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A Critique Of Moral Knowledge

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The Disappearance of Moral Knowledge

The Disappearance of Moral Knowledge Book
Author : Dallas Willard
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-06-12
ISBN : 0429958870
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Based on an unfinished manuscript by the late philosopher Dallas Willard, this book makes the case that the 20th century saw a massive shift in Western beliefs and attitudes concerning the possibility of moral knowledge, such that knowledge of the moral life and of its conduct is no longer routinely available from the social institutions long thought to be responsible for it. In this sense, moral knowledge—as a publicly available resource for living—has disappeared. Via a detailed survey of main developments in ethical theory from the late 19th through the late 20th centuries, Willard explains philosophy’s role in this shift. In pointing out the shortcomings of these developments, he shows that the shift was not the result of rational argument or discovery, but largely of arational social forces—in other words, there was no good reason for moral knowledge to have disappeared. The Disappearance of Moral Knowledge is a unique contribution to the literature on the history of ethics and social morality. Its review of historical work on moral knowledge covers a wide range of thinkers including T.H Green, G.E Moore, Charles L. Stevenson, John Rawls, and Alasdair MacIntyre. But, most importantly, it concludes with a novel proposal for how we might reclaim moral knowledge that is inspired by the phenomenological approach of Knud Logstrup and Emmanuel Levinas. Edited and eventually completed by three of Willard’s former graduate students, this book marks the culmination of Willard’s project to find a secure basis in knowledge for the moral life.

Virtue Ethics and Moral Knowledge

Virtue Ethics and Moral Knowledge Book
Author : R. Scott Smith
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2017-10-24
ISBN : 135187568X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

We live in a time of moral confusion: many believe there are no overarching moral norms, and we have lost an accepted body of moral knowledge. Alasdair MacIntyre addresses this problem in his much-heralded restatement of Aristotelian and Thomistic virtue ethics; Stanley Hauerwas does so through his highly influential work in Christian ethics. Both recast virtue ethics in light of their interpretations of the later Wittgenstein's views of language. This book systematically assesses the underlying presuppositions of MacIntyre and Hauerwas, finding that their attempts to secure moral knowledge and restate virtue ethics, both philosophical and theological, fail. Scott Smith proposes alternative indications as to how we can secure moral knowledge, and how we should proceed in virtue ethics.

A Critique of Moral Knowledge

A Critique of Moral Knowledge Book
Author : Yves René Marie Simon
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2002
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"This translation will be of value to all who are interested in tracking the work of this influential thinker, and will be an important contribution to the twentieth-century conversation on philosophy, politics, religion, and ethics."--BOOK JACKET.

Moral Knowledge

Moral Knowledge Book
Author : Sarah McGrath
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2019-12-10
ISBN : 0192527967
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Compared to other kinds of knowledge, how fragile is our knowledge of morality? Does knowledge of the difference between right and wrong fundamentally differ from knowledge of other kinds, in that it cannot be forgotten? What makes reliable evidence in fundamental moral convictions? And what are the associated problems of using testimony as a source of moral knowledge? Sarah McGrath provides novel answers to these questions and many others, as she investigates the possibilities, sources, and characteristic vulnerabilities of moral knowledge. She also considers whether there is anything wrong with simply outsourcing moral questions to a moral expert and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the method of equilibrium as an account of how we make up our mind about moral questions. Ultimately, McGrath concludes that moral knowledge can be acquired in any of the ways in which we acquire ordinary empirical knowledge. Our efforts to acquire and preserve such knowledge, she argues, are subject to frustration in all of the same ways that our efforts to acquire and preserve ordinary empirical knowledge are.

Moral Error Theory

Moral Error Theory Book
Author : Jonas Olson
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2014-01-23
ISBN : 0191005444
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Jonas Olson presents a critical survey of moral error theory, the view that there are no moral facts and so all moral claims are false. In Part I (History), he explores the historical context of the debate, and discusses the moral error theories of David Hume and of some more or less influential twentieth century philosophers, including Axel Hägerström, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and Richard Robinson. He argues that the early cases for moral error theory are suggestive but that they would have been stronger had they included something like J. L. Mackie's arguments that moral properties and facts are metaphysically queer. Part II (Critique) focuses on these arguments. Olson identifies four queerness arguments, concerning supervenience, knowledge, motivation, and irreducible normativity, and goes on to establish that while the first three are not compelling, the fourth has considerable force, especially when combined with debunking explanations of why we tend to believe that there are moral properties and facts when in fact there are none. One conclusion of Part II is that a plausible error theory takes the form of an error theory about irreducible normativity. In Part III (Defence), Olson considers challenges according to which that kind of error theory has problematic ramifications regarding hypothetical reasons, epistemic reasons, and deliberation. He ends his discussion with a consideration of the implications of moral error theory for ordinary moral thought and talk, and for normative theorizing.

