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Accident Tolerant Materials For Light Water Reactor Fuels

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Accident Tolerant Materials for Light Water Reactor Fuels

Accident Tolerant Materials for Light Water Reactor Fuels Book
Author : Raul B. Rebak
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020-01-06
ISBN : 0128175036
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Accident Tolerant Materials for Light Water Reactor Fuels provides a description of what an accident tolerant fuel is and the benefits and detriments of each concept. The book begins with an introduction to nuclear power as a renewable energy source and the current materials being utilized in light water reactors. It then moves on to discuss the recent advancements being made in accident tolerant fuels, reviewing the specific materials, their fabrication and implementation, environmental resistance, irradiation behavior, and licensing requirements. The book concludes with a look to the future of new power generation technologies. It is written for scientists and engineers working in the nuclear power industry and is the first comprehensive work on this topic. Introduces the fundamental description of accident tolerant fuel, including fabrication and implementation Describes both the benefits and detriments of the various Accident Tolerant Fuel concepts Includes information on the process of materials selection with a discussion of how and why specific materials were chosen, as well as why others failed

Electrochemical Behavior of Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Materials Under Simulated Light Water Reactor Conditions

Electrochemical Behavior of Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Materials Under Simulated Light Water Reactor Conditions Book
Author : Young-Jin Kim,Timothy B. Jurewicz
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

After the Fukushima reactor accidents following Japan's March 2011 tsunami, the U.S. Department of Energy engaged with nuclear fuel vendors to develop improved fuels for the current fleet of light water power reactors. General Electric and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have proposed using iron-chrome-aluminum (FeCrAl) ferritic alloys as cladding material for the existing uranium dioxide fuel (UO2). This is a simple approach that leaves unchanged the present coolable geometry in the reactor. FeCrAl alloys have outstanding resistance, in accident conditions, to attack by superheated steam compared to the current zirconium alloys. Since ferritic FeCrAl alloys have not been used before in nuclear power reactors, extensive characterization has been performed to determine their behavior in light water reactor conditions (e.g., normal operation and accident). The present work deals with the electrochemical behavior of the newer alloys in high-temperature water (near 300°C) containing either excess hydrogen gas or excess oxygen. Results show that chromium-containing ferritic FeCrAl have similar electrochemical high-temperature behavior like other common existing reactor alloys containing chromium for passivation (such as X-750, Alloy 600, and Type 304SS). The use of FeCrAl alloy cladding would also eliminate existing common degradation mechanisms such as shadow corrosion in boiling water reactors.

Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics

Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation's nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States' nuclear industry. As a result, continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to industry's success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. In 2011, following the Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. As a result of direction from the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) initiated an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) Development program. The complex multiphysics behavior of LWR nuclear fuel makes defining specific material or design improvements difficult; as such, establishing qualitative attributes is critical to guide the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. This report summarizes a common set of technical evaluation metrics to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs. As used herein, "metrics" describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. Furthermore, this report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to assess the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 - zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed for lead test rod or lead test assembly insertion into a commercial reactor within the desired timeframe (by 2022).

Cold Spray Coatings

Cold Spray Coatings Book
Author : Pasquale Cavaliere
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-11-08
ISBN : 3319671839
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book combines the contributions of experts in the field to describe the behavior of various materials, micromechanisms involved during processing, and the optimization of cold-spray technology. It spans production, characterization, and applications including wear resistance, fatigue, life improvement, thermal barriers, crack repair, and biological applications. Cold spray is an innovative coating technology based on the kinetic energy gained by particles sprayed at very high pressures. While the technique was developed in the 1990s, industrial and scientific interest in this technology has grown vastly in the last ten years. Recently, many interesting applications have been associated with cold-sprayed coatings, including wear resistance, fatigue life improvement, thermal barriers, biological applications, and crack repair. However, many fundamental aspects require clarification and description.

