preparation will also earn a place in the libraries of analytical laboratories, universities, and companies who conduct research into nanomaterials and seek a one-stop resource for sample preparation.

Nano Optics

Nano Optics Book
Author : Sabu Thomas,Yves Grohens,Guillaume Vignaud,Nandakumar Kalarikkal,Jemy James
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-07-06
ISBN : 0128183934
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nano-Optics: Fundamentals, Experimental Methods, and Applications offers insights into the fundamentals and industrial applications of nanoscale light-emitting materials and their composites. This book serves as a reference, offering an overview of existing research, with a particular focus on industrial applications. Nano-optics is the branch of nanoscience and nanotechnology that deals with interaction of light with nanoscale objects. This book explores the materials, structure, manufacturing techniques, and industrial applications of nano-optics. The applications discussed include healthcare, communication, astronomy, and satellites. Explains the major manufacturing techniques for light-emitting nanoscale materials Discusses how nanoscale optical materials are being used in a range of industrial applications Assesses the challenges of using nano-optics in a mass-production context

Smart Polymer Nanocomposites

Smart Polymer Nanocomposites Book
Author : Showkat Ahmad Bhawani,Anish Khan,Mohammad Jawaid
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2020-12-08
ISBN : 0128204354
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Smart Polymer Nanocomposites: Biomedical and Environmental Applications presents the latest information on smart polymers and their promising application in various fields, including their role in delivery systems for drugs, tissue engineering scaffolds, cell culture sports, bioseparation, and sensors or actuator systems. Features detailed information on the preparation, characterization and applications of smart functional polymer composites Covers a broad range of applications in both the biomedical and environmental engineering fields Chapters are written by authors with diverse background expertise from the faculties of chemistry, engineering and the manufacturing industry

Biopolymer Thin Films and Coatings

Biopolymer Thin Films and Coatings Book
Author : Stefan Spirk,Tiina Nypelö,Eero Kontturi
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-01-10
ISBN : 2889633330
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In science as well as in industry, the impetus of research on bio-based polymers has recently expanded into new terrains. The need to replace fossil-based materials with sustainable and renewable sources is one of the main drivers for the emergence and the development of new and environmentally friendly materials. While some materials applications of bio-based polymers are already very well established, for instance, in paper and textiles, others have just emerged with thin films and coatings being a recent and particular area of interest. Thin films in general are an enormous field of research both fundamentally and from an applied perspective, with uses ranging from corrosion resistance to photovoltaics and sensors. Since bio-based materials are a relatively novel source material for thin films, the research in this area is at a fresh, exciting stage at the moment.

Robotics Advances in Research and Application 2012 Edition

Robotics   Advances in Research and Application  2012 Edition Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
Release : 2012-12-26
ISBN : 1464992142
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Robotics—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Robotics. The editors have built Robotics—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Robotics in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Robotics—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Thin Film Device Applications

Thin Film Device Applications Book
Author : Kasturi Chopra,Inderjeet Kaur
Publisher : Springer
Release : 1983-09
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver sion, and protection and passivating layers. Indeed, one would be hard pressed to find many sophisticated modern optical and electronic devices which do not use thin films in one way or the other. With the impetus provided by industrial applications, the science and technology of thin films have undergone revolutionary development and even today continue to be recognized globally as frontier areas of RID work. Major technical developments in any field of science and technology are invariably accompanied by an explosion of published literature in the form of scientific publications, reviews, and books.

Multi Functional Nanomaterials and their Emerging Applications

Multi Functional Nanomaterials and their Emerging Applications Book
Author : Alagarsamy Pandikumar,Nay Ming Huang,R. Jothilakshmi
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release : 2014-03-24
ISBN : 3038264482
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters BCI (WoS). The multi-functional properties of nanomaterials offer a wide range of opportunities for addressing several research and development challenges in the area of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Multi-functional nanomaterials find wide application in a variety of sectors including agriculture, medicine, telecommunications, disaster management and environmental conservation.The focus of this special topic volume is on multifunctional nanomaterial development and their emerging applications towards commercialization. This special topic illustrates a new pathway to achieve novel practical applications using nanomaterials. This special topic can be utilized as a text for researchers as well as graduate students who are interested in nanomaterials based applications. This special topic volume is multidisciplinary by nature. The readers can acquire the necessary knowledge in physics, chemistry and biology related to these multifunctional applications which are associated with the emerging nanomaterials.

