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Addictive Substances And Neurological Disease

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Addictive Substances and Neurological Disease

Addictive Substances and Neurological Disease Book
Author : Ronald Ross Watson,Sherma Zibadi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-02-18
ISBN : 0128092963
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Addictive Substances and Neurological Disease: Alcohol, Tobacco, Caffeine, and Drugs of Abuse in Everyday Lifestyles is a complete guide to the manifold effects of addictive substances on the brain, providing readers with the latest developing research on how these substances are implicated in neurological development and dysfunction. Cannabis, cocaine, and other illicit drugs can have substantial negative effects on the structure and functioning of the brain. However, other common habituating and addictive substances often used as part of an individual’s lifestyle, i.e., alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, painkillers can also compromise brain health and effect or accentuate neurological disease. This book provides broad coverage of the effects of addictive substances on the brain, beginning with an overview of how the substances lead to dysfunction before examining each substance in depth. It discusses the pathology of addiction, the structural damage resulting from abuse of various substances, and covers the neurobiological, neurodegenerative, behavioral, and cognitive implications of use across the lifespan, from prenatal exposure, to adolescence and old age. This book aids researchers seeking an understanding of the neurological changes that these substances induce, and is also extremely useful for those seeking potential treatments and therapies for individuals suffering from chronic abuse of these substances. Integrates current research on the actions of addictive substances in neurological disease Includes functional foods, such as caffeine beverages, that have habituating effects on the brain Provides a synopsis of key ideas associated with the consequences of addictive and habituating lifestyle substances

Neurological Aspects of Substance Abuse

Neurological Aspects of Substance Abuse Book
Author : John Calvin M. Brust
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
Release : 2004
ISBN : 9780750673136
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A clinical reference providing comprehensive treatment of the subject of neurological problems associated with abuse of and addiction to drusgs.

Brain Stimulation

Brain Stimulation Book
Author : Jens Kuhn,Christian P. Bührle,Doris Lenartz,Volker Sturm
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-11
ISBN : 0128080272
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Addiction is one of the most challenging health problems. It is associated with enormous individual distress and tremendous socioeconomic consequences. Unfortunately, its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, and pharmacological, psychological, or social interventions often fail to achieve long-lasting remission. Next to genetic, social, and contextual factors, a substance-induced dysfunction of the brain’s reward system is considered a decisive factor for the establishment and maintenance of addiction. Due to its successful application and approval for several neurological disorders, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is known as a powerful tool for modulating dysregulated networks and has also been considered for substance addiction. Initial promising case reports of DBS in alcohol and heroin addiction in humans have recently been published. Likewise, results from animal studies mimicking different kinds of substance addiction point in a similar direction. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on DBS in addiction, and to discuss whether these preliminary results justify further research, given the novelty of this treatment approach.

Discovery of Novel Negative Allosteric Modulators of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

Discovery of Novel Negative Allosteric Modulators of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Book
Author : Alexander M. Jaeger
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) represent a large family of membrane receptors that are involved in numerous neurotransmitter systems throughout the brain. For this reason, nAChRs are implicated in many neurological diseases involving various brain pathways including but not limited to addiction, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and autism. A major conundrum in nAChR research is the development of agents that selectively target receptor subtypes. This is important because contemporary therapies targeting specific nAChRs are associated with a myriad of neurological side effects due to their off target interaction with other nAChRs. Our laboratory has identified a class of compounds targeting a novel allosteric site on nAChRs. This site is unique for each subtype as the amino acid residues within the binding pocket are different across subtypes. Utilizing Structure Activity Relationships (SAR) and computational modeling we are identifying novel compounds that target this site. The end goal is to identify a potent and selective negative allosteric modulator of nAChRs. Specifically, our laboratory is investigating compounds targeting the alpha4beta2 subtype. The alpha4beta2 nAChR is implicated in the development of addiction following exposure to drugs of abuse such as nicotine. Therefore, a drug selectively targeting this receptor would be an effective smoking cessation therapy. In addition, the identification of an effective modulator of the alpha4beta2 receptor would provide further evidence that our approach can be utilized for any nAChR subtype for the development of potent and selective drugs to treat neurological disease.