Ferritic Alloys as Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Material for Light Water Reactors

Ferritic Alloys as Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Material for Light Water Reactors Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The objective of the GE project is to demonstrate that advanced steels such as iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys could be used as accident tolerant fuel cladding material in commercial light water reactors. The GE project does not include fuel development. Current findings support the concept that a FeCrAl alloy could be used for the cladding of commercial nuclear fuel. The use of this alloy will benefit the public since it is going to make the power generating light water reactors safer. In the Phase 1A of this cost shared project, GE (GRC + GNF) teamed with the University of Michigan, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study the environmental and mechanical behavior of more than eight candidate cladding material both under normal operation conditions of commercial nuclear reactors and under accident conditions in superheated steam (loss of coolant condition). The main findings are as follows: (1) Under normal operation conditions the candidate alloys (e.g. APMT, Alloy 33) showed excellent resistance to general corrosion, shadow corrosion and to environmentally assisted cracking. APMT also showed resistance to proton irradiation up to 5 dpa. (2) Under accident conditions the selected candidate materials showed several orders of magnitude improvement in the reaction with superheated steam as compared with the current zirconium based alloys. (3) Tube fabrication feasibility studies of FeCrAl alloys are underway. The aim is to obtain a wall thickness that is below 400 μm. (4) A strategy is outlined for the regulatory path approval and for the insertion of a lead fuel assembly in a commercial reactor by 2022. (5) The GE team worked closely with INL to have four rodlets tested in the ATR. GE provided the raw stock for the alloys, the fuel for the rodlets and the cost for fabrication/welding of the rodlets. INL fabricated the rodlets and the caps and welded them to provide hermetic seal. The replacement of a zirconium alloy using a ferritic material containing chromium and aluminum appears to be the most near term implementation for accident tolerant nuclear fuels.

State of the Art Report on Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuels

State of the Art Report on Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuels Book
Author : Nuclear Energy Agency
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 9789264308343
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As part of a broader spectrum of collaborative activities underpinning nuclear materials research, the Nuclear Energy Agency is supporting worldwide efforts towards the development of advanced materials, including fuels for partitioning and transmutation purposes and accident-tolerant fuels (ATFs). This state-of-the-art report on ATFs results from the collective work of experts from 35 institutions in 14 NEA member countries, alongside invited technical experts from the People's Republic of China. It represents a shared and consensual position, based on expert judgment, concerning the scientific and technological knowledge related to ATFs. The report reviews available information on the most promising fuels and cladding concepts in terms of properties, experimental data and modelling results, as well as ongoing research and development activities. It also includes a description of illustrative accident scenarios that may be adopted to assess the potential performance enhancement of ATFs relative to the current standard fuel systems in accident conditions, a definition of the technology readiness levels applicable to ATFs, a survey of available modelling and simulation tools (fuel performance and severe accident analysis codes), and the experimental facilities available to support the development of ATF concepts. The information included in this report will be useful for national programmes and industrial stakeholders as an input to setting priorities, and helping them to choose the most appropriate technology based on their specific strategy, business case and deployment schedules.

Metrics for the Evaluation of Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel

Metrics for the Evaluation of Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2001
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation's nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to the industry's success. Enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex. The overall goal of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) development is to identify alternative fuel system technologies to further enhance the safety, competitiveness, and economics of commercial nuclear power. The complex multiphysics behavior of LWR nuclear fuel in the integrated reactor system makes defining specific material or design improvements difficult; as such, establishing desirable performance attributes is critical in guiding the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring multiple teams to develop ATF concepts within multiple national laboratories, universities, and the nuclear industry. Concepts under investigation offer both evolutionary and revolutionary changes to the current nuclear fuel system. This paper summarizes technical evaluation methodology proposed in the U.S. to aid in the optimization and down-selection of candidate ATF designs. This methodology will continue to be refined via input from the research community and industry, such that it is available to support the planned down-selection of ATF concepts in 2016.

