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Adult Neurogenesis In The Hippocampus

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Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus

Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus Book
Author : Juan J. Canales
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-05-23
ISBN : 0128019921
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neurogenesis in the adult brain has emerged as one of the most dynamic and rapidly moving fields in modern neuroscience research. The implications of adult neurogenesis for health and well-being are wide-ranging, with findings in this area having distinct relevance for treatment and rehabilitation in neurology and psychopathology. Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus addresses these implications by providing an up-to-date account on how neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus contributes to critical psychological and physiological processes, such as learning and memory, and how it is modified by life experiences, such as aging, environmental enrichment, exercise, and dieting. The book also provides the most current reviews of how adult hippocampal neurogenesis influences the pathogenesis of mood disorders, addiction, and key neurological disorders. This book is the ideal resource for researchers and advanced graduates seeking focused knowledge on the role of adult neurogenesis in brain health and disease. Provides a unique overview of how adult hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to adaptive processes, brain psychopathology, and disease Includes state-of-the-art reviews by leading world experts in adult neurogenesis

Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain I

Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain I Book
Author : Tatsunori Seki,Kazunobu Sawamoto,Jack M. Parent,Arturo Alvarez-Buylla
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-06-15
ISBN : 9784431539339
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The discovery of adult neurogenesis caused a paradigm shift in the neurosciences. For more than 100 years, it was believed that adult neurons do not regenerate. Joseph Altman and Fernando Nottebohm found proof to the contrary and changed the course of history. Their research, included here, provides the foundations of the field. Today, adult neurogenesis is a rapidly expanding discipline applicable to the study of brain development and diseases, learning and memory, aging, and neuropsychiatric disorders. With multiple authors, the 27 chapters of this book contain the latest work in two volumes. The first presents the basic biology of adult neurogenesis in non-mammalian vertebrates and in the mammalian hippocampus and olfactory bulb, and the second discusses clinical implications and delves into adult neurogenesis and brain injury as well as neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric pathologies. With details of the anatomy, physiology, and molecular biology of the two neurogenic brain regions, this book provides indispensable knowledge for many areas of neuroscience and for experimental and clinical applications of adult neurogenesis to brain therapy.

50th Anniversary of Adult Neurogenesis Olfaction Hippocampus and beyond

50th Anniversary of Adult Neurogenesis  Olfaction  Hippocampus and beyond Book
Author : Alino Martinez-Marcos,José L.Trejo,Laura López-Mascaraque
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-09-21
ISBN : 2889199630
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the mid-sixties, the discovery by Altman and co-workers of neurogenesis in the adult brain changed the previous conception of the immutability of this organ during adulthood sustained among others by Cajal. This discovery was ignored up to eighty’s when Nottebohm demonstrated neurogenesis in birds. Subsequently, two main neurogenic zones were characterized: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus. Half century later, the exact role of new neurons in the adult brain is not completely understand. This book is composed by a number of articles by leaders in the filed covering from an historic perspective to potential therapeutic opportunities.

Adult Neurogenesis

Adult Neurogenesis Book
Author : Gerd Kempermann
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2006
ISBN : 9780195179712
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The discovery of adult neurogenesis and of stem cells in the brain has changed our view of the mature brain. Though we now know that the adult brain can make new neurons, it normally does so only in two privileged regions, the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus. Yet stem cells, which have the potential to produce new neurons, can be found throughout the adult brain. So why does the brain not make wider use of its potential for neurogenesis? And what is the function of new neurons and of neural stem cells in areas where they occur? After all, the brain regenerates poorly and many neurological and psychiatric disorders are chronic because cell replacement has not taken place. This is the first comprehensive, integrated account of one of the most exciting areas of neuroscience. It begins with the historical background and discusses theories of adult neurogenesis and neural stem cell biology in the context of learning and memory processes as well as structural plasticity. It describes in detail neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus and olfactory system and then surveys the regulatory, functional, and comparative aspects, concluding with a chapter on the provocative hypotheses that link failing adult neurogenesis with such diseases as temporal lobe epilepsy, major depression, brain tumors, and dementias. For graduate students, investigators, and clinicians in the neurosciences, developmental biology, and stem cell research, this book is a unique resource that sifts through the evidence for exciting scientific ideas and fosters a realistic view of the therapeutic possibilities for the use of stem cells in the adult brain.

