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23 European Symposium On Computer Aided Process Engineering

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23rd European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23rd European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 0444632417
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Computer-aided process engineering (CAPE) plays a key design and operations role in the process industries, from the molecular scale through managing complex manufacturing sites. The research interests cover a wide range of interdisciplinary problems related to the current needs of society and industry. ESCAPE 23 brings together researchers and practitioners of computer-aided process engineering interested in modeling, simulation and optimization, synthesis and design, automation and control, and education. The proceedings present and evaluate emerging as well as established research methods and concepts, as well as industrial case studies. Contributions from the international community using computer-based methods in process engineering Reviews the latest developments in process systems engineering Emphasis on industrial and societal challenges

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Laurence Tock,François Maréchal
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 0128085606
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the context of greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, CO2 capture and storage is regarded as a promising alternative for fossil fuel fed power plants. In order to design and evaluate the competitiveness of such complex integrated energy conversion systems, a systematic comparison including thermodynamic, economic and environmental considerations is necessary. From a process engineering perspective, it is important to evaluate the impact of CO2 capture not only on the efficiency but also on the costs and on the environmental impacts, and to assess the trade-offs. This paper presents the development of a systematic thermo-environomic optimisation strategy for the consistent modelling, comparison and optimisation of fuel decarbonisation options. In particular, it is highlighted how the economic scenario influences the competitiveness and hence the optimal process design.

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Jian-Guo Wang,Jia-Lin Kang,Shyan-Shu Shieh,Shi-Shang Jang,David Shan-Hill Wong
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 0128085436
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The plant input variables are transformed into the derived variables, which are physically and statistically meaningful for modeling. Then, this study proposed an adaptive modeling approach by employing nonnegative garrote variable selection and auto-regression integrated moving average correction. The high accuracy of the proposed modeling approaches makes the implementation of the model-based control of ratio of air to fuel for improving boiler's efficiency readily practicable.

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Marina Fedorova,Gurkan Sin,Rafiqul Gani
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 0128086289
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This work focuses on the development of a computer-aided modeling framework. The framework is a knowledge-based system that is built on a generic modeling language and structured on workflows for different modeling tasks. The overall objective of this work is to support model developers and users to generate and test models systematically, efficiently and reliably. In this way, development of products and processes can be made faster, cheaper and more efficient. In this contribution, as part of the framework a generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of problem specific catalytic membrane fixed bed reactor models is presented. The application of the modeling template is highlighted with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene.

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Yuan-Jui Liu,Tao Chen,Yuan Yao
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 012808667X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In order to monitor nonlinear processes, kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) has become a popular technique. Nevertheless, KPCA suffers from two major disadvantages. First, the underlying manifold structure of data is not considered in process modeling. Second, the selection of kernel function and kernel parameters is always problematic. To avoid such deficiencies, an integrating method of manifolding learning and Gaussian process is proposed in this paper, which extends the utilization of maximum variance unfolding (MVU) to online process monitoring and fault isolation. The proposed method is named as extendable MVU (EMVU), whose effectiveness is verified by the case studies on the benchmark Tennessee Eastman (TE) process.

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Jialin Liu,Shu Jie Liu,David Shan Hill Wong
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 0128086246
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Isolating faulty variables is a crucial step during the determination of the root causes of a process fault. Contribution plots, with their corresponding control limits, are the most popular tools used for isolating faulty variables. However, the isolation results may be misled by the smearing effect. In addition, the control limits of the contributions cannot be used to isolate faulty variables, since the control limits are obtained from the normal operating data, which lack any information about the faults. In chemical processes, process faults rarely show a random behavior; on the contrary, they will be propagated to varying variables due to the actions of the process controllers. During the evolution of a fault, the task of isolating faulty variables needs to be concerned with the faulty variables decided in the previous data; in addition, the current decisions should influence the isolation results for the next sample when the fault is constantly occurring. In the presented work, an unsupervised data-driven fault isolation method was developed based on Bayesian decision theory. The Tennessee Eastman (TE) process was used as a benchmark example to demonstrate how the different faulty variables were isolated when the fault was evolving.