Development of Advanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for Commercial Light Water Reactors

Development of Advanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for Commercial Light Water Reactors Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation's nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States' nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels remains central to industry's success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. Thanks to efforts by both the U.S. government and private companies, nuclear technologies have advanced over time to optimize economic operations in nuclear utilities while ensuring safety. One of the missions of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) is to develop nuclear fuels and claddings with enhanced accident tolerance. In 2011, following the Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. As a result of direction from the U.S. Congress, DOE-NE initiated Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) development as a primary component of the Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC). Prior to the unfortunate events at Fukushima, the emphasis for advanced LWR fuel development was on improving nuclear fuel performance in terms of increased burnup for waste minimization, increased power density for power upgrades, and increased fuel reliability. Fukushima highlighted some undesirable performance characteristics of the standard fuel system during severe accidents, including accelerated hydrogen production under certain circumstances. Thus, fuel system behavior under design basis accident and severe accident conditions became the primary focus for advanced fuels while still striving for improved performance under normal operating conditions to ensure that proposed new fuels will be economically viable. The goal of the ATF development effort is to demonstrate performance with a lead test assembly or lead test rod (LTR) or lead test assembly (LTA) irradiation in a commercial power reactor by 2022. Research and development activities are being conducted at multiple DOE national laboratories, universities and within industry with support from the DOE program. A brief program overview and status are provided.

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems Water Reactors

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems     Water Reactors Book
Author : John H. Jackson,Denise Paraventi,Michael Wright
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-12-20
ISBN : 3030046397
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This two-volume set represents a collection of papers presented at the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems – Water Reactors. The purpose of this conference series is to foster an exchange of ideas about problems and their remedies in water-cooled nuclear power plants of today and the future. Contributions cover problems facing nickel-based alloys, stainless steels, pressure vessel and piping steels, zirconium alloys, and other alloys in water environments of relevance. Components covered include pressure boundary components, reactor vessels and internals, steam generators, fuel cladding, irradiated components, fuel storage containers, and balance of plant components and systems.

Light Water Reactor Fuel Enrichment Beyond the Five Per Cent Limit Perspectives and Challenges

Light Water Reactor Fuel Enrichment Beyond the Five Per Cent Limit  Perspectives and Challenges Book
Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020-10-12
ISBN : 9789201109200
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The limitation of 235U enrichment is a current concern among IAEA Member States. In response, work has been undertaken to provide a platform to facilitate a comprehensive review of the current status, prospects and challenges associated with the use of fuels having enrichments higher than 5 % 235U in light water reactors. This publication is the outcome of two technical meetings and compiles the results and conclusions in terms of benefits to be obtained from the use of high assay low enriched uranium (HALEU) fuel, with due consideration of safety issues that arise from its use. It details technological options and corresponding issues regarding fuel and core design, safety analysis and assessments relevant to manufacturing, handling, transportation, storage, irradiation, and performance in normal and accident conditions.

Analysis of Options and Experimental Examination of Fuels for Water Cooled Reactors with Increased Accident Tolerance Actof

Analysis of Options and Experimental Examination of Fuels for Water Cooled Reactors with Increased Accident Tolerance  Actof  Book
Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020-10-12
ISBN : 9789201141200
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There is high interest in new fuel types with increased accident tolerance. These range from using an oxidation resistant coating on zirconium based cladding to alternate fuel and cladding materials. These new fuels/claddings under development must be licensed before being deployed industrially and therefore research is being undertaken to assess their behaviour in various conditions. This publication arises from an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) dealing with the acquisition of data through experiments on new fuel types and cladding materials and the development of modelling capacity to predict the behaviour of the components and the integral performance of accident tolerant fuel designs under normal and transient conditions. Demonstrations of improvements under severe accident conditions were documented. Several coated cladding materials were produced, tested, characterized and analysed in round robin tests carried out within the CRP. For improvement and validation of fuel performance codes, several benchmarks were organized to compare and analyse predictions of the extended codes. The findings and conclusions of the CRP are summarized in this publication.