Emerging Roles for Hippocampal Adult Neural Stem Cells in Memory

Emerging Roles for Hippocampal Adult Neural Stem Cells in Memory Book
Author : Aaron R. Friedman,Daniela Kaufer
Publisher : Biota Publishing
Release : 2013-12-01
ISBN : 1615044779
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Approximately 50 years ago, newly generated neurons were discovered in the adult hippocampus of the rat brain. This discovery contradicted a key principle in mammalian developmental neurobiology—that all the neurons of the brain are made during early development—and led to intensive study to find out how new neurons are generated and how the process of neurogenesis is regulated. Since then, a unique population of adult neural stem cells has been identified, and many of the molecular pathways that control their self-renewal, proliferation, and cell fate have been elucidated. However, the presence of new neurons in the adult brain also poses intriguing functional questions that have, as yet, gone largely unanswered. Why is adult neurogenesis restricted to select brain regions? What functional benefit do these new cells confer? Indeed, the field of adult neurogenesis offers a unique opportunity to study naïve neurons as they mature, form connections with existing neural networks, and begin to participate in information processing. We review the basics of adult NSC biology and the maturation of newborn neurons. In particular, we focus on new neurons in the hippocampus, and how they contribute to function in this key memory-forming structure of the brain.

Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain II

Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain II Book
Author : Tatsunori Seki,Kazunobu Sawamoto,Jack M. Parent,Arturo Alvarez-Buylla
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-06-15
ISBN : 9784431539452
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The discovery of adult neurogenesis caused a paradigm shift in the neurosciences. For more than 100 years, it was believed that adult neurons do not regenerate. Joseph Altman and Fernando Nottebohm found proof to the contrary and changed the course of history. Their research, included here, provides the foundations of the field. Today, adult neurogenesis is a rapidly expanding discipline applicable to the study of brain development and diseases, learning and memory, aging, and neuropsychiatric disorders. With multiple authors, the 27 chapters of this book contain the latest work in two volumes. The first presents the basic biology of adult neurogenesis in non-mammalian vertebrates and in the mammalian hippocampus and olfactory bulb, and the second discusses clinical implications and delves into adult neurogenesis and brain injury as well as neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric pathologies. With details of the anatomy, physiology, and molecular biology of the two neurogenic brain regions, this book provides indispensable knowledge for many areas of neuroscience and for experimental and clinical applications of adult neurogenesis to brain therapy.

Absent Or Low Rate of Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus of Bats Chiroptera

Absent Or Low Rate of Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus of Bats  Chiroptera  Book
Author : Irmgard Amrein,Dina K. N. Dechmann,York Winter,Hans-Peter Lipp
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Absent Or Low Rate of Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus of Bats Chiroptera book written by Irmgard Amrein,Dina K. N. Dechmann,York Winter,Hans-Peter Lipp, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Adult neurogenesis twenty years later physiological function versus brain repair

Adult neurogenesis twenty years later  physiological function versus brain repair Book
Author : Paolo Peretto,Luca Bonfanti
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-05-01
ISBN : 2889194949
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The discovery that mammalian brains contain neural stem cells which perform adult neurogenesis - the production and integration of new neurons into mature neural circuits - has provided a fully new vision of neural plasticity. On a theoretical basis, this achievement opened new perspectives for therapeutic approaches in restorative and regenerative neurology. Nevertheless, in spite of striking advancement concerning the molecular and cellular mechanisms which allow and regulate the neurogenic process, its exploitation in mammals for brain repair strategies remains unsolved. In non-mammalian vertebrates, adult neurogenesis also contributes to brain repair/regeneration. In mammals, neural stem cells do respond to pathological conditions in the so called "reactive neurogenesis", yet without substantial regenerative outcome. Why, even in the presence of stem cells in the brain, we lack an effective reparative outcome in terms of regenerative neurology, and which factors hamper the attainment of this goal? Essentially, what remains unanswered is the question whether (and how) physiological functions of adult neurogenesis in mammals can be exploited for brain repair purposes.