Emerging Applications of Nanoparticles and Architectural Nanostructures

Emerging Applications of Nanoparticles and Architectural Nanostructures Book
Author : Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf,Ahmed Barhoum
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2018-03-22
ISBN : 0128135166
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Emerging Applications of Nanoparticles and Architecture Nanostructures: Current Prospects and Future Trends discusses the most important current applications of nanoparticles and architecture nanostructures in a comprehensive, detailed manner. The book covers major applications of nanoparticles and architecture nanostructures, taking into account their unusual shapes and high surface areas. In particular, coverage is given to applications in aerospace, automotive, batteries, sensors, smart textile design, energy conversion, color imaging, printing, computer chips, medical implants, pharmacy, cosmetics, and more. In addition, the book discusses the future of research in these areas. This is a valuable reference for both materials scientists, chemical and mechanical engineers working both in R&D and academia who want to learn more on how nanoparticles and nanomaterials are commercially applied. Provides an in-depth look at the properties of nanoparticles and architecture nanostructures in terms of their applicability for industrial uses Analyzes the most recent advances and industrial applications of different types of nanoparticles and architecture nanostructures, taking into account their unusual structures and compositions Identifies novel nanometric particles and architectures that are of particular value for applications and the techniques required to use them effectively

Directory of Published Proceedings

Directory of Published Proceedings Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2001
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Directory of Published Proceedings book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Index of Conference Proceedings

Index of Conference Proceedings Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1990
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Index of Conference Proceedings book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Coatings on Glass

Coatings on Glass Book
Author : Hans K. Pulker
Publisher : Elsevier Science Limited
Release : 1999
ISBN : 9780444501035
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is the second, revised edition of a book that has already proved invaluable to a wide range of readers. Written by a scientist for scientists and technical people, it goes beyond the subject matter indicated by the title, filling the gap which previously existed in the available technical literature. It includes a wealth of information for physicists, chemists and engineers who need to know more about thin films for research purposes, or who want to use this special form of solid material to achieve a variety of application-oriented goals.

Scientific and Technical Books and Serials in Print

Scientific and Technical Books and Serials in Print Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1989
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Scientific and Technical Books and Serials in Print book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Sustainable Material Solutions for Solar Energy Technologies

Sustainable Material Solutions for Solar Energy Technologies Book
Author : Mariana Amorim Fraga,Delaina Amos,Savas Sonmezoglu,Velumani Subramaniam
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-08-18
ISBN : 0128215933
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sustainable Material Solutions for Solar Energy Technologies: Processing Techniques and Applications provides an overview of challenges that must be addressed to efficiently utilize solar energy. The book explores novel materials and device architectures that have been developed to optimize energy conversion efficiencies and minimize environmental impacts. Advances in technologies for harnessing solar energy are extensively discussed, with topics including materials processing, device fabrication, sustainability of materials and manufacturing, and current state-of-the-art. Leading international experts discuss the applications, challenges, and future prospects of research in this increasingly vital field, providing a valuable resource for students and researchers working in this field. Explores the fundamentals of sustainable materials for solar energy applications, with in-depth discussions of the most promising material solutions for solar energy technologies: photocatalysis, photovoltaic, hydrogen production, harvesting and storage Discusses the environmental challenges to be overcome and importance of efficient materials utilization for clean energy Looks at design materials processing and optimization of device fabrication via metrics such as power-to-weight ratio, effectiveness at EOL compared to BOL, and life-cycle analysis

Nanotechnology Enabled Sensors

Nanotechnology Enabled Sensors Book
Author : Kourosh Kalantar-zadeh,Benjamin Fry
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-09-19
ISBN : 0387680233
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanotechnology provides tools for creating functional materials, devices, and systems by controlling materials at the atomic and molecular scales and making use of novel properties and phenomena. Nanotechnology-enabled sensors find applications in several fields such as health and safety, medicine, process control and diagnostics. This book provides the reader with information on how nanotechnology enabled sensors are currently being used and how they will be used in the future in such diverse fields as communications, building and facilities, medicine, safety, and security, including both homeland defense and military operations.