Evaluation Metrics Applied to Accident Tolerant Fuels

Evaluation Metrics Applied to Accident Tolerant Fuels Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The safe, reliable, and economic operation of the nation's nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States' nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to the industry's success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and have yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. One of the current missions of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is to develop nuclear fuels and claddings with enhanced accident tolerance for use in the current fleet of commercial LWRs or in reactor concepts with design certifications (GEN-III+). Accident tolerance became a focus within advanced LWR research upon direction from Congress following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex. The overall goal of ATF development is to identify alternative fuel system technologies to further enhance the safety, competitiveness and economics of commercial nuclear power. Enhanced accident tolerant fuels would endure loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer period of time than the current fuel system while maintaining or improving performance during normal operations. The U.S. DOE is supporting multiple teams to investigate a number of technologies that may improve fuel system response and behavior in accident conditions, with team leadership provided by DOE national laboratories, universities, and the nuclear industry. Concepts under consideration offer both evolutionary and revolutionary changes to the current nuclear fuel system. Mature concepts will be tested in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory beginning in Summer 2014 with additional concepts being readied for insertion in fiscal year 2015. This paper provides a brief summary of the proposed evaluation process that would be used to evaluate and prioritize the candidate accident tolerant fuel concepts currently under development.

Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

Comprehensive Nuclear Materials

Comprehensive Nuclear Materials Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-07-22
ISBN : 0081028660
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Materials in a nuclear environment are exposed to extreme conditions of radiation, temperature and/or corrosion, and in many cases the combination of these makes the material behavior very different from conventional materials. This is evident for the four major technological challenges the nuclear technology domain is facing currently: (i) long-term operation of existing Generation II nuclear power plants, (ii) the design of the next generation reactors (Generation IV), (iii) the construction of the ITER fusion reactor in Cadarache (France), (iv) and the intermediate and final disposal of nuclear waste. In order to address these challenges, engineers and designers need to know the properties of a wide variety of materials under these conditions and to understand the underlying processes affecting changes in their behavior, in order to assess their performance and to determine the limits of operation. Comprehensive Nuclear Materials 2e provides broad ranging, validated summaries of all the major topics in the field of nuclear material research for fission as well as fusion reactor systems. Attention is given to the fundamental scientific aspects of nuclear materials: fuel and structural materials for fission reactors, waste materials, and materials for fusion reactors. The articles are written at a level that allows undergraduate students to understand the material, while providing active researchers with a ready reference resource of information. Most of the chapters from the first Edition have been revised and updated and a significant number of new topics are covered in completely new material. During the ten years between the two editions, the challenge for applications of nuclear materials has been significantly impacted by world events, public awareness, and technological innovation. Materials play a key role as enablers of new technologies, and we trust that this new edition of Comprehensive Nuclear Materials has captured the key recent developments. Critically reviews the major classes and functions of materials, supporting the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments Comprehensive resource for up-to-date and authoritative information which is not always available elsewhere, even in journals Provides an in-depth treatment of materials modeling and simulation, with a specific focus on nuclear issues Serves as an excellent entry point for students and researchers new to the field

Nuclear Fuel Safety Criteria

Nuclear Fuel Safety Criteria Book
Author : OECD Nuclear Energy Agency
Publisher : Organization for Economic
Release : 2001
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Presents brief descriptions of 20 fuel-related safety criteria along with both the rationale for having such criteria and possible new design and operational issues which could have an effect on them.

Thermal Hydraulics of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts and a Preliminary Demonstration of CASL s Coupled Tools for BWRs