Adult Neurogenesis Beyond Rats and Mice

Adult Neurogenesis  Beyond Rats and Mice Book
Author : Luca Bonfanti,Irmgard Amrein
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-02-11
ISBN : 2889457613
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Researchers working on adult neurogenesis have focused largely on inbred laboratory rodents. While this provides a strong advantage of restricting genetic variation in the group, it also narrows our perspective on adult neurogenesis as a biological phenomenon. Many unsolved issues and open questions cannot be resolved without the contribution of comparative studies spanning through widely different species: how did adult neurogenesis evolve, what is the link between adult neurogenesis and brain complexity, how do adult neurogenesis and animal behavior influence each other, how does adult neurogenesis contribute to brain plasticity, cognition and, possibly, repair, and how do experimental conditions affect adult neurogenesis. The main message from the comparative approach to adult neurogenesis is that the relative exclusive focus on laboratory rodents can result in a bias on how we think about this biological process.

The Impact of Hippocampal Neuronal Loss on Adult Neurogenesis

The Impact of Hippocampal Neuronal Loss on Adult Neurogenesis Book
Author : Kristoffer Myczek
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 9781267815965
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuronal loss is a common component of a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease. Neuronal loss can also result from trauma to the brain, such as stroke, epilepsy, or traumatic brain injury. Particularly devastating is damage to the hippocampus, an area of the brain critical for the formation and retrieval of memories. Long-lasting and sometimes unrecoverable deficits caused by neuronal loss present a unique challenge for clinicians and for those who attempt to model these traumas in animals. Can these deficits be recovered, and if so, is the brain capable of regeneration following neuronal loss? Although neuronal proliferation is generally halted by the end of development, new neurons can still be produced in the adult brain. Interestingly, and of vital relevance to the study of the possible recovery of memory deficits, new neurons continue to be produced in the hippocampus throughout adulthood. These neurons proliferate from persistent pools of neural stem cells (NSCs), and knockout and neurogenic inhibition studies have demonstrated a significant role for these adult-born cells in a variety of behavioral tasks. Furthermore, this proliferation is enhanced following stroke, traumatic brain injury, and epilepsy. However, it remains unclear if a global and harsh injury to the brain is necessary to achieve neurogenic upregulation, or if selective hippocampal neuronal loss is sufficient to cause this phenomenon. In our studies, we utilize the CaM/Tet-DTA model of selective neuronal ablation. We find that, through induction of transgene driven toxin expression, we are able to inflict a consistent and significant lesion to the hippocampus. In the pages that follow, we investigate the behavioral effects of this hippocampal neuronal loss and the possible recovery of lesion-induced deficits. We also offer the first evidence of neurogenic-upregulation in this model, and provide a comprehensive analysis of the proliferation, survival, and migration of new-born neurons in the post-lesion environment. We also discover a unique phenomenon in which lesion induction can reverse irradiaton inhibition of neurogenesis. Finally, we provide novel evidence of angiogenic and vasculature changes following hippocampal neuronal loss in CaM/Tet-DTA mice. We posit that angiogenesis may be an important factor that contributes to neurogenic upregulation following hippocampal neuronal loss.

Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Book
Author : Philippe Taupin
Publisher : Nova Publishers
Release : 2008
ISBN : 9781604564723
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The subject of this book is stem cell research and regenerative medicine. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to differentiate into different lineages of the body. Stem cells carry tremendous potential for the treatment of a broad range of disease and injuries. Stem cells exist in embryonic, fetal, and adult tissues, including the adult central nervous system. This book aims at, in depth, the recent developments in stem cell research and regenerative medicine. Though this book encompasses all the fields of stem cell research and regenerative medicine, it emphasises adult neurogenesis and neural stem cell research and therapy.

Computational Modeling of Adult Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus

Computational Modeling of Adult Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus Book
Author : James Bradley Aimone
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The incorporation of new neurons into the adult brain is a form of plasticity that has only recently been appreciated in neuroscience. The localization of adult neurogenesis to the dentate gyrus (DG) area of the hippocampus is of particular interest, given the hippocampus's observed role as a structure crucial for memory formation. In the rodent, thousands of new neurons are born daily, and research into this process has revealed a complex maturation process, with newborn neurons showing unique physiological and anatomical features at different stages of development. Despite these findings regarding the biology of the neurogenesis process itself, a functional role for new neurons has remained elusive. This dissertation will describe the design, implementation, and testing of a biologically driven computational model of the adult neurogenesis process in the DG. In this model, new neurons are incorporated into the DG circuit according to the process revealed by previous biological studies. Ultimately, this work provides evidence for three separate functions for new neurons that are both novel and experimentally testable. The first hypothesis is that immature neurons are more likely to contribute to the encoding of new memories than mature neurons. This increased activity provides a pattern integration component to the global pattern separation function of the DG. The second hypothesis is that the continuing maturation of these young neurons makes this pattern integration role temporally dependent. As such, memories encoded close in time will be associated, while memories encoded far apart in time will be separated. Third, the results suggest that continual neurogenesis results in a DG network that is a cumulative representation of events experienced throughout life. Finally, this dissertation will discuss how neuromodulation may affect the neurogenesis process and its relationship with hippocampal function and will include a description of how modulatory neurotransmitters can be considered in the computational model, and the specific example of dopamine will show how preliminary data regarding the effects of modulators on neurogenesis can be incorporated into the modeling framework.

The Hippocampus

The Hippocampus Book
Author : Ales Stuchlik
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2018-07-11
ISBN : 1789233569
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The hippocampus is an important brain region, a true central hub for memory of various kinds and other processes. Neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, drug addiction, and schizophrenia are characterized by hippocampal alterations. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is a site exhibiting adult neurogenesis. This book covers the topic of the hippocampus from various perspectives. It discusses adult neurogenesis, effect of enriched environments on hippocampal plasticity, and long-term potentiation-associated gene expression. The book also addresses multiscale representations of complex environments and strategies in the hippocampus-dependent spatial tasks. Finally, insight into the hippocampus as a link between negative affect and relapse to psychostimulants is provided. The book collects evidence of various hippocampal functions in healthy and disordered brain.

Identification and Characterization of Neural Progenitor Cells in the Adult Mammalian Brain

Identification and Characterization of Neural Progenitor Cells in the Adult Mammalian Brain Book
Author : Sara Gil-Perotín,Arturo Alvarez-Buylla,Jose Manuel Garcia-Verdugo
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-04-21
ISBN : 9783540887195
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Adult neurogenesis has been questioned for many years. In the early 1900s, a dogma was established that denied new neuron formation in the adult brain. In the last century however, new discoveries have demonstrated the real existence of proliferation in the adult brain, and in the last decade, these studies led to the identification of neural stem cells in mammals. Adult neural stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are present in the adult brain and are capable of dividing and differentiating into glia and new neurons. Newly formed neurons terminally differentiate into mature neurons in the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Since then, a number of new research lines have emerged whose common objective is the phenotypical and molecular characterization of brain stem cells. As a result, new therapies are successfully being applied to animal models for certain neurodegenerative diseases or stroke. At present, and in years to come, this finding extends to the adult human brain, and gives reason and hope to all the previous studies.

Neurogenesis and Neural Plasticity

Neurogenesis and Neural Plasticity Book
Author : Catherine Belzung,Peter Wigmore
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2014-07-08
ISBN : 364236232X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume brings together authors working on a wide range of topics to provide an up to date account of the underlying mechanisms and functions of neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in the adult brain. With an increasing understanding of the role of neurogenesis and synaptogenesis it is possible to envisage improvements or novel treatments for a number of diseases and the possibility of harnessing these phenomena to reduce the impact of ageing and to provide mechanisms to repair the brain.

Adult Neurogenesis and Neural Stem Cells in Mammals

Adult Neurogenesis and Neural Stem Cells in Mammals Book
Author : Philippe Taupin
Publisher : Nova Publishers
Release : 2006
ISBN : 9781594548567
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This title contains a book and CD. The brain has a number of nerve cells estimated at a magnitude of 10 to 100 billion, and 1014 to 1015 synapses, and therefore is the most complex organ of the human body. During fetal development the foundations of the brain are laid as billions of neurons form appropriate connections and patterns. In the adult mammalian brain, most neurons are post-mitotic, and therefore at risk for irreversible damage. As we age, atrophy of the brain occurs. As brain weight declines the volume of the brain in the 8th decade is reduced by 6 per cent -10 per cent versus the third decade, and neuronal loss occurs, up to 10,000 to 100,000 neurons are lost per day, though this estimation is being revised downward with the advance of more sophisticated measurements.