Value and Context

Value and Context Book
Author : Alan Thomas
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2010-04-08
ISBN : 0191615188
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Alan Thomas presents an original study of the status of value and its relation to the contexts in which evaluative claims are justified. He articulates and defends the view that human beings do possess moral and political knowledge, but that it is historically and culturally contextual knowledge in ways that, say, mathematical or chemical knowledge is not. His exposition of a 'cognitivist contextualism' in ethics and politics builds upon contemporary work in epistemology, moral philosophy, and political theory to fashion an argument that is relevant to current debates about culture, modernity, and relativism.

Jacques Maritain and the Many Ways of Knowing

Jacques Maritain and the Many Ways of Knowing Book
Author : Douglas A. Ollivant
Publisher : CUA Press
Release : 2002
ISBN : 9780966922646
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Drawing on the writings of Jacques Maritain--and by extension those of Thomas Aquinas--the essays in this volume examine the effects of theories of knowledge on individuals, culture, and entire schools of philosophical thought. The contributors challenge contemporary epistemologies, which are largely based on writings of Descartes, Locke, and Kant. They critique these theories internally and demonstrate their incompatibility with other goods, such as liberty, human dignity, and access to the transcendent. In stark contrast to modernity's dubious and fragmented opinions and belief systems, Maritain--in works like The Degrees of Knowledge and Creative Intuition in Art and Poetry--proposed a theory of knowledge that permits real, if limited, knowledge of substances, wholes. Some contributors use these works as a springboard from which to examine aspects or applications of knowledge that Maritain left unexplored. Others challenge or question aspects of Maritain's analysis, seeking to improve upon his work. Still others compare Maritain with other neo-Thomistic philosophers, most notably Etienne Gilson, Alasdair MacIntyre, and Pope John Paul II. Maritain's works on human knowledge and the implicit critique of modernity contained within provide an alternative for those seeking to engage the various deficiencies of the "culture of death." These essays demonstrate the continuing relevance--and timeliness--of Maritain's thought. Douglas A. Ollivant is assistant professor of politics at the United States Military Academy. Contributors: George Anastaplo, James Arraj, Joseph M. de Torre, Robert Delfino, Raymond Dennehy, John M. Dunaway, Robert Fallon, Desmond FitzGerald, William J. Fossati, W. Matthews Grant, Catherine Green, James G. Hanink, Gregory J. Kerr, John F. X. Knasas, John F. Morris, Ralph Nelson, Douglas A. Ollivant, Matthew S. Pugh, Steven J. Schloeder, Christopher H. Toner, John G. Trapani, Jr., Henk E. S. Woldring, and Thomas F. Woods. "This is a valuable collection of articles on an important individual who is still influencing contemporary political thought."--Lucien J. Richard, OMI, Catholic Library World

Moral Knowledge

Moral Knowledge Book
Author : Sarah McGrath
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2019-12-10
ISBN : 0192527959
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Compared to other kinds of knowledge, how fragile is our knowledge of morality? Does knowledge of the difference between right and wrong fundamentally differ from knowledge of other kinds, in that it cannot be forgotten? What makes reliable evidence in fundamental moral convictions? And what are the associated problems of using testimony as a source of moral knowledge? Sarah McGrath provides novel answers to these questions and many others, as she investigates the possibilities, sources, and characteristic vulnerabilities of moral knowledge. She also considers whether there is anything wrong with simply outsourcing moral questions to a moral expert and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the method of equilibrium as an account of how we make up our mind about moral questions. Ultimately, McGrath concludes that moral knowledge can be acquired in any of the ways in which we acquire ordinary empirical knowledge. Our efforts to acquire and preserve such knowledge, she argues, are subject to frustration in all of the same ways that our efforts to acquire and preserve ordinary empirical knowledge are.

International Disability Rights Advocacy

International Disability Rights Advocacy Book
Author : Daniel Pateisky
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2021-03-23
ISBN : 1000367053
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides insight into the globally interlinked disability rights community and its political efforts today. By analysing what disability rights activism contributes to a global power apparatus of disability-related knowledge, it demonstrates how disability advocacy influences the way we categorise, classify, distribute, manipulate, and therefore transform knowledge. By unpacking the mutually constitutive relations between (practical) moral knowledge of international disability advocates and (formal) disability rights norms that are codified in international treaties such as the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), the author shows that the disability rights movement is largely critical of statements that attempt to streamline it. At the same time, cross-cultural disability rights advocacy requires images of uniformity to stabilise its global legitimacy among international stakeholders and retain a common meta-code that visibly identifies its means and aims. As an epistemic community, disability rights advocates simultaneously rely on and contest the authority of international human rights infrastructure and its language. Proving that disability rights advocates contribute immensely to a global culture that standardises what is considered morally and legally ‘right’ and ‘wrong’, thereby shaping the human body and the body politic, this book will be of interest to all scholars and students of critical disability studies, sociology of knowledge, legal and linguistic anthropology, social inequality, and social movements.