Thermal Hydraulics of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts and a Preliminary Demonstration of CASL s Coupled Tools for BWRs Book
Author : Jacob Preston Gorton
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since the 2011 accident at the Daiichi nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan, there has been a worldwide effort to develop so-called accident tolerant fuel (ATF) technologies to enhance safety during design basis and beyond design basis accidents. Part of the ATF development effort involves replacing much of the zirconium-based materials in light water reactors (LWRs). This is due to the accelerated oxidation rate of zirconium at high temperatures potentially experienced during severe accidents, which led to the build-up of hydrogen gas and eventual explosions that occurred at the Daiichi nuclear power plant. To be considered as a possible alternative to zirconium, an ATF candidate material must not only have greater oxidation resistance but must also have equal or better performance than zirconium in reactor operations and safety. Two candidate materials that may meet these requirements are iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys and silicon carbide fiber-reinforced, silicon carbide matrix composites (SiC/SiC). Two studies on ATF concepts are presented in this thesis, which focus on using computer simulations to evaluate the use of FeCrAl as the fuel rod cladding material in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and the use of SiC/SiC as the fuel assembly channel box material in a boiling water reactor (BWR). Both of these studies are performed using computer modeling, which is one of the first steps for evaluating new design concepts and eventually integrating them into existing reactors. Developing tools that can accurately predict the performance of nuclear reactors with high fidelity is the goal of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Also included in this thesis is a preliminary demonstration of neutronic-to-thermal-hydraulic coupled BWR simulations performed using the CASL tools MPACT and CTF. In the first study, a model of a PWR fuel assembly was created to predict the critical heat flux (CHF) of FeCrAl fuel rod cladding during an imposed 50% overpower condition, which may be representative of an accident condition. CHF is a critical parameter to evaluate for ATF candidate materials because reaching CHF in a fuel rod can cause a rapid increase in temperature in the reactor that may lead to bursting of the cladding and a loss of ability to cool the core. Current correlations used for predicting flow boiling CHF in reactors are not dependent on material or surface characteristics, but this study showed that preliminary pool boiling results could be used to modify existing CHF correlations to make them more applicable to a given material, such as FeCrAl. Preliminary transient flow boiling experiments are also analyzed in this thesis for Inconel 600 and Stainless Steel 316, which pave the way for future flow boiling experiments using FeCrAl. In the second study, BWR fuel assembly models were created with a SiC/SiC channel box to predict a spatial temperature and fast neutron flux distribution in the channel box. The temperature and fast flux distributions were then used as boundary conditions for a finite element model of the channel box created by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the deflection of the channel box due to temperature and neutron flux gradients. It was found in this study that the deflection of the channel box, which was mainly a product of the nonuniform fast flux distribution causing a swelling gradient within the channel box, may lead to interference with control blades in BWR cores. The work presented in this thesis provides new information on two ATF concepts and helps lay the groundwork for future evaluations. Detailed computational evaluations are an important step in the progression and application of these concepts that have the potential to increase the safety of nuclear reactors. The development of high-fidelity computational tools like MPACT/CTF is important for providing accurate simulated results that can be used in advancing the development of ATF concepts.

Materials Inventory Database for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

Materials Inventory Database for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Scientific research involves the purchasing, processing, characterization, and fabrication of many sample materials. The history of such materials can become complicated over their lifetime - materials might be cut into pieces or moved to various storage locations, for example. A database with built-in functions to track these kinds of processes facilitates well-organized research. The Material Inventory Database Accounting System (MIDAS) is an easy-to-use tracking and reference system for such items. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRS), which seeks to advance the long-term reliability and productivity of existing nuclear reactors in the United States through multiple research pathways, proposed MIDAS as an efficient way to organize and track all items used in its research. The database software ensures traceability of all items used in research using built-in functions which can emulate actions on tracked items - fabrication, processing, splitting, and more - by performing operations on the data. MIDAS can recover and display the complete history of any item as a simple report. To ensure the database functions suitably for the organization of research, it was developed alongside a specific experiment to test accident tolerant nuclear fuel cladding under the LWRS Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels Pathway. MIDAS kept track of materials used in this experiment from receipt at the laboratory through all processes, test conduct and, ultimately, post-test analysis. By the end of this process, the database proved to be right tool for this program. The database software will help LWRS more efficiently conduct research experiments, from simple characterization tests to in-reactor experiments. Furthermore, MIDAS is a universal tool that any other research team could use to organize their material inventory.