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Johannes Jung,Niklas von der Assen,André Bardow
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 0128086556
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Environmental process design methods often incorporate life-cycle assessment (LCA) as a deterministic black-box methodology. However, LCA suffers from several sources of ambiguity and uncertainty. These limitations are particularly severe for the multi-functional processes typical for the chemical industry. This work introduces a rigorous uncertainty assessment framework. The framework quantifies data uncertainties and also uncertainties that result from fixing multi-functionality in LCA by allocation. The method is derived from a matrix-framework for LCA and applied to a comparison of alternative chlorine electrolysis technologies.

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Kazuhiro Takeda,Hideo Saito,Yukiyasu Shiamad,Teiji Kitajima,Tetsuo Fuchino,Yuji Naka
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 0128086009
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Uncontrolled changes caused many accidents or disasters. Management of change (MOC) has been a very important issue in process safety management. In this paper, it is considered that MOC is divided to two parts: one is individual change management and the other is management of them. Individual change management is an instance of engineering over the plant lifecycle (Plant-LCE), however a business flow of MOC has been hardly discussed. A business flow of MOC is expected to be based on a business process model (BPM) of Plant-LCE. The logical process safety management based on a BPM of Plant-LCE has been proposed. However the BPM is dispersed and too detailed for precisely. Therefore, an overview for the BPM of Plant-LCE has been proposed. Using an individual change management example, this paper shows that a business flow of the MOC can be described in the overview of the BPM of Plant-LCE.

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Weifeng Chen,Lingyu Zhu,Xi Chen,Zuhua Xu,Zhijiang Shao
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 0128086416
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Real-time optimization (RTO) has become a standard practice to improve production benefits during the past years. The efficiency of solving optimization problems is critical because a large computational delay leads to the possible loss of validity and availability of RTO. In this study, the Mnemonic Enhancement Optimization (MEO) strategy of initialization for RTO has been extended by taking advantage of optimal sensitivity. The approximation precision and the solution information database accumulation efficiency of the proposed sensitivity-based MEO are briefly analyzed. The numerical results tested with a high-pressure column of a cryogenic air separation unit were in agreement with the theoretical analysis.

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Seungnam Kim,Jinkyung Kim,Il Moon
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 0128085657
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

High purity methane gas from bio-gas has been magnified as an alternative source of energy recently. Gas above 95% purity can be used as fuel for transportation, however only gas above 97% purity can be distributed via pipe lines for domestic usage. Price of 97% purity gas for domestic gas is much higher than 95% purity gas that is used only for transportation, however recovery of methane gas in the process is lower. Purity and recovery of the product is determined by operating procedures. Thus, several researchers are setting their goal to improve profit by controlling operating procedures. Among upgrading processes, the Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) is suitable for separation of high purity methane gas in terms of economics. In this study, as step-time in the PSA has huge effect in the entire process, the optimal step-time for maximizing profit is evaluated in the bio-gas upgrading process using PSA. Especially the relation between profit and steptime is taken into consideration. Before optimization, a 4-step PSA model has been built on physics and chemistry theoretical basis. The developed model is also simulated using dynamic simulation software. After that, optimal step-time for maximizing profit is calculated by optimization method.

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Siyu Yang,Xiaoping Jia,Chen Yun,Yu Qian
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 0128086475
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A framework is proposed for sustainability study of coal based chemical and energy processes. Comprehensive analysis from efficiency, energy, economic, and environment perspectives. Process modelling, synthesis, and life cycle analysis, are conducted. Based on these multi-layer analyses, optimization is applied to explore for new process innovation and existing process modification. The analysis is illustrated with two case studies. The first case is the coal based methanol production process, which environmental impacts were investigated in a life cycle assessment. The second case is the co-production of electricity and methanol, in which key parameters are designed by mutual optimisation of energy efficiency and economic cost.

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Karthik Sindhya,Vesa Ojalehto,Jouni Savolainen,Hannu Niemistö,Jussi Hakanen,Kaisa Miettinen
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 0128086440
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Virtual commissioning of chemical plants often involves a dynamic simulator and an optimization method. This paper demonstrates the integration of APROS, a dynamic process simulator and IND-NIMBUS, an interactive multiobjective optimization software. We implement a multiobjective concentration control problem in APROS involving conflicting objectives and employ a decision maker to interact with IND-NIMBUS and express his preference information to finally obtain his most preferred solution. The results of this study show that APROS and IND-NIMBUS can be integrated and an interactive multiobjective optimization method can help the decision maker in exploring trade-offs among conflicting objectives and available solutions, and finally choose one solution as his preferred one.