An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals By David Hume Esq

An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals  By David Hume Esq Book
Author : David Hume
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1751
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals By David Hume Esq book written by David Hume, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Critique of Practical Reason

Critique of Practical Reason Book
Author : Immanuel Kant
Publisher : Courier Corporation
Release : 2012-06-11
ISBN : 0486113027
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This 1788 work, based on belief in the immortality of the soul, established Kant as a vindicator of the truth of Christianity. It offers the most complete statement of his theory of free will.

In Search of Moral Knowledge

In Search of Moral Knowledge Book
Author : R. Scott Smith
Publisher : InterVarsity Press
Release : 2014-05-02
ISBN : 0830880216
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

For most of the church's history, people have seen Christian ethics as normative and universally applicable. Recently, however, this view has been lost, thanks to naturalism and relativism. R. Scott Smith argues that Christians need to overcome Kant's fact-value dichotomy and recover the possibility of genuine moral and theological knowledge.

Kantian Ethics

Kantian Ethics Book
Author : Robert Stern
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2015
ISBN : 019872229X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume presents a selection of Robert Stern's work on the theme of Kantian ethics. It begins by focusing on the relation between Kant's account of obligation and his view of autonomy, arguing that this leaves room for Kant to be a realist about value. Stern then considers where this places Kant in relation to the question of moral scepticism, and in relation to the principle of 'ought implies can', and examines this principle in its own right. The papers then move beyond Kant himself to his wider influence and to critics of his work, including Hegel, the British Idealists, and the Danish philosopher and theologian K. E. Logstrup, while also offering a comparison with William James's arguments for freedom. The collection concludes with a consideration of a broadly Kantian critique of divine command ethics offered by Stephen Darwall, arguing that the critique does not succeed. General themes considered in this volume therefore include value, perfectionism, agency, autonomy, moral motivation, moral scepticism, and obligation, as well as the historical place of Kant's ethics and its influence on thinkers up to the present day.

Moral Expertise

Moral Expertise Book
Author : Jamie Carlin Watson,Laura K. Guidry-Grimes
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-08-16
ISBN : 3319927590
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This collection addresses whether ethicists, like authorities in other fields, can speak as experts in their subject matter. Though ethics consultation is a growing practice in medical contexts, there remain difficult questions about the role of ethicists in professional decision-making. Contributors examine the nature and plausibility of moral expertise, the relationship between character and expertise, the nature and limits of moral authority, how one might become a moral expert, and the trustworthiness of moral testimony. This volume engages with the growing literature in these debates and offers new perspectives from both academics and practitioners. The readings will be of particular interest to bioethicists, clinicians, ethics committees, and students of social epistemology. These new essays promise to advance discussions in the professionalization and accreditation of ethics consultation.

Moral Aims

Moral Aims Book
Author : Cheshire Calhoun
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2016
ISBN : 019932879X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

'Moral Aims' brings together nine previously published essays that focus on the significance of the social practice of morality for what we say as moral theorists, the plurality of moral aims that agents are trying to realize and that sometimes come into tension, and the special difficulties that conventionalised wrongdoing poses.

Kant s Theory of Knowledge

Kant s Theory of Knowledge Book
Author : Graham Bird
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2017-10-02
ISBN : 9781138652200
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

First published in 1962. Kant¿s philosophical works, and especially the Critique of Pure Reason, have had some influence on recent British philosophy. But the complexities of Kant¿s arguments, and the unfamiliarity of his vocabulary, inhibit understanding of his point of view. In Kant¿s Theory of Knowledge an attempt is made to relate Kant¿s arguments in the Critique of Pure Reason to contemporary issues by expressing them in a more modern idiom. The selection of issues discussed is intended to present a continuous argument, of an epistemological kind, which runs centrally through the Critique. The argument deals with essentially with the problems, raised in the Transcendental Analytic, about the status of categories. It deals with certain preliminary assumptions made in setting these problems, and discusses the way in which the various sections of the Analytic contribute to their solution. It also deals with Kant¿s criticisms of traditional metaphysics, and ends with an account of his effort in the Third Antinomy to resolve the conflict between freedom and causality, and so to effect a transition of knowledge to moral philosophy.