Role of Perineuronal Nets and Parvalbumin in Cortical Plasticity and Substance Abuse

Role of Perineuronal Nets and Parvalbumin in Cortical Plasticity and Substance Abuse Book
Author : Emily Jorgensen
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Addiction is a multifaceted neurological disease defined by uncontrolled drug seeking and drug taking behaviors despite negative consequences. Although there are many unanswered questions as to how and why addictive behaviors persist, our approach is to study substance abuse as a maladaptive learning and memory process. Following drug exposure, some neurons revert to a more juvenile state, opening up a window of plasticity allowing for drug-associated memories to strengthen. To examine the underlying mechanisms contributing to drug-associated memories, we used two primary laboratory methods. First, a behavioral paradigm known as “conditioned place preference” where rats are trained to associate one side of a two-sided chamber with a cocaine injection and the other side with a non-drug (saline) injection. Conditioned place preference is a well-known assay for assessing the animal’s contextual memory for where they received cocaine. Secondly, to investigate functional plasticity changes associated with cocaine exposure and associated memories, we used whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology to determine excitability changes in perineuronal net surrounded fast-spiking interneurons within the medial prefrontal cortex, an area important for working memory and reward processing. The goal of Chapter 1 was to first identify how cortical interneurons respond to acute vs repeated cocaine injections. We found that fast-spiking interneurons respond differently to injected current levels following a single cocaine injection compared to 5 consecutive days of cocaine injections. After determining the effects of cocaine exposure, we wanted to see how perineuronal net surrounded interneurons were involved in the memory associated with cocaine use, bringing us to Chapter 2. In Chapter 2, we identified that there is a time-dependent effect of cocaine memory reactivation on the excitability of cortical fast-spiking interneurons. Upon further investigation, we found that this is likely due to an increase in potassium current. Chapter worked to discover neural mechanisms involved in hedonic feeding contributing to obesity. In Part 1 we aimed to determine if sex or genetic predisposition contributes to changes in cortical plasticity following consumption of a high-fat diet. Indeed, high-fat obesity-prone females appear to be more susceptible to diet-induced plasticity than obesity-resistant strains. Following high-fat consumption, female obesity-prone rats elicited more action potentials compared to chow fed counter parts and obesity-resistant strains on either diet. Additionally, we observed no significant changes in males indicating sex differences in food-induced cortical plasticity. In Part 2 we wanted to see if a commonly observed phenomenon in cocaine addiction is also observed in exposure to a junk-food diet. Following junk-food consumption, there was an increase in silent synapses in both males and females. These results suggest similar mechanisms are involved in drugs of abuse and food addiction. Taken together, these studies provide novel insights into the behaviors and circuitry involved in substance abuse and push the field forward in understanding addiction as a disease of the nervous system. Finally, Chapter 4 aimed to address how perineuronal nets affect synaptic transmission outside of a cocaine context and determined the role of perineuronal net surrounded interneurons in circadian rhythms. Specifically, we found the AMPA:NMDA ratio during the dark cycle was increased compared to the light cycle, when rats are more inactive. Perineuronal nets are known to impact synaptic transmission, general excitability, and membrane properties. Together, these studies provide novel insight as to how cocaine and palatable diets alter cellular and behavioral aspects of substance use disorders.

Addiction Medicine E Book

Addiction Medicine E Book Book
Author : Bankole Johnson
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2019-12-12
ISBN : 0323680534
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Integrating scientific knowledge with today’s most effective treatment options, Addiction Medicine: Science and Practice, 2nd Edition, provides a wealth of information on addictions to substances and behavioral addictions. It discusses the concrete research on how the brain and body are affected by addictions, improving your understanding of how patients develop addictions and how best to personalize treatment and improve outcomes. This essential text is ideal for anyone who deals with patients with addictions in clinical practice, including psychiatrists, health psychologists, pharmacologists, social workers, drug counselors, trainees, and general physicians/family practitioners. Clearly explains the role of brain function in drug taking and other habit-forming behaviors, and shows how to apply this biobehavioral framework to the delivery of evidence-based treatment. Provides clinically relevant details on not only traditional sources of addiction such as cocaine, opiates, and alcohol, but also more recently recognized substances of abuse (e.g., steroids, inhalants) as well as behavioral addictions (e.g., binge eating, compulsive gambling, hoarding). Discusses current behavioral and medical therapies in depth, while also addressing social contexts that may affect personalized treatment. Contains new information on compliance-enhancing interventions, cognitive behavioral treatments, behavioral management, and other psychosocial interventions. Includes neurobiological, molecular, and behavioral theories of addiction, and includes a section on epigenetics. Contains up-to-date information throughout, including a new definition of status epilepticus, a current overview of Lennox Gastaut syndrome, and updates on new FDA-approved drugs for pediatric neurological disorders. Features expanded sections on evidence-based treatment options including pharmacotherapy, pharmacogenetics, and potential vaccines. Addresses addiction in regards to specific populations, including adolescents, geriatric, pregnant women, and health care professionals. Includes contributions from expert international authors, making this a truly global reference to addiction medicine.

Drug Abuse in the Modern World

Drug Abuse in the Modern World Book
Author : Gabriel G. Nahas,Henry Clay Frick
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-09-11
ISBN : 1483140946
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Drug Abuse in the Modern World: A Perspective for the Eighties is a compilation of research papers presented at an international symposium, held at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. The focus of the conference is the assessment of the effects of addictive drugs on an individual, both in mind and body, and the repercussions of its widespread use on society, specifically during the decade of the 80’s. The book is composed of 49 chapters, which were divided into five parts. The first part presents the pharmacological properties of addictive drugs; its effect on brain functions; and changes in the user’s behavior leading to physical and psychic dependence, which when left unmitigated may cause neurological disorders. A paper on pharmacological cure, specifically for tobacco and alcohol abuse, is presented, as well as the effects of marijuana on the reproductive system. The second part examines drug use among children, family relationships, and drug abuse in adults engaged in various professions and undertakings. The third part exposes how a ""pro-drug"" media can be instrumental in the proliferation of drug use in society and also how religion may have also propagated drug use. In contrast, several articles are likewise written that extols the use of media in spreading the detrimental effects of drugs. Part 4 discusses the state of drug abuse in different cultures and societies; the drug trade; and various interventions being implemented by local governments and international organizations to curb the spread of this epidemic. Part 5 is devoted to the status of drug abuse in the 80’s, efforts made, and plans to fight it. The text is a must-read for physicians, pharmacists, educators, social workers, lawyers, law enforcers, sociologists, students, and people who want to get rid of this menace to the human race.

Disease Control Priorities Related to Mental Neurological Developmental and Substance Abuse Disorders

Disease Control Priorities Related to Mental  Neurological  Developmental and Substance Abuse Disorders Book
Author : World Health Organization. Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse,World Health Organization,Disease Control Priorities Project
Publisher : World Health Organization
Release : 2006
ISBN : 924156332X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This publication brings together five chapters from Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries 2nd edition (2006), along with an introduction and a conclusion by WHO. The chapters cover mental disorders, neurological disorders, learning and developmental disabilities, and alcohol and illicit opiate abuse. The purpose of this special package is to provide information on cost-effectiveness of interventions for these specific groups of disorders. This information should contribute to reformulation of policies and programs and reallocation of resources eventually leading to reduction of morbidity and mortality. The disorders and conditions covered in the five chapters of this volume are all characterized by low current levels of use of effective interventions. This underlines the need for substantial enhancement in resources but also presents an opportunity in that the cost-effectiveness data can be used to focus enhanced resources to those interventions that are shown to give the best value for money. As mental, neurological, developmental, and substance-use disorders move up in the public health agenda of developing countries, the evidence presented in this publication can assist in resource allocation.

Neuroscience of Nicotine

Neuroscience of Nicotine Book
Author : Victor R. Preedy
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-03-15
ISBN : 9780128130353
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With an estimated 1 billion individuals worldwide classified as tobacco users-and tobacco use often being synonymous with nicotine addiction-nicotine is one of the world's most common addictive substances, and a frequent comorbidity of misuse of other common addictive substances. Nicotine alters a variety of neurological processes, from molecular biology to cognition, and "quitting" is exceedingly difficult because of the number of withdrawal symptoms that accompany the process. Effective treatments are contingent on a thorough understanding of the neuroscience of nicotine and the mechanisms of addiction to the substance in the brain. Neuroscience of Nicotine: Mechanisms and Treatment presents the fundamental information necessary for a thorough understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of nicotine addiction and its effects on the brain in a single source. Offering thorough coverage of all aspects of nicotine research, treatment, policy, and prevention, and containing contributions from internationally recognized experts, the book provides students, early-career researchers, and investigators at all levels with a fundamental introduction to all aspects of nicotine misuse. Integrates cutting-edge research on the pharmacological, cellular, and molecular aspects of nicotine use along with its effects on neurobiological function Discusses nicotine use as a component of dual-use and poly addictions, and outlines numerous screening and treatment strategies for misuse Covers both physical and psychological effects of nicotine use and withdrawal to provide fully formed view of nicotine dependency and its effects

Proceedings of 6th World Congress on Addiction Disorder Addiction Therapy 2017

Proceedings of 6th World Congress on Addiction Disorder   Addiction Therapy 2017 Book
Author : ConferenceSeries
Publisher : ConferenceSeries
Release : 2022-01-17
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

August 29-31, 2017 Prague, Czech Republic Key topics : Alcoholism and Addiction, CNS and Addictive Disorders, Addiction Induced Brain Disorders, Addiction and Behavioral Studies, Substance Abuse, Addiction Therapy, Drug Addiction, Marijuana and Opioid Addiction, Depression and Anxiety Disorders, Addiction Psychiatry and Mental Health, Behavioral Addiction, Addiction: Pharmacology, Addiction Rehabilitation & Recovery, Approaches for Addiction Treatment, Dual Diagnosis, Addiction - Case Report Studies, Neurological Disorders Caused by Substance Abuse, HIV and Substance Use,

Basic and Clinical Science of Mental and Addictive Disorders

Basic and Clinical Science of Mental and Addictive Disorders Book
Author : Lewis L. Judd,Bernd Saletu,Vaclav Filip
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release : 1997-01-01
ISBN : 380556385X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is the most comprehensive update of basic and clinical information available on mental, addictive and various neurological disorders. Virtually every basic and clinical scientific methodology that is relevant to our understanding and management of brain-related diseases is included in this volume. Readers will find up-to-the-minute studies in functional brain imaging, including MRI and EEG/ERP mapping, the latest application of molecular biology and genetics to solve clinical problems, as well as recent findings on schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, drug addiction and alcoholism, suicide and mood disorders. A unique feature of this publication are the nine chapters which examine chronic subsyndromal states in mood, anxiety, and neurocognitive disorders, including chronic fatigue syndrome, conditions which plague so many people worldwide. Other more specific sections of the book deal with antiglutamatergic drugs, the modern treatment of social phobia and characteristics of new atypical neuroleptic drugs. Clinicians who wish to practice at the forefront in their field and researchers requiring up-to-date data will find this book a worthwhile addition to their libraries. Students will also find it a useful and comprehensive reference source.

Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse Volume 1

Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse Volume 1 Book
Author : Victor R. Preedy
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-03-07
ISBN : 0128003766
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse, Volume One: Foundations of Understanding, Tobacco, Alcohol, Cannabinoids, Opioids and Emerging Addictions provides the latest research in an area that shows that the neuropathological features of one addiction are often applicable to those of others. The book also details how a further understanding of these commonalties can provide a platform for the study of specific addictions in greater depth, all in an effort to create new modes of understanding, causation, prevention, and treatment. The three volumes in this series address new research and challenges, offering comprehensive coverage on the adverse consequences of the most common drugs of abuse, with each volume serving to update the reader’s knowledge on the broader field of addiction, while also deepening our understanding of specific addictive substances. Volume One addresses tobacco, alcohol, cannabinoids, and opioids, with each section providing data on the general, molecular/cellular, and structural/functional neurological aspects of a given substance, along with a focus on the adverse consequences of addictions. Provides a modern approach on the pathology of substances of abuse, offering an evidence based ethos for understanding the neurology of addictions Fills an existing gap in the literature by proving a one-stop-shopping synopsis of everything to do with the neuropathology of drugs of addiction and substance misuse Includes a list of abbreviations, abstracts, applications to other addictions and substance misuse, mini-dictionary of terms, summary points, 6+ figures and tables, and full references in each chapter Offers coverage of preclinical, clinical, and population studies, from the cell to whole organs, and the genome to whole body

The New Addiction Treatment

The New Addiction Treatment Book
Author : David A. Patterson Silver Wolf
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2021-07-14
ISBN : 0197601391
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Addiction is the United States' most pervasive and damaging public health problem, yet most Americans receive care that results in a failure rate that is both astronomically high and shielded from public view. The New Addiction Treatment examines the current state of the addiction treatment business and explores the reasons why (unlike those for all other behavioral, psychological, or neurological disorders) the treatment of addiction has been stagnant and little improved since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous in 1935. After describing the size and scope of the problem and examining actual recovery rates for those who undergo treatment, David A. Patterson Silver Wolf asserts that there are effectively two kinds of treatment regimes in the United States: those that medical doctors receive, and those for the rest of us. The former has about an 80% success rate, the latter about an 80% failure rate. Drawing from his own experience as a former patient and person in long-term recovery, as well as his 22 years as a clinician, professor, and researcher, Patterson Silver Wolf describes many of the impediments to effective treatment today. This book offers a plausible and cost-effective way to disrupt the dismal status quo and realistically aspire to a higher success rate for everyone who receives professional help for a substance use disorder.

Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse Volume 3

Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse Volume 3 Book
Author : Victor R. Preedy
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-04-25
ISBN : 0128006773
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse, Volume 3: General Processes and Mechanisms, Prescription Medications, Caffeine and Areca, Polydrug Misuse, Emerging Addictions and Non-Drug Addictions is the third of three volumes in this informative series and offers a comprehensive examination of the adverse consequences of the most common drugs of abuse. Each volume serves to update the reader’s knowledge on the broader field of addiction as well as to deepen understanding of specific addictive substances. Volume 3 addresses prescription medications, caffeine, polydrug misuse, and non-drug addictions. Each section provides data on the general, molecular, cellular, structural, and functional neurological aspects of a given substance, with a focus on the adverse consequences of addictions. Research shows that the neuropathological features of one addiction are often applicable to those of others, and understanding these commonalties provides a platform for studying specific addictions in more depth and may ultimately lead researchers toward new modes of understanding, causation, prevention and treatment. However, marshalling data on the complex relationships between addictions is difficult due to the myriad of material and substances. Offers a modern approach to understanding the pathology of substances of abuse, offering an evidence-based ethos for understanding the neurology of addictions Fills an existing gap in the literature by serving as a “one-stop-shopping synopsis of everything to do with the neuropathology of drugs of addiction and substance misuse Includes in each chapter: list of abbreviations, abstract, introduction, applications to other addictions and substance misuse, mini-dictionary of terms, summary points, 6+ figures and tables, full references Offers coverage of preclinical, clinical, and population studies, from the cell to whole organs, and from the genome to whole body

Brain Research in Addiction

Brain Research in Addiction Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-10-27
ISBN : 0128135026
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brain Research in Addiction, Volume 235, the latest volume in this groundbreaking series on addiction, presents the neurobiological, pathological, cognitive and evolutionary aspects of addiction, with new chapters covering the Neurobiology of drug intake escalation, the Role of the orexinergic system in reward, Mental time travel and addictive behaviors, An evolutionary perspective on addiction- Addiction is the price we pay for innovation and adaptability, and how Cocaine exposure affects object-place recognition memory in non-human primates. Chapters in this serial are presented by leading researchers from North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia, who present addiction research from the bottom up, including how addiction evolved, basic research on animal models, and the psychiatric, psychological and cognitive characteristics of addictive behaviors in humans. Presents chapters written by global leaders in research on brain research and its relation to addiction Provides an interdisciplinary approach that will be of interest to many professionals Includes sections on the evolution of addiction, the effects of substance use on primate cognition, and addictive behaviors in humans

Substance Use Disorders

Substance Use Disorders Book
Author : Perry M. Duncan
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2020-09-17
ISBN : 1108877702
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This textbook surveys the current knowledge on substance use disorders (SUD), summarizing scientific evidence from numerous fields. It uses a biopsychosocial framework to integrate the many factors that contribute to addictions, from genetic predispositions, neurological responses caused by drugs, co-occurring psychiatric disorders, personality traits, and developmental conditions to cultural influences. Real-life vignettes and first-person accounts build understanding of the lived experience of addiction. The currently accepted practices for diagnosis and treatment are presented, including the role of 12-step programmes and other mutual-assistance groups. The text also investigates the research methods that form the foundation of evidence-based knowledge. The main body text is augmented by study guideposts such as learning objectives, review exercises, highlighted key terms, and chapter summaries, which enable more efficient comprehension and retention of the book's material.