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Calin-Cristian Cormos,Arpad Imre-Lucaci,Ana-Maria Cormos,Zsolt Tasnadi-Asztalos,Mihaela Diana Lazar
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 0128085029
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hydrogen is considered to be one clean energy carrier for the future. The main advantage of using hydrogen as energy carrier represents the negligible greenhouse gas emissions. One of the most encouraging hydrogen production methods is based on bioethanol. This paper is devoted to the conceptual design of hydrogen production process using bioethanol reforming at an industrial scale (100000 Nm3/h hydrogen equivalent to 300 MW thermal). The syngas will be then converted into hydrogen by water gas shift reaction. Two distinct designs were investigated, one without carbon capture and one with carbon capture. In the design with carbon capture and storage (CCS), the shifted syngas is treated for removing CO2 by gas-liquid absorption process. Considering that bioethanol has a low or negligible fossil carbon footprint, the case with CCS has a negative CO2 emissions contributing to decreasing atmospheric CO2. The conceptual designs of bioethanol reforming were modeled and simulated to produce mass and energy balances for quantification of key plant performance indicators (e.g. bioethanol consumption, plant energy efficiency, ancillary energy consumption, specific CO2 emissions etc.). A particular accent is put on assessment of reforming unit operation conditions, process integration issues of reforming unit and syngas conditioning line with carbon capture unit, modeling and simulation of whole plant, thermal and power integration of various plant sub-systems by pinch analysis. Benchmark cases based on fossil fuels partial oxidation were also presented.

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Alicia Román-Martínez,Pastor Lanuza-Perez,Margarito Cepeda-Rodríguez,Elvia M. Mata-Padrón
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 012808653X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A bioreactor, integrated with an anoxic reactor and a settler for waste water treatment from a paper production plant is under investigation to implement a control system for enhancing effluent quality. In order to reveal the operation of the integrated process to achieve a specific goal, a methodology for control system development is proposed. In this paper, preliminary results of some steps of the methodology are presented, in order to address the oxygen uptake rate control. A dynamic model is developed for future analysis for the conceptual design of different generated control configurations.

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Sebastian Recker,Nimet Kerimoglu,Andreas Harwardt,Olga Tkacheva,Wolfgang Marquardt
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 0128086696
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reliable models for rate-based phenomena are the backbone of model-based process design. These models are often unknown in the early design phase and need to be determined from laboratory experiments. Although model-based experimental analysis and process design are often executed sequentially, the kinetic models might not be suitable to reliably design a process. In this paper, we address this problem and present a first step on the integration of model identification and process optimization. Rather than decoupling model identification and process optimization, we use information from process optimization to design optimal experiments for improving the quality of the kinetic model given the intended use of the model. Sensitivities, which describe the influence of parametric uncertainties on the economic objective used in process optimization, are used as weights for optimal experimental design. This way, the confidence in the parameter values is maximized to reduce their influence on the process optimization objective. This first step on the integration of model identification and process optimization improves the predictive quality of a reaction kinetic model for process design without any further experimental effort.

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Sathit Niamsuwan,Paisan Kittisupakorn,Iqbal M. Mujtaba
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 0128085177
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A milk pasteurization process is a nonlinear process and multivariable interacting system. This makes it difficultly to control by the conventional on-off controllers. Even if the on-off controller can managed the milk temperatures in the holding tube and the cooling stage of the plate pasteurizer according to the plant's requirements, the dynamic profiles of the milk temperature are oscillating around a desired value. Consequently, this work is aimed at improving the control performance by a multi-variables control approach with model predictive control (MPC). The proposed algorithm was tested in the case of set point tracking under nominal condition gathered by the real observation. To compare the performance of the MPC controller, a model-based control approach of generic model control (GMC) coupled with cascade control strategy is taken into account. The simulation results demonstrated that a proposed control algorithm performed well in keeping both the milk and water temperatures at the desired set points without any oscillation and overshoot. Because of the predictive control strategy, the control response for MPC was less drastic control action compared to the GMC.