Impact of Reactor Environment on Quenching Heat Transfer of Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding

Impact of Reactor Environment on Quenching Heat Transfer of Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Book
Author : Arunkumar Seshadri
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Development of accident tolerant fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs) came into focus for the nuclear engineering community after the accidents at Fukushima-Daiichi. The primary focus of the ATF program is to identify alternative fuel and cladding technologies that may provide enhanced safety, competitiveness, and economics. The new fuel design must also be compatible with present-day LWR design. For near-term applications, coatings on the nominal Zirconium-based cladding material and other metallic materials are being considered to improve the corrosion resistance and reduce the generation of hydrogen at high temperatures. Major ATF coating choices under consideration include chromium as a coating, iron-chromium-aluminum alloys (FeCrAl) as cladding and molybdenum as a coating, which have demonstrated better mechanical and oxidation behavior during the experimental testing. Thermal-fluids characteristics are pivotal for a robust testing of ATF concepts as the proposed candidates may have an entirely different thermal-hydraulic behavior when compared to Zircaloy-4. ATF coatings may display very different boiling characteristics as a result of different microstructures and surface characteristics. In the present work, transient boiling heat transfer during quenching of the candidate ATF claddings on vertical rodlets is studied experimentally. The candidate ATF material (chromium, FeCrAl, and molybdenum) are applied on Zircaloy-4 rodlets. The vertical solid rodlets are heated to temperatures up to 1000 °C and are quenched in a saturated pool of water at atmospheric pressure. The temperature variation during the quenching of rodlets was recorded insitu with synchronized visualization of boiling regimes over the test specimen using a high-speed video camera. The quench performance of the ATF coatings was analyzed based on the examination of various surface parameters such as wettability, roughness, emissivity and capillary wicking. In order to obtain a more realistic picture of the candidate performance during the emergency cooling reflood phase in a nuclear reactor, the coated rodlets are also oxidized in an autoclave before quenching. The performance of the candidate claddings is evaluated after oxidation and the surface characterized. It was observed from the post-test analysis that the surface characteristics and oxidation had a significant impact on the quench performance of ATF coatings, which varied between different coating materials. In order to better understand the thermal margins in a reactor specific environment, an analysis was performed on samples after exposing them to gamma rays. The gamma rays tend to change the surface wettability through a phenomenon called Radiation Induced Surface Activation. A Gammacell 220E irradiator that uses 12 cobalt-60 pencil sources, arranged axially in a sample chamber at MIT, was used to irradiated the samples. The results of water quenching and contact angle studies showed a higher Leidenfrost temperature and wettability in both samples exposed to gamma irradiation. The detailed microscopic analysis attributed the enhanced wettability to oxidation of the surface under gamma irradiation.

High Performance Ceramics X

High Performance Ceramics X Book
Author : Wei Pan,Jianghong Gong
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release : 2018-08-31
ISBN : 3035731764
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book contains the papers presented at the Tenth International Conference on High-Performance Ceramics (CICC-10), which was held from November 4 to 7, 2017, in Nanchang, China. The Collection covers most aspects in the field of high-performance ceramics (advanced ceramics), including processing, microstructures, and properties of structural and functional ceramics. Especially, the papers gave an overview of the most recent development in high-performance ceramics in China.

Advances in Nuclear Fuel Chemistry

Advances in Nuclear Fuel Chemistry Book
Author : Markus H.A. Piro
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2020-03-20
ISBN : 008102651X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in Nuclear Fuel Chemistry presents a high-level description of nuclear fuel chemistry based on the most recent research and advances. Dr. Markus H.A. Piro and his team of global, expert contributors cover all aspects of both the conventional uranium-based nuclear fuel cycle and non-conventional fuel cycles, including mining, refining, fabrication, and long-term storage, as well as emerging nuclear technologies, such as accident tolerant fuels and molten salt materials. Aimed at graduate students, researchers, academics and practicing engineers and regulators, this book will provide the reader with a single reference from which to learn the fundamentals of classical thermodynamics and radiochemistry. Consolidates the latest research on nuclear fuel chemistry into one comprehensive reference, covering all aspects of traditional and non-traditional nuclear fuel cycles Includes contributions from world-renowned experts from many countries representing government, industry and academia Covers a variety of fuel designs, including conventional uranium dioxide, mixed oxides, research reactor fuels, and molten salt fuels Written by experts with hands-on experience in the development of such designs