Christian Ethics and Commonsense Morality

Christian Ethics and Commonsense Morality Book
Author : Kevin Jung
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2014-11-27
ISBN : 1317555783
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Christian Ethics and Commonsense Morality goes against the grain of various postmodern approaches to morality in contemporary religious ethics. In this book, Jung seeks to provide a new framework in which the nature of common Christian moral beliefs and practices can be given a new meaning. He suggests that, once major philosophical assumptions behind postmodern theories of morality are called into question, we may look at Christian morality in quite a different light. On his account, Christian morality is a historical morality insofar as it is rooted in the rich historical traditions of the Christian church. Yet this kind of historical dependence does not entail the evidential dependence of all moral beliefs on historical traditions. It is possible to argue for the epistemic autonomy of moral beliefs, according to which Christian and other moral beliefs can be justified independently of their historical sources. The particularity of Christian morality lies not in its particular historical sources that also function as the grounds of justification, but rather in its explanatory and motivational capacity to further articulate the kind of moral knowledge that is readily available to most human beings and to enable people to act upon their moral knowledge.

Knowing Moral Truth

Knowing Moral Truth Book
Author : Christopher B. Kulp
Publisher : Lexington Books
Release : 2017-05-09
ISBN : 1498547036
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is a book on metaethics and moral epistemology. It asks two fundamental questions: (i) Is there any such thing as (non-relative) moral truth?; and (ii) If there is such truth, how do we come into epistemic contact with it? Roughly the first half of the book is aimed at answering the first question. Its animating idea is that we should take our ordinary, tutored moral judgments seriously—judgments typified by our conviction that it is clearly true that some acts, policies, social norms et al. are morally right or wrong, permissible or impermissible, praiseworthy or condemnable, etc., no matter when, where, or by whom they are performed. In order to provide a firm conceptual basis for such judgments, the book develops a theory of moral truth, based on a theory of moral facts. The account of moral truth and moral facts is further grounded on a theory of moral properties. In short, the book develops a theory of moral realism, roughly, the view that there are indeed non-relative, first-order moral truths. The second half of the book is aimed at answering the second question above. Building squarely on the metaethical theories developed earlier, the book argues for a non-empiricist theory of justified moral belief and knowledge. Pivotal to this project is a careful analysis of various forms of moral skepticism, by which I mean any conception of morality substantially at odds with the general contours of our ordinary moral thinking. All such skepticisms are rejected, and in their place a broadly intuitionist, epistemically fallibilist theory of moral knowledge is advanced. The conclusion reached is that we have very strong reason to believe that our ordinary moral thinking, although certainly liable to error, is fundamentally sound. Moral knowledge is ubiquitous.

Love s Knowledge

Love s Knowledge Book
Author : Martha C. Nussbaum
Publisher : OUP USA
Release : 1992-04-02
ISBN : 9780195074857
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume brings together Nussbaum's published papers on the relationship between literature and philosophy, especially moral philosophy. The papers, many of them previously inaccessible to non-specialist readers, deal with such fundamental issues as the relationship between style and content in the exploration of ethical issues; the nature of ethical attention and ethical knowledge and their relationship to written forms and styles; and the role of the emotions in deliberation and self-knowledge. Nussbaum investigates and defends a conception of ethical understanding which involves emotional as well as intellectual activity, and which gives a certain type of priority to the perception of particular people and situations rather than to abstract rules. She argues that this ethical conception cannot be completely and appropriately stated without turning to forms of writing usually considered literary rather than philosophical. It is consequently necessary to broaden our conception of moral philosophy in order to include these forms. Featuring two new essays and revised versions of several previously published essays, this collection attempts to articulate the relationship, within such a broader ethical inquiry, between literary and more abstractly theoretical elements.

Democracy and Its Critics

Democracy and Its Critics Book
Author : Robert A. Dahl
Publisher : Yale University Press
Release : 2008-10-01
ISBN : 9780300153552
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this prize-winning book, one of the most prominent political theorists of our time makes a major statement about what democracy is and why it is important. Robert Dahl examines the most basic assumptions of democratic theory, tests them against the questions raised by its critics, and recasts the theory of democracy into a new and coherent whole. He concludes by discussing the directions in which democracy must move if advanced democratic states are to exist in the future. “When Robert Dahl speaks about democracy, everyone should listen. With Democracy and Its Critics Dahl has produced a work destined to become another classic.”—Lucian W. Pye, American Political Science Review “In this magisterial work [Dahl]… describe[s] what democracy means…; why our own democracy is still deeply flawed; and how we could reform it…. A work of extraordinary intelligence and, what is even rarer, a work of extraordinary wisdom.”—Robert N. Bellah, New York Times Book Review