A Concise Guide to Opioid Addiction for Counselors

A Concise Guide to Opioid Addiction for Counselors Book
Author : Kevin G. Alderson,Samuel T. Gladding
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-10-12
ISBN : 1119783585
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This brief, evidence-based guide is ideal for busy mental health professionals helping clients with opioid use disorders (OUDs). It examines the devastating global impact caused by opioids and is replete with information and resources that can be immediately applied to addiction work. The authors’ pragmatic, strengths-based approach to treatment is based on a collaborative counselor-client working alliance to achieve client readiness for change, moderation, and abstinence. Topics discussed include current research on risk and protective factors, OUD assessment and diagnosis, the ethical and legal issues particular to addiction work, medication-assisted treatment, physical and psychological interventions for pain management, and the necessity of interdisciplinary care. In addition, Drs. Alderson and Gladding provide a number of counseling approaches and treatment options that consider work with women, youth, people of color, LGBTQ+ individuals, veterans, older adults, people with disabilities, individuals in the criminal justice system, and rural residents. Five useful appendices conclude the book, including a listing of 20 opioid drugs in descending order of potency; common ICD-10, ICD-10-CM, and ICD-11 codes; and a glossary of terms and abbreviations. About the Authors Kevin G. Alderson, PhD, is professor emeritus of counseling psychology from the University of Calgary. He is an editorial board member of the Journal of Alcoholism, Drug Abuse & Substance Dependence and the Austin Journal of Drug Abuse and Addiction, as well as the editor of the Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy. Samuel T. Gladding, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Counseling at Wake Forest University and the author of numerous, best selling counseling texts. *Requests for digital versions from ACA can be found on www.wiley.com. *To purchase print copies, please visit the ACA website here *Reproduction requests for material from books published by ACA should be directed to [email protected]

MRNA Expression Analysis of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons in Response to Nicotine Intake During Maturation

MRNA Expression Analysis of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons in Response to Nicotine Intake During Maturation Book
Author : Pinar Kanlikilicer
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Addictive substances including cocaine, nicotine and amphetamine exert their reinforcing properties through the dopamine system. The majority of dopamine (DA) neurons are located in the ventral midbrain comprising of the substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Nicotine has been suggested as both neuroprotective and neurotoxic on the central nervous system (CNS). For many neurological disorders, nicotine has been found to be protective against neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease, dopaminergic cell death in SN of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and neurodegeneration in Huntington’s disease. On the other hand, nicotine was shown to be neurotoxic on the developing brain by leading to structural alterations in the brain regions involved in cognition, learning and memory. Previous studies suggested that the expression of neuroprotective genes was significantly different in the VTA and SN dopamine neurons and nicotine mediated neuroprotection in PD. These studies encouraged us to investigate how nicotine changes the expression of these differentially expressed neuroprotective genes (PACAP, LPL and GRP) in the VTA and the SN at different age stages. Our results suggested that only the LPL gene significantly differentially expressed between the VTA and the SN in the 24-month old rats. In addition, nicotine treatment did not show any up-regulatory effects on the expression of neuroprotective genes in rats after 12-months maturation. We also investigated the whole-genome expression of midbrain dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurons in response to gestational nicotine in newborn rats (PN 7-14). Patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to select and collect DA and non-DA neuron in newborn rats during the first week of maturation. Then, we use microarray technique to analyze the gene expression of these neurons in response to gestational nicotine. We identified a set of 135 genes identified as significantly differentially expressed between dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurons upon exposure to gestational nicotine. The roles of the genes previously implicated in Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Disease, arachidonic acid and linoleic acid metabolism were identified. We also identified significantly regulated genes by gestational nicotine in DA and non-DA neurons. These specific genes in DA neurons could be paramount in developmental processes.

Addictions Counseling Today

Addictions Counseling Today Book
Author : Kevin G. Alderson
Publisher : SAGE Publications
Release : 2019-11-14
ISBN : 154439232X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Winner of the 2020 Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association (CCPA) Counselling Book Award Enlightening and practical, Addictions Counseling Today invites students into the heart of addictive thinking, offering first-person accounts of what it is like to experience different addictions. The text covers the range of addictions from alcohol, drug abuse, and nicotine to various process addictions, including sex, internet, gaming, social media, and gambling. Also included are the various theories and models of addiction, with a unique chapter on the neuroscience of addiction. Focusing on the new DSM-V classifications for addiction with an emphasis on CACREP and treatment, this provocative, contemporary text is an essential reference for both students and practitioners wanting to gain a deeper understanding of those with addiction. Learn why teaching addictions is changing and how to adapt your course by watching Kevin G. Alderson′s Ph.D. webinar entitled The Pandemic Addiction Volcano here. Online Resources Free PowerPoint® slides with video for instructors are available with this text. Test bank questions will be available in August 2020. Contact the author to learn more.