Solid State Shear Pulverization

Solid State Shear Pulverization Book
Author : Klementina Khait,Stephen H. Carr,Martin H. Mack
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2001-04-30
ISBN : 9781566768030
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

From the Preface This book is the first extended look at a new and multifaceted polymer processing technology that has already been discussed in numerous articles. Called Solid-State Shear Pulverization (S3P), this innovative process produces polymeric powders with unique physical properties not found in the output of conventional size-reduction methods.... This technology, which utilizes a pulverizer based on a modified co-rotating twin-screw extruder..., has profound implications for both the creation of new polymer blends and recycling of plastic and rubber waste. Unlike [earlier processes] where polymers are melted prior to pulverization, ...pulverizing mixtures of polymers with the S3P process...does not involve melting. By contrast, S3P maintains polymers in the solid state and avoids the additional heat history that occurs during [other processes], which can be detrimental to the physical properties of pulverized materials. The research and development of the S3P technology...has grown significantly since 1990 from the development of a new plastics recycling process to a much broader polymer processing method that allows intimate mixing of polymers with very different viscosities, sold-state dispersion of additives, including pigments, and continuous production of powder with unique shapes and larger surface areas. Polymeric powders are of growing importance to plastics processors due to the increase use of plastics in various applications, such as rotational molding, powder coatings, and compounding, which require powder as the feedstock. ...[I]t has become clear that this process allows for in-situ compatibilization of dissimilar polymers by applying mechanical energy to cause chemical reactions. This aspect of S3P technology that we describe in this book should [be useful in] developing new polymer blends with the use of pre-made compatibilizing agents. In addition, it has been discovered that S3P efficiently mixes polymer blends with different component viscosities, resulting in the elimination of phase inversion. The S3P process directly produces blends with matrix and dispersed phase morphology like those obtained after phase inversion during a long melt-mixing process. This phenomenon is of practical importance because a long processing time is required by conventional melt-mixing to produce a stable blend morphology. S3P is also advantageous for producing thermoplastic or thermoset powder-coating compounds in a one-step process as opposed to a conventional multi-step operation that involves melt extrusion followed by batch grinding. The major capabilities of this new process can be summarized as follows: o Continuous powder production from plastics or rubber feedstocks o Blending of immiscible polymers o Efficient mixing of polymers with unmatched viscosities o Environmentally friendly recycling of multicolored, commingled plastics waste o Sold-state dispersion of heat-sensitive additives o Engineered plastic/rubber blends Materials and processes well illustrated The text is well illustrated with 60 photographs, micrographs, diagrams and others figures. Here is a small sampling of the captions of these figures. o Particle-size distribution for virgin LDPE powder made with PT-25 pulverizer o Optical photograph of virgin LDPE powder made with PT-25 pulverizer o Layout for a three-stage rubber pulverizer o Flow chart for powder coating production by conventional process and with new S3P technology o SEM image of pulverized virgin PP at 40X (first in series of SEM images of polymer powders) o Optical micrograph of melt-crystallized thin films of unpulverized virgin PP under polarized light o Log of viscosity vs. log shear rate for virgin HDPE after S3P processing o Gel permeation chromatograms (GPC) of polystyrene subjected to S3P processing Color-photo section One of the several functions of Solid-State Shear Pulverization technology is recycling mixed plastic waste. This section of twenty full-color photographs and micrographs illustrates different processed materials, as well as the machinery and mixed waste used. Here is a small sampling of the photo and micrograph captions. o Resultant flake feedstock from granulation o S3P-made uniform powder from feedstock o Flake feedstock of post-consumer HDPE/PP blend (90/10 ratio) o Injection-molded test bar (with translucence) made from S3P powder without pelletization o Injection-molded test bar made from S3P powder without pelletization showing uniform color o Several test bars subjected to tensile testing showing exceptionally high elongation at break Useful reference data in tables More than 60 tables provide useful data in convenient form. Here is a small sampling of table captions. o Physical properties of virgin PP 8020 GU injection-molded from S3P-made powder (first in series of tables on physical properties of various plastics processed from S3P-made powder) o Sieve analysis of powder resulting from S3P of virgin LDPE 509.48 (one of series of tables on sieve analysis of polymer powders) o Melt-flow rate before and after S3P processing for virgin PS and two PP samples o Key physical properties of injection-molded post-consumer polyolefin blends pulverized by S3P process The Authors Klementina Khait, M.S. Ch.E., Ph.D., is Research Associate Professor and Director of the Polymer Technology Center in the Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwestern University. Her industrial experience in polymer science and engineering includes work with Borg-Warner Chemicals and Quantum Chemical Corporation. She received her two advanced degrees, in chemical engineering and polymer chemistry, from the Technological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia. Dr. Khait holds several patents and has published more than 50 papers in scientific and technical journals. Stephen Carr, Ph.D., is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering at Northwestern University. His industrial work includes work in polymer science and engineering with General Motors Corp. He received a doctorate in polymer science from Case Western Reserve University. He has been on the Northwestern University faculty since 1969. Martin H. Mack is Vice President for R&D with the Berstorff Division of Krauss-Maffei Corporation. He holds an engineering degree from the University of Stuttgart. He has served for more than ten years on the Board of Directors of the Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE).