Skip to main content

Advanced Biomass Gasification

In Order to Read Online or Download Advanced Biomass Gasification Full eBooks in PDF, EPUB, Tuebl and Mobi you need to create a Free account. Get any books you like and read everywhere you want. Fast Download Speed ~ Commercial & Ad Free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library!

Advanced Biomass Gasification

Advanced Biomass Gasification Book
Author : Steffen Heidenreich,Michael Müller,Pier Ugo Foscolo
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-06-07
ISBN : 0128043679
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Advanced Biomass Gasification: New Concepts for Efficiency Increase and Product Flexibility provides a thorough overview on new concepts in biomass gasification and consolidated information on advances for process integration and combination, which could otherwise only be gained by reading a high number of journal publications. Heidenreich, Müller and Foscolo, highly respected experts in this field, start their exploration with the compact UNIQUE reactor, gasification and pyrolysis, gasification and combustion, and catalysts and membranes. The authors then examine biomass pre-treatment processes, taking into account the energy balance of the overall conversion process, and look into oxygen-steam gasification and solutions for air separation, including new options for integration of O2-membranes into the gasifier. Several polygeneration strategies are covered, including combined heat and power (CHP) production with synthetic natural gas (SNG), biofuels and hydrogen, and new cutting-edge concepts, such as plasma gasification, supercritical water gasification, and catalytic gasification, which allows for insights on the future technological outlook of the area. This book is then a valuable resource for industry and academia-based researchers, as well as graduate students in the energy and chemical sectors with interest in biomass gasification, especially in areas of power engineering, bioenergy, chemical engineering, and catalysis. Explores state-of-the-art technologies that allow for greater efficiency and flexibility in gasification, including process integration, combination, and polygeneration strategies Consolidates information that was, up until now, scattered among several sources, including journal articles Provides a valuable resource for industry and academia-based researchers, as well as graduate students in the energy and chemical sectors with interest in biomass gasification, especially in areas of power engineering, bioenergy, chemical engineering, and catalysis

Advanced biomass gasification for high efficiency power

Advanced biomass gasification for high efficiency power Book
Author : Esa Kurkela,Minna Kurkela
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 9789513875367
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download Advanced biomass gasification for high efficiency power book written by Esa Kurkela,Minna Kurkela, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Advanced Biomass Gasification Projects

Advanced Biomass Gasification Projects Book
Author : National Renewable Energy Laboratory (U.S.),United States. Department of Energy
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1997
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download Advanced Biomass Gasification Projects book written by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (U.S.),United States. Department of Energy, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Supplying California with Renewable Energy Through Advanced Biomass Gasification

Supplying California with Renewable Energy Through Advanced Biomass Gasification Book
Author : Scott Cheney,W. David Thompson,Diversified Energy Corporation
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download Supplying California with Renewable Energy Through Advanced Biomass Gasification book written by Scott Cheney,W. David Thompson,Diversified Energy Corporation, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Hot Gas Conditioning

Hot Gas Conditioning Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2001
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

As a result of environmental and policy considerations, there is increasing interest in using renewable biomass resources as feedstock for power, fuels, and chemicals and hydrogen. Biomass gasification is seen as an important technology component for expanding the use of biomass. Advanced biomass gasification systems provide clean products that can be used as fuel or synthesis gases in a variety of environmentally friendly processes. Advanced end-use technologies such as gas turbines or synthesis gas systems require high quality gases with narrowly defined specifications. Other systems such as boilers may also have fuel quality requirements, but they will be substantially less demanding. The gas product from biomass gasifiers contains quantities of particulates, tars, and other constituents that may exceed these specified limits. As a result, gas cleaning and conditioning will be required in most systems. Over the past decade, significant research and development activities have been conducted on the topic of gas cleanup and conditioning. This report provides an update of efforts related to large-scale biomass gasification systems and summarizes recent progress. Remaining research and development issues are also summarized.

Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis

Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis Book
Author : Prabir Basu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2010-07-19
ISBN : 9780080961620
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book offers comprehensive coverage of the design, analysis, and operational aspects of biomass gasification, the key technology enabling the production of biofuels from all viable sources--some examples being sugar cane and switchgrass. This versatile resource not only explains the basic principles of energy conversion systems, but also provides valuable insight into the design of biomass gasifiers. The author provides many worked out design problems, step-by-step design procedures and real data on commercially operating systems. After fossil fuels, biomass is the most widely used fuel in the world. Biomass resources show a considerable potential in the long term if residues are properly handled and dedicated energy crops are grown. Includes step-by-step design procedures and case studies for Biomass Gasification Provides worked process flow diagrams for gasifier design. Covers integration with other technologies (e.g. gas turbine, engine, fuel cells)

ADVANCED GASIFICATION BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

ADVANCED GASIFICATION BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM  Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2002
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Boise Paper Solutions and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and three-stage stoker combustion technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate the commercial applicability of an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system at Boise Paper Solutions' pulp and paper mill located at DeRidder, Louisiana.

BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS  Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac[trademark] aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce [approx]80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac[trademark]-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated system that exceeds the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal of 40% (HHV) efficiency at emission levels well below the DOE suggested limits; and (5) An advanced biofueled power system whose levelized cost of electricity can be competitive with other new power system alternatives.

Substitute Natural Gas from Waste

Substitute Natural Gas from Waste Book
Author : Massimiliano Materazzi,Pier Ugo Foscolo
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-05-01
ISBN : 0128156449
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Substitute Natural Gas from Waste: Technical Assessment and Industrial Applications of Biochemical and Thermochemical Processes provides an overview of the science and technology of anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification for the treatment of biomass and unrecyclable waste residues. The book provides both the theoretical and practical basis for the clean and high-efficiency utilization of waste and biomass to produce Bio-Substitute Natural Gas (SNG). It examines different routes to produce bio-SNG from waste feedstocks, detailing solutions to unique problems, such as scale up issues and process integration. Final sections review waste sourcing and processing. This book is an ideal and practical reference for those developing, designing, scaling and managing bio-SNG production and utilization systems. Engineering students will find this to be a comprehensive resource on the application of fundamental concepts of bio-SNG production that are illustrated through innovative, recent case studies. Presents detailed scientific and technical information Describes up-to-date concepts, processes and plants for efficient anaerobic digestion and gasification of wastes and syngas utilization Compares gasification with anaerobic digestion for different situations Proposes alternative strategies to increase efficiency and overcome energy balance limitations Includes benchmarking data and industrial real-life examples to demonstrate the main process features and implementation pathways of bio-SNG systems from dry and wet waste, both in developed and developing countries

Biomass Gasification Pyrolysis and Torrefaction

Biomass Gasification  Pyrolysis and Torrefaction Book
Author : Prabir Basu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-06-29
ISBN : 0128130407
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction, Third Edition, is enhanced with a new topic on processing and cleaning of product gas of gasification and a brief introduction to biomaterials, making it a versatile resource that not only explains the basic principles of energy conversion systems, but also provides valuable insight into the design of a complete biomass conversion systems. With a dedicated focus on the design, analysis and operational aspects of biomass gasification, pyrolysis and torrefaction, this edition offers comprehensive coverage of biomass in its gas, liquid or solid states in a single accessible source. The author provides many worked design problems, step-by-step design procedures and real data on commercially operating systems. Although the book carries the name ‘biomass’, the bulk of its content is also applicable to non-biomass fuels like coal, petcoke, municipal solid waste and others. This book will help engineers, scientists and operating personnel of biomass gasification, pyrolysis or torrefaction plants, gain better comprehension of the basics of biomass conversion. Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction, Third Edition, is enhanced with a new topic on processing and cleaning of product gas of gasification and brief introduction to biomaterials making it a versatile resource that not only explains the basic principles of energy conversion systems, but also provides valuable insight into the design of a complete biomass conversion systems. With a dedicated focus on the design, analysis, and operational aspects of biomass gasification, pyrolysis, and torrefaction, this edition of the book offers comprehensive coverage of biomass in its gas, liquid, or solid states in a single easy-to-access source. The author provides many worked out design problems, step-by-step design procedures and real data on commercially operating systems. Although the book carries the name ‘biomass’, the bulk of its content is also applicable to non-biomass fuels like, coal, petcoke, municipal solid waste and others. This book will allow professionals, such as engineers, scientists, and operating personnel of biomass gasification, pyrolysis or torrefaction plants, to gain a better comprehension of the basics of biomass conversion. Features updates with the most recent research and technology Expanded to include a new chapter on syngas purification Contains step-by-step process flow diagrams, design data, conversion charts and numerical examples with solutions Provides available research results in an easy-to-use design methodology Examines the economic aspects of biomass conversion

Coal and Biomass Gasification

Coal and Biomass Gasification Book
Author : Santanu De,Avinash Kumar Agarwal,V. S. Moholkar,Bhaskar Thallada
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-12-13
ISBN : 981107335X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book addresses the science and technology of the gasification process and the production of electricity, synthetic fuels and other useful chemicals. Pursuing a holistic approach, it covers the fundamentals of gasification and its various applications. In addition to discussing recent advances and outlining future directions, it covers advanced topics such as underground coal gasification and chemical looping combustion, and describes the state-of-the-art experimental techniques, modeling and numerical simulations, environmentally friendly approaches, and technological challenges involved. Written in an easy-to-understand format with a comprehensive glossary and bibliography, the book offers an ideal reference guide to coal and biomass gasification for beginners, engineers and researchers involved in designing or operating gasification plants.

Biomass Biopolymer Based Materials and Bioenergy

Biomass  Biopolymer Based Materials  and Bioenergy Book
Author : Deepak Verma,Elena Fortunati,Siddharth Jain,Xiaolei Zhang
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2019-01-12
ISBN : 0081024274
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Biomass, Biopolymer-Based Materials and Bioenergy: Construction, Biomedical and Other Industrial Applications covers a broad range of material types, including natural fiber reinforced polymer composites, particulate composites, fiberboard, wood fiber composites, and plywood composite that utilize natural, renewable and biodegradable agricultural biomass. In terms of bioenergy, the authors explore not only the well-known processing methods of biofuels, but also the kinetics of biofuels production pathways, a techno-economic analysis on biomass gasification, and biomass gasification with further upgrading into diesel additives and hybrid renewable energy systems for power generation. Further chapters discuss advanced techniques for the development of biomass-based composites, biopolymer-based composites, biomass gasification, thermal kinetic design and techno-economic analysis of biomass gasification. By introducing these topics, the book highlights a totally new research theme in biopolymer-based composite materials and bioenergy. Covers a broad range of different research fields, including biopolymer and natural fiber reinforcement used in the development of composites Demonstrates key research themes in materials science and engineering, including materials processing, polymer science, biofuel processing, and thermal and kinetic studies Presents valuable information for those working in research and development departments, and for graduate students (Masters and PhDs)

Transformation of Biomass

Transformation of Biomass Book
Author : Andreas Hornung
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-07-02
ISBN : 1118693663
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Biomass is a key resource for meeting the energy and material demands of mankind in the future. As a result, businesses and technologies are developing around biomass processing and its applications. Transformation of Biomass: Theory to Practice explores the modern applications of biomass and bio-based residues for the generation of energy, heat and chemical products. The first chapter presents readers with a broad overview of biomass and its composition, conversion routes and products. The following chapters deal with specific technologies, including anaerobic digestion, pyrolysis and gasification, as well as hydrothermal and supercritical conversion. Each chapter details current practises, recent developments, business case models and comprehensive analysis of the problems associated with each approach, and how to optimize them. Topics covered include: Anaerobic digestion Reactor design Pyrolysis Catalysis in biomass transformation Engines for combined heat and power Influence of feedstocks on performance and products Bio-hydrogen from biomass Analysis of bio-oils Numerical simulation and formal kinetic parameters evaluation Business case development This textbook will provide students, researchers and industry professionals with a practical and accessible guide to the essential skills required to advance in the field of bioenergy.

RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY  Book
Author : Joseph Rabovitser,Bruce Bryan,Sunil Ghose,Jim Patel
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No. 2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate (GHRR) equal to the original boiler design. Boiler efficiencies (cogeneration-steam plus air) is increased from the original design value of 70% to 78.9% due to a combination of improved burnout, operation with lower excess air, and drier fuel. For the fully implemented plant, the thermal efficiency of fuel to electricity conversion is 79.8% in the cogeneration mode, 5% above the design goal. Finally, self-generated electricity will be increased from the 10.8 MW currently attributable to No. 2 Boiler to 46.7MW, an increase of 332%. Environmental benefits derived from the system include a reduction in NOx emissions from the boiler of about 30-50% (90-130 tons/year) through syngas reburning, improved carbon burnout and lower excess air. This does not count NOx reduction that may be associated with replacement of purchased electricity. The project would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the generation of electricity to meet the mill's power requirements, including 50,000 tons/yr from a net reduction in gas usage in the mill and an additional 410,000 tons/yr reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions due to a 34 MW reduction of purchased electricity. The total CO{sub 2} reduction amounts to about 33% of the CO{sub 2} currently generated to meet the mills electricity requirement. The overall conclusion of the study is that while significant engineering challenges are presented by the proposed system, they can be met with operationally acceptable and cost effective solutions. The benefits of the system can be realized in an economic manner, with a simple payback period on the order of 6 years. The results of the study are applicable to many paper mills in the U.S. firing woodwastes and other solid fuels for steam and power production.

Power Generation Using Advanced Thermochemical Gasification of Biomass

Power Generation Using Advanced Thermochemical Gasification of Biomass Book
Author : Robert J. Cattolica,Reinhard Seiser
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download Power Generation Using Advanced Thermochemical Gasification of Biomass book written by Robert J. Cattolica,Reinhard Seiser, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Advanced Gasification

Advanced Gasification Book
Author : A.A.C.M. Beenackers,W. van Swaay
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1986-03-31
ISBN : 9789027722126
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download Advanced Gasification book written by A.A.C.M. Beenackers,W. van Swaay, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Thermochemical Processing of Biomass

Thermochemical Processing of Biomass Book
Author : Robert C. Brown
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2019-03-15
ISBN : 1119417619
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

A comprehensive examination of the large number of possible pathways for converting biomass into fuels and power through thermochemical processes Bringing together a widely scattered body of information into a single volume, this book provides complete coverage of the many ways that thermochemical processes are used to transform biomass into fuels, chemicals and power. Fully revised and updated, this new edition highlights the substantial progress and recent developments that have been made in this rapidly growing field since publication of the first edition and incorporates up-to-date information in each chapter. Thermochemical Processing of Biomass: Conversion into Fuels, Chemicals and Power, 2nd Edition incorporates two new chapters covering: condensed phased reactions of thermal deconstruction of biomass and life cycle analysis of thermochemical processing systems. It offers a new introductory chapter that provides a more comprehensive overview of thermochemical technologies. The book also features fresh perspectives from new authors covering such evolving areas as solvent liquefaction and hybrid processing. Other chapters cover combustion, gasification, fast pyrolysis, upgrading of syngas and bio-oil to liquid transportation fuels, and the economics of thermochemically producing fuels and power, and more. Features contributions by a distinguished group of European and American researchers offering a broad and unified description of thermochemical processing options for biomass Combines an overview of the current status of thermochemical biomass conversion as well as engineering aspects to appeal to the broadest audience Edited by one of Biofuels Digest’s "Top 100 People" in bioenergy for six consecutive years Thermochemical Processing of Biomass: Conversion into Fuels, Chemicals and Power, 2nd Edition will appeal to all academic researchers, process chemists, and engineers working in the field of biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. It is also an excellent book for graduate and advanced undergraduate students studying biomass, biofuels, renewable resources, and energy and power generation.

Biomass for Energy Environment Agriculture and Industry

Biomass for Energy  Environment  Agriculture and Industry Book
Author : P. Chartier,A.A.C-M. Beenackers,G. Grassi
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-05-30
ISBN : 0080983812
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Interest in the use of biomass for non-food applications has grown strongly in recent years, mainly as a consequence of its potential as a prime renewable energy resource. Renewable energies rank highly among the options that will contribute to the prevention of climate change and to security of energy supply in the future. Furthermore, exploiting biomass is very attractive as a way of dealing with two sensitive issues facing the majority of western European countries today; the extent of unemployment and the setting aside of farm lands to limit excess agricultural production. The 8th European Conference for Energy, Environment, Agriculture and Industry, held in Vienna, October 1994 was larger that any of its predecessors, with over 300 refereed contributions from 20 countries worldwide and over 520 participants. It was arguably the most significant event to date in this field, providing the opportunity for an international exchange of information on the recent progress in developing and implementing renewable biomass based non-food technologies. Published in 3 volumes, the proceedings of this conference therefore contain the most complete overview of the present state-of-the-art. Subjects covered include: biomass resource base, electricity and heat generation, transportation fuels, chemicals from biomass, products from bio- and thermochemical conversion technologies, economics, environmental aspects and opportunities for implementation worldwide, in particular in developing countries. Apart from the numerous contributions on the most recent results in research, development and implementation, the publication also contains authoritative reviews on most of the above-mentioned areas from leading experts in each field. In addition to this, it contains a list of key issues for developing a successful strategy leading to a rapid implementation in Europe and abroad. As a result it is indispensable for anyone working in this area, whether in research, demonstration or in policy development.