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : María Vázquez-Ojeda,Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández,Salvador Hernández,Arturo Hernández-Aguirre,Anton Alexandra Kiss
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 0128085355
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Due to the increasing demand for new fuels that are economically attractive, and as part of the quest for energy alternatives to replace carbon-based fuels, the purification of ethanol plays a key role. Bioethanol is an environmentally-friendly fuel with less greenhouse gases emissions than gasoline, but with similar energy power. Nevertheless the large-scale production of bioethanol fuel requires energy demanding distillation steps to concentrate the diluted streams from the fermentation step and to overcome the azeotropic behavior of the ethanol-water mixture. This work presents the design and optimization of a dehydration process for ethanol, using two separation sequences: a conventional arrangement using distillation and extractive distillation and an alternative arrangement based on liquid-liquid extraction and extractive distillation. Moreover, different solvents were optimized simultaneously in the liquid-liquid extraction column, while ethylene glycol was used as extractive agent in the extractive distillation (ED). Both sequences were optimized using a stochastic global optimization algorithm of differential evolution (DE) coupled to rigorous Aspen Plus simulations. The economic feasibility of utilities for the two configurations was studied by changing the ethanol/water composition in the analyzed feed stream. The results demonstrate significant savings around 20% in total annual cost when the alternative arrangement is used.

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Evangelos I. Gkanas,Sofoklis S. Makridis,Athanasios K. Stubos
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 0128085622
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the current work a mathematical and a simulation study on a three – stage metal hydride hydrogen compressor (MHHC) is presented. Multistage MHHC uses a combination of different materials acting as metal hydrides in order to increase the final compression ratio, while maximizing the absorption capacity of every single stage supply pressure. The performance of a MHHC can be predicted by solving simultaneously the heat, mass and momentum differential equations. The materials used for the current study are LaNi5, MmNi4.6Al0.4 and Ti0.99Zr0.01V0.43Fe0.99Cr0.05Mn1.5. This three – stage compression system yields a pressure ratio of 25:1, for supply conditions 20 °C and 5 bar. The delivery pressure achieved is 115 bar for 100 °C desorption temperature.

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Chandrakant R. Malwade,Haiyan Qu,Ben-Guang Rong,Lars P. Christensen
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 012808507X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this work, to understand the separation behavior of the flash column chromatography during purification of artemisinin from the crude extract of Artemisia annua, multivariate data analysis technique PARAFAC (Parallel factorization) is used to mine the relevant chemical information from analytical chromatograms of 9 artemisinin containing fractions. The size of three way dataset obtained from chromatogram measurements in sample, retention time, and spectral mode is 9 × 1981 × 82. Prior to the application of PARAFAC, the dataset is preprocessed to remove baseline drift and peak misalignment caused by retention time shifts due to matrix effects. Due to the complicated nature of chromatograms, the preprocessed HPLC data were divided into intervals containing analytical signals and then PARAFAC modeling was performed on individual intervals. Loadings from the PARAFAC analysis provided pure elution profiles and pure UV spectra even for co-eluting peaks, thus enabling the identification of chromatographically unresolved components. Also, loadings were used to determine the number of components and their relative concentrations in the fractions containing artemisinin which are the most important information of the flash column performance.

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering Book
Author : Claudia Gutiérrez-Antonio,Fernando Israel Gómez-Castro,Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández,Abel Briones-Ramírez
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-10
ISBN : 0128085010
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aviation sector contributes with 2% of the total CO2 emissions due to human activities. Moreover, predictions estimate that air traffic will duplicate in the next 20 years, with the corresponding increasing in CO2 emissions. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) has established four strategies to reduce CO2 emissions; one strategy is the development of aviation fuel from renewable feedstocks, known as biojet fuel. In 2009 UOP Honeywell received a patent for its process to produce aviation fuel from renewable feedstocks. The process considers the transformation of vegetable oil through hydrogenating, deoxygenating, isomerizing and selective hydrocracking to generate propane and hydrocarbons fuels. The resulting aviation fuel is very similar to the fossil one, with the only difference that the first one does not contain aromatic compounds. Due to this, the ASTM standard established the use of biojet fuel in mixtures with fossil jet fuel with up to 50% of the bio-fuel. Also, it is important to remark that in this moment the process of UOP Honeywell is the only one certified for the production of aviation fuel from renewable feedstocks. In this work we propose a model for the production of biojet fuel, obtaining an estimation of the conversion of the reactions of the process of UOP Honeywell. Also, the optimization of the purification stage is performed using a multiobjective genetic algorithm with constraints, which is coupled to Aspen Plus process simulator, in order to generate results considering the complete models of the process. Results show a high conversion of the vegetable oil (castor oil) to biofuels (biojet fuel and green diesel); also, energy can be generated in the process as result of the conditioning of the stream that is fed to the distillation train.